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January 1876. 


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The present volume is one of a series of Handbooks 
for the East now in course of preparation, and designed, 
like the Editor's European handbooks , for the guidance 
of travellers. For the greater part of its contents the 
Editor gratefully acknowledges his obligation to several 
Orientalists and scholars of great eminence. 

The chief writer of the Handbook for Palestine and 
Syria has been Dr. Albert Socin, Professor of Oriental 
Languages at Bale, who has not only repeatedly travelled 
and studied in the Holy Land, but recently made a tour in 
that country for the express purpose of preparing the pre- 
sent Handbook. Those who are already acquainted with 
the country will best appreciate the zeal and energy with 
which Professor Socin has executed his laborious task. 

The Editor has also himself recently explored the 
greater part of the country described for the purpose of 
supplementing the information procured by Professor Socin 
and other contributors, and many of the data afforded by 
the Handbook have either been founded upon, or cor- 
rected from , his personal observation. While the utmost 
possible pains have been bestowed on the work , it must 
necessarily contain many imperfections , as travelling in 
the East is attended with far greater difficulty than in 
Europe, and as, moreover , some of the most valuable 


recent discoveries are still unpublished. The Editor there- 
fore respectfully craves the indulgence of his readers, and 
begs that they will kindly favour him with any additional 
information it may be in their power to contribute, especially 
if the result of their own experience, as many of them have 
so generously done in the case of his European handbooks. 

The Maps and Plans have been an object of the Edi- 
tor's special care , as he knows by experience how little 
reliance can be placed on guidance or information sought 
from the natives, even when the traveller is thoroughly 
conversant with their language. . Most of the maps and 
plans have been drawn or revised by Professor H. 
Kiepert, of Berlin, the well known cartographer, while 
some of them are based on surveys recently made by him 
in Palestine and hitherto unpublished. The plans of Yafa 
and Beirut and the small maps of the environs of these 
towns are from surveys specially made for the present 
Handbook. Almost the only tolerable map on a large scale 
(1 : 450,000) as yet published is that of Van de Velde, 
but it is confidently believed that the maps in the Hand- 
book will suffice for the requirements of all ordinary tra- 
vellers. At the beginning of the book will be found a 
map showing the usual routes by which the Holy Land is 
approached, and at the end a clue map indicating the 
ground covered by the special maps distributed throughout 
the volume. 

The Panorama of Jerusalem, based on the most 
recent photographic views, is probably the most complete 
and accurate yet published. 

Heights (above the sea-level) are given in English 
feet, from the most recent and trustworthy English and 
other sources. 


The Prices and various items of expenditure mentioned 
In the Handbook are those which were paid by the Author 
and by the Editor themselves. It must, however, be 
observed that they are liable to very great fluctuations, 
being influenced by the state of trade , the increased or 
diminished influx of foreigners, the traveller's own 
demeanour, and a number of other circumstances. It 
may therefore happen in some cases that the traveller's 
expenditure will be within the rate indicated in the Hand- 
book ; but for so long a journey, on which so many unex- 
pected contingencies may arise, an ample pecuniary 
margin should always be allowed. 

Since the publication of the German edition of the 
Handbook in June, 187 5,? and during the preparation of 
the English edition, the Editor has had the benefit of many 
valuable suggestions from various friends and cor- 
respondents. To the English edition, moreover, have 
been added the new routes through Northern Syria as far 
as Aleppo and Adana. The botanical notices have been 
carefully revised by Dr. J. D. Hooker, C. B., Director 
of the Royal Gardens, Kew. Several important notes have 
also been received from Lieut. C. R. Conder, R. E., of 
the Palestine Exploration Fund. To these and other dis- 
tinguished contributors the Editor tenders his grateful 
acknowledgments . 



I. Preliminary Information 1 

(1) Plan of Journey. Season. Companions. Boutes 1 

(2) Expenses. Letters of Credit. Money. Weights 

and Measures 6 

(3) Passports and Custom-House 9 

(4) Consulates 9 

(5) Steamboats 10 

(6) Mode of Travelling 14 

(7) Equipment. Health 23 

(8) Beggars. Bakhshish 26 

(9) Public Safety. Weapons. Military and Beduin 

Escorts. Dogs 27 

(10) Hotels. Monasteries. Hospitality. Khans ... 28 

(11) Cafes 29 

(12) Baths 30 

(13) Bazaars 32 

(14) Tobacco 33 

(15) Mosques 33 

(16) Dwelling-Houses 35 

(17) Rules for Intercourse with Orientals 36 

(18) Post Office and Telegraph 38 

II. Geographical Notice 38 

Geography 38 

Climate 41 

Geology 43 

Flora 44 

Fauna 49 

III. Population , Divisions, and Names of Syria at different 

periods 52 

IV. History of Palestine and Syria 56 

Chronological Table 72 

V. Present Population and Statistics of Syria. — P>eligions 82 

VI. Doctrines of El-Islam 89 

Customs of the Mohammedans 101 



VII. The Arabic Language 103 

Arabic Vocabulary 107 

VIII. History of Art in Syria 115 

IX. Works descriptive of Jerusalem and Palestine .... 122 

1. Yafa 126 

2. From Yafa to Jerusalem 132 

a. From Yafa to Ramleh 132 

1. From Yafa to Ramleh direct 132 

2. From Yafa to Ramleh by Lydda 135 

b. From Ramleh to Jerusalem 137 

1. From Ramleh to Jerusalem direct 137 

2. From Ramleh to Jerusalem by Kefr Tab and Bet Nuba . 141 

3. From Lydda to Jerusalem by Jimzu and El-Kubebeh . . 141 

4. From Lydda to Jerusalem by Bet r Ur and El-Jib . . . 142 

3. Jerusalem 144 

History 146 

Topography, Population, etc 160 

The Haram esh-Sherif 164 

History ■ • ■ A 164 

Gates of the Haram 167 

The Dome of "the Rock (Kubbet es-Sakhra) 169 

The Dome of the Chain (Kubbet es-Sil'seleh). Kubbet el-Mi'raj. 

Kubbet el-Arwah ' 175 

Sebil Kai't Bey. Pulpit of Borhan ed-Din Kady. King's 

Cistern. Bir El-Waraka '. ' . . . . 175 

Mosque El-Aksa . . '. 176 

Substructions of the Haram. Double Gate. Cradle of Christ. 

Stables of Solomon. Single Gate. Triple Gate .... 179' 

Wall of the Haram. Golden Gate. Throne of Solomon . 181 

Bab el-Asbat." Birket Isra'il. Bab Hitta. Bab el- r Atem . 183 

Walk round the Outer Wall . . .' V 184 

Serai (Old and Modern). Bab el-Kattanin. Hammam esh- 

Shifa (Pool of Bethesda) . . '.". . .' 184 

Bab es-Silseleh. Wilson's Arch. Pool of Burak. Mehkemeh 185 

Wailing Place of the Jews '. . '. . . 185 

Barclay's Gate. Robinson's Arch 186 

South and East Sides of the Haram 187 

The Church of the Sepulchre 189 

History 189 

Entrance Court and Side Chapels. Clock Tower .... 192 

Southern Facade of the Church of the Sepulchre .... 1(13 

Interior of the Church of the Sepulchre. Stone of Anointment 194 

The Holy Sepulchre. Chapel of the Angels. Tomb Chapel 105 

Chapel of the Syrians 197 

Chapel of the Apparition. Column of Scourging. Latin 

Sacristy 198 

Church of the Crusaders. Catholicon (Chapel of the Greeks). 

Centre of the World I98 

Prison of Christ. Chapel of St. Longinus. Chapel of the 

Parting of the Raiment I99 

Chapel of the Crowning with Thorns. Column of the Derision 199 

Chapel of St. Helena. Chapel of the Finding of the Cross . 200 
Golgotha. Chapel of the Raising of the Cross. Cleft in the 

Rock 201 

Chapel of the Nailing to the Cross. Chapel of St. Mary 

(or of the Agony) 201 


Route Page 
Refectory of the Greek9. Chapel of Adam. Monuments of 

Godfrey and Baldwin 201 

Easter Ceremonies 202 

East Side of the Church of the Sepulchre 203 

Basilica of Constantine 203 

Abyssinian Monastery 203 

Monastery of the Copts 203 

Cistern of Helena 203 

Walks within the City 204 

Muristan 204 

Gate of St. Stephen. Church of St. Anne. Chapel of the 

Scourging 207 

Via Dolorosa. Convent of the Sisters of Zion. Ecce Homo 

Arch 208 

House of Dives and Lazarus. Tomb of St. Veronica. Gate 

of Judgment, etc 209 

Street of the Christians. Great Greek Monastery. Patriarch's 
Pool. Coptic Khan. Bath of the Patriarch. Greek Monas- 
tery of St. John 210 

David Street. Bazaar 211 

Jewish Quarter. Synagogues 212 

Latin Patriarchate. Citadel (City of David). English Church. 

Armenian Monastery 212 

4. Environs of Jerusalem 213 

1. The Mount of Olives 213 

Birket Sitti Maryam. Bath of the Virgin 213 

Valley of Kidron (or of Jehoshaphat). Upper Bridge . . . . 213 

Tomb of the Virgin. Cavern of the Agony 214 

Garden of Gethsemane 216 

Mount of Olives 217 

Place where Jesus wept 217 

Scene of the Lord's Praver 220 

Scene of the Creed 220 

Tombs of the Prophets 220 

Karem es-Sayyad (Viri Galilsei) 221 

Scopus .' ' 222 

Gate of Herod 222 

2. The Valley of the Kidron 222 

Tomb of Absalom 222 

Tomb of Jehoshaphat 223 

Grotto of St. James 223 

Pyramid of Zacharias 224 

Siloah 224 

Mountain of Offence 225 

St. Mary's Well 225 

Pool of Siloah 226 

Job's Well 227 

Bet Sahur el-'Atika 227 

3. The Valley of Hinnom 228 

Mount of Evil Counsel 228 

Necropolis 228 

Building of the Field of Blood (Aceldama) 230 

Birket es-Sultan 231 

English Protestant School 231 

Coenaculum. David's Tomb 232 

Armenian Monastery of Mount Zion (House of Caiaphas) . 233 

Gate of Zion 234 

Lepers' Hospital 234 

Mamilla Pool 235 


Route Page 

4. North-Western Side of the City 235 

Yafa Road 235 

Castle of Goliath 235 

Russian Buildings 236 

Talitha Kumi. Syrian Orphanage for Boys 236 

Tombs of the Kings 236 

Tombs of the Judges 238 

Grotto of Jeremiah 239 

Cotton Grotto 239 

Damascus Gate 240 

5. From Jerusalem to Bethlehem 240 

1. Bet Sahur and the Field of the Shepherds 250 

2. From Bethlehem to 'Ain Karim 251 

3. From Bethlehem to Engedi by Tekoah 252 

4. From Bethlehem to Engedi by Wady et-Ta'amireh . . 252 

6. From Jerusalem to the Pools of Solomon, Khareitun, the 

Frank Mountain, and Bethlehem 252 

1. From Artas to Bethlehem 255 

2. From Khareitun to Bethlehem (and Mar Elyas) .... 256 

7. From Jerusalem to Jericho, the FoTd of Jordan, the Dead 

Sea, and back to Jerusalem by Mar Saba .... 257 

1. Jebel Karantel 263 

2. From Jericho to 'Ain Feshkha and Engedi 270 

3. From Mar Saba to Bethlehem 274 

8. From Jerusalem to the Monastery of the Cross, 'Ain Karim, 

and 'Ain el-Habis 274 

9. From Jerusalem to Hebron 277 

1. From Hebron to Engedi 283 

2. From Engedi to Masada 284 

3. From Masada to Hebron 287 

4. From Masada to Jebel l T sdum 287 

5. From Hebron to Jebel Tsdum 288 

6. From Jebel Vsdum to Kerak 289 

10. Petra 290 

1. Environs of Petra (El-Beida, El-Barid, Wady Sabra, Ma'an) 296 

2. From 'Akaba to Petra .' 296 

3. From Jebel Usdum to Petra. Mount Hdr 296 

4. From Petra to Hebron 298 

5. From Petra to Kerak 299 

6. From Kerak to 'Amman by Mkaur and Hesban. Mount Nebo 302 

7. From 'Amman to 'Arak el-Emir . .' 3' 6 

8. From 'Arak el-Emir to Jericho 308 

11. From Hebron to Bet Jibrin and Gaza 308 

1. From Gaza to El-'Arish 315 

12. From Gaza to Jerusalem by Ascalon 315 

1. From Ascalon to Yafa by Esdud and Yebna 317 

2. From Der Dubban to Dhikrin 319 

3. From Bittir to Bethlehem 321 

13. From Jerusalem to 'Anata, Mikhmash, Der Diwan, and 

Betin 321 

1. From Mikhmash through the Wady Fara to 'Anata . . 323 

2. From Jericho to Der Diwan 323 

14. From Jerusalem to Nabulus 324 


Route Page 

1. From El-Bireh to c Ain el-Haramiyeh by Betin and <Ain 
Yebriid ' 326 

2. Seilun 327 

3. From Lydda to Nabulus 335 

4. From Nabulus to Es-Salt and Jerash 336 

5. From Nabulus to Beisan and Tiberias 337 

6. From Beisan to Zer'in 338 

7. From Jericho to Beisan 339 

15. From Nabulus to Jenin and Nazareth 340 

1. From Jerba' to Tell Dothan 342 

2. From Zer r in to Fiileh 345 

3. From Sulem to Nain and Endur 346 

16. From Jenin to Haifa and Acre. Mount Carmel .... 346 

1. From Tell el-Kasis to the Mihraka and the Monastery of 
Carmel ..." 347 

2. From Yafa to Haifa 350 

17. From Haifa (or Acre) to Nazareth 356 

1. From Acre to Nazareth by Tell Jefat 358 

18. Nazareth 358 

19. From Nazareth to Tiberias 364 

a. By Mount Tabor 364 

b. By Kefr Kenna 366 

1. Excursions to the Eastern Bank of the L ke of Tiberias 370 

20. From Tiberias to Tell Hum and Safed 371 

1. From Khan Jubb Yusef to Banias direct 375 

2. From Safed to Meiron and Kefr Bir'im 377 

3. From Safed to Tyre by Tibnin 378 

4. From Tibnin to Kal'at esh-Shekif (and Sidon) .... 378 

5. From Safed to Tyre by Yathir ' 379 

21. From Safed to Damascus 380 

a. By Banias 380 

1. Tell Khureibeh (Hazor) 380 

2. Tell el-Kadi (Dan) 382 

3. Birket er-Ram 385 

4. From Betima to Damascus by DarSya 386 

b. By Kunetera 387 

22. From Jericho to Es-Salt and Jerash 388 

1. From 'Arak el-Emir to Es-Salt 390 

2. From 'Amman to Es-Salt 390 

3. From Jerash to Mzerib 397 

4. From Jerash to Mkes 398 

5. From Mkes to the Valley of Jordan. The Hot Springs 

of Gadara' (Amattia) 399 

23. The Hauran 399 

From Mkes to Mzerib 403 

From Mzerib to Damascus 404 

1. Monastery of Job 405 

2. From Jisr el-Mejami'a to Damascus by Nawa .... 406 
From Mzerib to Bosra 407 

3. The Eastern Hauran. From Bosra to Shakka by Salkhad, 
Busan, Tema, and Duma ......'. 411 

From Bosra to Damascus 412 


Route Pa 8 e 

4. From Bosra to Suweda by Hebran. The Kleb .... 413 

5. Temple of Si;h ....'.....: 4 }° 

6. From Kanawat to Shohba by Suleim 41° 

7. From Shohba to Brak by Shakka 420 

8. From Brak to Damascus by Musmiyeh *" 

24. From Acre to Beirut by Saida 422 

1. From Acre to Tyre by Kal'at Karn *30 

25. Beirut ■'..'. 436 

1. Environs of Beirut. Pineta, Ras Beirut, Der el-Kal'a . 442 

26. From Beirut to Damascus 444 

27. From Sidon to Hasbeya and Rasheya (Damascus). Mount 

Hermon . .' 449 

1. From Jisr el-Khardeli to Banias 450 

2. From Banias to Hasbeya 451 

3. From Bet Laya to 'Ain Hersha 452 

4. From Jisr el-Khardeli to Rasheya 452 

5. From Rasheya to Damascus : 455 

(1) Direct, "by the Damascus Road 455 

(2) By Katana 456 

28. From Kal'at esh-Shekif to Beirut by Jezzin and Der el- 

Kamar ' 456 

1. From Jezzin to Bteddin by Der el-Mishmushi .... 458 

29. Damascus 460 

a. Walk through the Bazaar 468 

b. Walk through the Meidan and round the City Walls 476 

c. The Great Mosque 482 

d. Walks around the City : 486 

To Jobar 486 

To Salahiyeh, Jebel Kasiiin, etc 487 

1. Excursion to the Meadow Lakes 488 

30. From Damascus to Beirut via, Ba'albek 489 

1. From Damascus to Zebedani (Ba'albek) by Helbun . . 492 

2. Hosn Niha. Zahleh. Jebel Sannin . . 501 

31. From Ba'albek to Beirut by Tripoli. Cedars of Lebanon 502 

1. From the Cedars to Ehden by Bsherreh and Kannobin . 506 

2. From Bsherreh to Beirut by Afka ....'.... 507 

3. From Ghazir to the Nahr el-Kel'b by 'Ain Warka . . . 515 

32. From Damascus to Palmyra 517 

i. From Palmyra to Ba'albek by Horns and Riblah ... 534 

2. From Karyaten to Tripoli by Riblah 535 

3. From Karyaten to Damascus by Nebk and Sednaya . . 536 

33. From Tripoli to Ladikiyeh by the Coast 538 

1. From Ladikiyeh to Aleppo 546 

2. From Ladikiyeh to Antioch (direct) 546 

3. From Urdeh across the Jebel Akra' to Suweidiyeh . . 547 

34. From Beirut to Iskanderun 551 

1. From Iskanderun to Tarsus and Mersina 552 

35. From Iskanderun to Aleppo 553 


Route Page 

36. Inland Route from Damascus to Aleppo 555 

1. From Hama to Kal'at el-Mudik 55* 

2. From Kal'at el-Mudik to El-Bara and Sermin .... 560 

3. Direct 'Route from El-Bara to Riha 56$ 

4. From Riha to Dana through the Jebel el-A'la .... 563 

37. Aleppo . . ' 564 

1. From Aleppo to Kinnesrin 569 

2. From Aleppo to Kal'at Sim'an 570 

3. From Kal'at Sim'an to Turmanin 573 

38. From Aleppo to Iskanderun by Antioch 574 

1. From Antioch to Bet el-Ma (Daphne) 580 

Index 582 


1. Map showing Routes to the Levant, opposite the Title-Page. 

2. Map showing Routes thkough Stp.ia (and Extent of Special Maps), 

after the Index. 

3. Map op the Environs of Yafa (Route 1), between pp. 130, 131. 

4. Map of Judaea (Routes 2, 7, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14), between pp. 132, 133. 

5. Map of Immediate Environs of Jerusalem (Routes 4, 7, 8), between 

pp. 212, 213. 

6. Map of District around Jerusalem (Routes 5, 6, 7, 8, 9), between 

pp. 240, 241. 

7. Map of Arabia Pete^a (Route 10), between pp. 296, 297. 

8. Map of the Country to the East of Jordan (Perjea) (Routes 10, 

22), between pp. 302, 303. 

9. Map of Samaria (Routes 14, 15, 16, 22), between pp. 324, 325. 

10. Map of the Environs of Mount Cabmel (Route 16), between 

pp. 350, 351. 

11. Map of Galilee (Routes 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 24), between pp. 356, 357. 

12. Map of the Hauran (Route 23), between pp. 400, 401. 

13. Map of the Environs of Tyre (Route 24), between pp. 428, 429. 

14. Map of the Environs of Sidon (Route 24), between pp. 434, 435. 

15. Map of the Environs of Beirut (Route 25), between pp. 442, 443. 

16. Map of Southern Lebanon (Routes 24, 26, 27, 28, 30), between 

pp. 446, 447. 

17. Map of the Environs of Damascus (Route 29), between pp. 486, 


18. Map of Northern Lebanon (Routes 30, 31, 32), between pp. 500, 501. 


1. Yafa, p. 129. 

2. Jerusalem, p. 144. 

3. Ancient Jerusalem, p. 155. 

4. Haram esh-Sherif, p. 168. 

5. Kubbet es-Sakhra (Dome of the Rock), p. 170. 

6. Mosque el-Aksa, p. 177. 

7. Church of the Sepulchre, p. 192. 

8. Muristan, p. 205. 

9. Tomb of the Virgin, p. 215. 

10. Chapel of the Mount of Olives (Ascension Chapel), p. 218. 

11. Tombs of the Prophets, p. 221. 


12. Tomb of Absalom and Jehoshaphat, p. 223. 

13. Grotto of St. James, p. 223. 

14. Necropolis in the Valley of Hinnom, p. 229. 

15. Tombs of the Kings, p. 237. 

16. Tombs of the Judges, p. 238. 

17. Church of the Virgin at Bethlehem, p. 246. 

18. Grotto of the Nativity at Bethlehem, p. 248. 

19. Hebron (El-Khal!l), p. 280. 

20. Masada (Es-Sebbeh), p. 285. 

21. Petra (WiDi Musa), p. 290. 

22. 'Amman (Philadelphia), p. 305. 

23. 'Arak el-Emir, p. 308. 

24. Nabulus (Shechem), p. 329. 

25. Haifa and Mount Carmel, p. 348. 

26. Environs of Acre, p. 354. 

27. Nazareth (En-NAsira), p. 360. 

28. Church of the Annunciation at Nazareth, p. 361. 

29. Jerash (Kerasa), p. 392. 

30. Bosra (Bostra), p. 408. 

31. Kanawat (Kanatha), p. 416. 

32. Saida (Sidon), p. 432. 

33. Beirut, p. 436. 

34. Damascus, p. 460. 

35. Acropolis of Ba'albek, p. 495. 
36: Cedars of Lebanon, p. 503. 

37. Tripoli (Tarabulus) and El-Mina, p. 510. 

38. Palmyra, p. 524. 

39. E. Colonnade of the Great Row of Columns (Palmyra), p. 527. 

40. Seleucia, p. 549. 

41. Aleppo (Haleb), p. 564. 

42. Kal'at Si'm'an, p. 571. 

43. Antakiteh (Antioch), p. 578. 


Panorama of Jerusalem from the Mt. of Olives, between pp. 218, 219. 

1. Kubbet es-Sakhra (Dome of the Rock), p. 166. 

2. Mosque el-Aksa, p. 166. 

3. Wailing Place of the Jews, p. 186. 

4. Via Dolorosa, p. 186. 

5. Southern Facade of the Church of the Sepulchre, p. 194. 

6. Interior of the Church of the Sepulchre, p. 194. 

7. Damascus, p. 464. 

8. Ba'albek, p. 464. 

9. Palmyra (Triple Porch), p. 52S. 
10. — (Street of Columns), p. 528. 

are used as marks of commendation. 


I. Preliminary Information. 

(1). Plan. Season. Companions. Routes. 

Plan. In most European countries travellers are enabled by the 
modern facilities for locomotion, and with the aid of time-tables 
to mete out their time to the best possible advantage, and to m- 
portion each day and even hour with tolerable precision; but the 
traveller in the still semi-barbarous East must We content with 
framing a more general plan for his tour, and must leave the 
minuter details to be filled in according to circumstances as he 
proceeds on his way. In Syria the horse affords the only mode of 
conveyance, except for long journeys through the desert, when the 
camel is chiefly used, but the traveller will rarely have occasion to 
mount this uncomfortable animal. The country cannot boast of a 
single carnage-road, except those from Yafa to Jerusalem and from 
Berrut to Damascus, far less of a railway; and the success of a tour 
is therefore mainly dependent on the health and energy of the 
traveller, on the weather, and on a host of incidental circumstances 
which do not occur in Europe. For this very reason it is all the 
more desirable that the traveller should make careful preliminary 
enquiries regarding the places he ought to see, and how they are 
to be reached; and to assist him in this respect is one of the pri- 
mary objects of the present Handbook. P 

Season. Spring and autumn are the best seasons for visiting 
byna ihe greatest influx of travellers, most of whom come from 
Hgypt, takes place in spring. At that season Jerusalem is crowded 
with tourists and pilgrims. Then, too, the scenery is in perfection, 
the vegetation fresh and vigorous, while in autumn the landscape is 
l«W T ° f hfe - , Autumn > °» th e other hand, affords more 
settled weather especially from the middle of October to the end 
otNovember, which would be an admirable season for a tour but for 
the '^creasing shortness of the days. Mountain ascents, such as that 
of the Great Hermon(R. 27), aremosteasily accomplished in autumn 
as the summits are then free from snow. In some respects the 
pleasantest, and at the same time least expensive, time for a tour 




in Syria is perhaps from the middle of September to the middle or 
even end of November . when the country is far less overrun with 
travellers than in spring. If this time be chosen the tour should 
be begun from the North, where the mountains afford a refuge from 
occasional hot days, while the traveller in spring should reserve 
Lebanon for the end of his journeyings. A visit to Southern 
Palestine should not be begun before the middle or end of March, 
as rainy days in that month are still frequent, and travelling hardly 
becomes enjoyable till April. Among the mountainous districts 
excursions are practicable up to the end of June. The proper 
seasons for a tour in Syria are therefore fromthe beginning of April 
to the middle of June, and from the middle of September to the 
middle of November. All the other months are more or less unfavour- 
able. Lastly, it must be borne in mind that the choice of autumn in- 
volves returning to Europe at a cold and dismal season of the year ; 
and, to avoid this unpleasant termination to our tour, we there- 
fore hnally decide in favour of spring, and accordingly begin our 
journey with a visit to Yafa and Jerusalem (see below). 

Companions. Travelling alone in the Bast, at least for any 
length of time, is wearisome, and from one-third to one-half more 
expensive than for members of a party. Many of the items of 
expenditure which must be incurred are precisely the same for a 
solitary traveller as for a party ; and, apart from pecuniary con- 
siderations , the advantages of mutual support and companionship 
are invaluable in a country with whose language and customs we are 
as yet unfamiliar, and with whose inhabitants any social intercourse 
is difficult or impossible. The traveller who is at home in every 
country in Europe , who at every iiin in town or village finds op- 
portunity for adding to his stock of information or for engaging in 
friendly chat, will speedily be wearied in the East, however familiar 
he may be with the language , by the stereotyped questioiis and 
artificial phraseology of the people with whom he comes in contact. 
Moreover if he be unaccustomed to fatiguing and often uninterest- 
ing rides , he will stand doubly in need of the refreshment and 
variety afforded by intercourse with friends ; and many an untoward 
incident, which would otherwise have preyed on the mind and 
damped the spirits, will then lose much of its sting and even 
become provocative of merriment. Those who start for their tour 
without companions will in spring have no difficulty in meeting 
with other travellers in the same position, and parties may thus 
easily be formed ; but caution in the selection of companions is 
very necessary in a country where arrangements once concluded are 
not easily altered . and where mutual confidence, congeniality, and 
forbearance are qualities of the utmost importance. One of the 
chief points to be settled beforehand is when and where days of 
rest are to be observed. In conversation , religious topics had 
better, as a rule, be avoided, as expressions of opinion on these 


subjects too often lead to serious misunderstandings and even 

Routes. Travellers who are pressed for time may obtain a 
glimpse of the most interesting points in the South and North of 
Palestine in four weeks, which may be apportioned as follows : — 

Tour of a Month. 

On arriving at Yafa hire horses immediately ; as the Days 
steamers generally arrive in the morning, there will 
probably be time to ride to Ramleh the same evening . 1 

Start early next morning in order to reach Jerusa- 
lem as early as possible 1 

1st Day at Jerusalem : leave card at the Consul's, ami 
request his aid for visiting the Haram; visit Church 
of the Holy Sepulchre, and towards evening the Mt. of 
Olives 1 

2nd Day at Jerusalem : Via Dolorosa, Tomb of the 
Virgin, Gethsemane, Valley of Jehoshaphat , Tomb of 
Absalom , Siloah . Valley of Hinnom , Mt. Zion , City of 
David 1 

3rd Day at Jerusalem : Haram esh-Sherif (but not 
on a Friday), walk round it, both inside and out; 
Bazaars ; Pool of Hezekiah 1 

4th Day at Jerusalem : Mt. Scopus, Tombs of the 
Kings , Tombs of the Judges. — Muristan .... 1 

Excursion to the Dead Sea, for which order horses in 
good time, and procure letter of introduction to the 
Monastery of Mar Saba. From Jerusalem to Jericho. 
Walk in the evening towards the Karantel , to the 
Sultan's Well ' 1 

From Jericho to the Ford of Jordan, to the N. end of 
the Dead Sea, and to Mar Saba (a long day)- .... 1 

Visit the monastery. From Mar Saba to Bethlehem 
or Jerusalem 1 

The traveller will now have 3 — 4 days to spend at 
Jerusalem ; two of these may be devoted to some of the 
numerous objects of interest mentioned in our description 
of the Holy City (walk round the walls , Church of St. 
Anne, Model of the Holy Sepulchre, Leper Hospital, 
Monastery of the Cross, Russian Buildings etc.) . . 2 

Another day may be spent in visiting Solomon's 
Pools, Neby Samwil, or r Ain Karim t 

Return to Yafa (via, Lydda) 2 

14 Days. 

Steamboat to Beirut 1 

Diligence to Damascus 1 

1st Day at Damascus : Mosque, Bazaars .... 1 



2nd : Walk to the Meidan and round the outside of Da ys 

the city 1 

3rd: Visit several of the finest houses, Christian 

quarter, gardens 1 

4th : Excursion to Salahiyeh and Dnmar . . . . L 

From Damascus to Zehedani 1 

From Zehedani to Ba'alhek 1 

At Ba'alhek 1^ days; on the second day start about 

noon for Mu'allaka 2 

From Mu'allaka to Beirut 1 

At Beirut 3 days, one of which should be spent in 

visiting the Nalir el-Kelb 3 

14 Days. 
Steamboat to Smyrna, etc., and thence homewards. 
Or the last 14 days may be spent thus : — 

At Beirut 1 

To Damascus 1, at Damascus 3, to Ba'albek 2 . . 6 

Leave Ba'alhek on second day for Der el-Ahmar . 2 

By the Cedars to Ehden 2 

From Ehden to Tripoli 1 

From Tripoli to Beirut (or better to Nahr el-Kelb, 

and in -j day more to Beirut) 2 

14 Days. 
As the steamer (in which berths should be secured beforehand) 

generally leaves in the evening, one day more at Beirut will thus 
be available. 

Tour of Six Wkkks. 
(A Ride through Palestine.) 

From Yafa to Jerusalem 2, Jerusalem 6, Dead Sea Days 

3 (comp. p. 3) 11 

To Hebron and back 2 

From Jerusalem to Nabulus (1^ days, spending 

night at Bireh) 2 

From Nabulus to Jenin by Sebastiyeh 1 

From Jenin ( by Zer'in) to Tell Kasis (excursion to 

the MihTaka) 1 

Haifa, Carmel 1 

From Haifa to Acre (i day) 1 

From Acre to Nazareth 1 

From Nazareth to Tiberias (by Mt. Tabor) ... 1 

From Tiberias to Safed by Tell Hum 1 

From Safed to Banias by Kedes (fatiguing ; better 
sleep at Ilunin, and proceed more leisurely the next day 

to Banias by Tell el-Kadi) 2 

From Banias (by Kal'at es-Subebeh) to Kefr Hawar; 

from Kefr Hawar to Damascus 


Damascus 4 

To Tripoli and Beirut by Ba'albek 9 

Beirut 3 

42 Days. 
Supplementary Routes 

(for extension or modification of the above). 

From Jerusalem to Engedi ('Ain Jidy) .... 2 
From Engedi via Masada (Sebbeh) to the S. end of 

the Dead Sea, to Jebel Usdum and Hebron .... 3 

From Hebron to Bet Jibrin 1 

From Bet Jibrin to Gaza 1 

Gaza and Ascalon 1 

From Ascalon via Tell es-Safiyeh and Bet Nettif to 

Jerusalem 2 

10 Days. 

From Jerusalem to Jenin 3 

From Jenin to Nazareth 1 

From Nazareth to Haifa 1 

From Haifa to Acre 1 

From Acre to Sur (Tyre ; a long ride) 1 

From Sur to Saida (Sidon) 1 

From Saida to Beirut 1 

9 Days. 

From Damascus to Rasheya 14, 2 

Ascent of Hermon 1 

From Hasbeya by Burgbuz to Kal'at esh-Shekif . . 1 
(From Kal'at esh-Shekif to Sidon 1) 

From Kal'at esh-Shekif to Jezzin 1 

From Jezzin to Der el-Kamar , . 1 

From Der el-Kamar to Beirut 1 

7 Days. 

From Damascus to Palmyra 4 

Palmyra 2 

From Palmyra to Horns 3 

From Horns to Ba'albek by Riblah 2{ 

11 Days. 

From Jerusalem to 'Arak el-Emir by Jericho ... 2 

To 'Amman 1 

From 'Amman to es-Salt 1 

From es-Salt to Jerash 1 

Jerash \.\ 

To Mkes ■ . . 1| 

From Mkes to Tiberias 1 

9 Days. 


From Jerash to Bosra 2 

Bosra, and thence to Hebran 1 

From Hebran to Kanawat 1 

Shohba and Shakka 1 

To Brak . . '.' 1 

To Damascus 1 

7 Days. 

(2'). Travelling Expenses. Letters of Credit. Money. 
Weights and Measures. 

ExrENSEs. The cost of travelling in the East is considerably 
greater than in Europe, where the style of travelling may be varied 
to almost any extent so as to suit the tastes , the pursuits , and the 
finances of each traveller, while Europeans in the East will find so 
many unwonted requirements absolutely essential to their comfort 
that the most economically arranged tour cannot be otherwise than 
expensive. The average daily charge at the hotels (comp. p. 28) is 
15 fr., without wine; table wine 3 — 4 fr. per bottle ('Jerusalem 
wine' is sometimes to be had at 1 — 2 fr.), English beer 2 — 2^ fr., 
fees -J — 1 fr. ; that is, about 20 fr. a day in all, unless the travel- 
ler avails himself of the accommodation afforded by the monasteries 
at Yafa and Jerusalem for one-half or a third of that sum (comp. 
p. 29). To this must be added the daily hire of horses and 
of guides , or -dragomans' as even the humblest style themselves, 
without whose aid the traveller, especially if ignorant of the 
language , would often be at a loss to find his way, even in the 
streets of Jerusalem or Damascus. When to these items is added 
the bakhshish (p. 27) which has to be bestowed at frequent inter- 
vals , the traveller must allow altogether about 30 fr. a day for 
the routes from Yafa to Jerusalem, and from Yafa to Beirut and 
Damascus. (Steamboat of course extra; see p. 10.) 

The charges made by the dragoman when the party travels with 
tents (seep. 15) depend of course on the requirements and number of 
the persons composing it. During the height of the travelling season, 
about Easter, the daily expenditure of a solitary traveller with dra- 
goman, tents, and all necessaries amounts to at least 60 fr. a day, 
that of two to about 100 fr., that of three to 120 fr., and that of four 
to 130 fr., after which each additional member of the party would 
cost about 25 fr. a day. These charges ought to include an ample 
supply of food, but not wine. The charge for horse-hire has risen 
very considerably of late years, being of course highest when travel- 
lers are most numerous. Less in proportion is generally charged for 
the shorter tours , such as that of three days from Jerusalem to the 
Dead Sea and back (R. 7), than for the longer, as in the latter case 
the dragoman generally has a long return journey with servants and 
horses to take into account. A much higher charge is made for 
excursions to the country east of Jordan and to Petra, where the 


dragoman has to provide an escort of soldiers or Beduins varying in 
number according to the political circumstances of the day. Prices 
are occasionally reckoned in shillings, but the traveller will And it 
advantageous to adhere to the more usual franc (1 s. = 1 fr. 25 c). 

Letters of Credit. Large sums of money can only be carried 
safely in the form of circular notes. These convenient 'letters 
of credit' are issued by the London and some of the provincial 
banks at a moderate charge. 

The most important of the Oriental banks is the Banque Im- 
periale Ottomane, -which is in correspondence with most of the 
principal banks in Europe, has offices at Jerusalem and Beirut, and 
agencies in all the larger towns of Syria. These offices will be 
mentioned in our description of the places where they are to be found. 
Money-changers , generally Jews , are to be found at every bazaar, 
but the traveller should be very cautious in dealing with them. 

Money. Such a thing as paper currency is unknown in the 
East, and great confusion prevails on account of the variety of coins 
in circulation. Travellers from Egypt should get all their Egyptian 
money changed into French or English , as the Egyptian does not 
pass in Syria. The coins most usually met with are Turkish, 
French, English, Austrian, and Russian. 

There are two rates of exchange : (1) at the government offices 
(sagk) , and (2) in trade (shuruk) ; at the Austrian post-office there 
are also different rates in certain cases. The traveller should always 
enquire of a banker as to the current rate of exchange, and avoid 
getting change at bazaars, at hotels, or from his dragoman. For a 
journey into the interior an abundant supply of the smallest coins 
should be taken, as the villagers frequently decline to give change ; 
and these coins should be the newest and most perfect procurable, 
as the peasants and Beduins are very apt to object to coins which 
are at all defaced by use. Gold coins , such [as sovereigns and du- 
cats, which do not give forth a clear metallic ring are also pretty 
sure to be rejected, even when the imperfection arises from a trifl- 
ing flaw or crack, and not from any impurity in the metal. The 
money of Syria consists of piastres (Arabic Kirsh or 'irsh, plur. 
KurushJ , at 40 paras each (Arabic fadda, or masrtyeh). There are 
copper coins of 5, 10, and 20 paras; and imitation silver coins of 
20 paras (Arabic kameri , in the towns 'ameri), and also of 1, 2^, 
and 5 piastres. These last, which are a little larger than a half- 
crown, are called beshlik (from the Turkish besh = 5), and there 
are pieces of 6 piastres, called altlik (from the Turkish alty = 6). 
Besides these, there are pieces of \, 1, 2, 5, and 10 piastres in 
silver, the 5-piastre piece being about the size of a franc. The 
mej'idi, or Turkish dollar, named after Abdul-Mejid, is worth 20 
piastres at the government rate of exchange. The following table 
shows the approximate values of the different coins in piastres and 
paras, the piastre being worth about 2d. English. 










English sovereign 





(lira inglizlyeh) 

Turkish lira 





(lira osmanliyeli) 

Russian imperial 





(lira moskowtyeh) 

Napoleon (20 fr.) 





(lira fransawlyeh) 



58f— 59i 



Spanish coloimato 




(or dollar) 











German dollar 




Austrian florin 



















5J— 6 


















1.20 ft) 


Uesidus these coins, Marin Theresa dollars at 25 piastres each, 
and rive-franc pieces of the same value, are occasionally met with 
at Beirut. The following words are also used colloquially to ex- 
press various other sums : fdnas , 20 paras ; zalata . 30 paras ; 
baraghut, 1 piastre 5 paras ; saghtut (pi. saghat it), 5 paras (-gth 
piastre ). etc. 

The above rate of exchange is liable to constant fluctuation, and 
deviations from it frequently occur at places in the interior and in 
Northern Syria. We shall note these deviations when describing 
these places , but for ordinary use the above list will generally be 
found approximately correct. 

As it is a favourite fashion with women in the East to wear 
necklaces formed of gold or silver coins strung together, numerous 
pieces of money perforated with holes are in common circulation. 
Such coins, especially if the holes are large, should be rejected by 
the traveller , as he would often have difficulty in passing them. 
Money should always be carefully kept under lock and key , and 
shown as little as possible, in order that the cupidity of at- 


tendauts may not be excited. As a rule, it is advisable to keep all 
accounts, ask prices, etc., in piastres, a system which the traveller 
will generally And much more advantageous than reckoning in francs 
or shillings. 

Weights and Measures. The standard of weight in Syria is 
the Okka (about 2J lbs.), which contains 400 drams (drachms), or 
5^- okiyeh; 1 okiyeh contains 75 drams ( about 7 oz.) ; 1 roil contains 
1\ okkas, or 12 okiyeh, or 900 drams ; 44 okkas are 1 kantar (about 
1 cwt.). "Wine and other liquids are generally sold by weight. 

The Dra% or ell, the unit of linear measurement, is about 26| 
inches, that of Aleppo 30f inches. 

(3). Passports and Custom House. 

Pass:ports. On arrival at a Syrian port the travellers passport 
is sometimes asked for. but an ordinary visiting-card will answer 
the purpose equally well. It is advisable, however, to be provided 
with a passport, as it may occasionally be of use ; but if it is given 
up to the officials on landing , they will send it to the consul , and 
much needless delay and trouble will thus be occasioned. Should 
any difficulty arise, a trifling 'bakhshish' affords an almost certain 

Custom House. The traveller's luggage is generally subjected 
to examination at the douane. Personal effects are free, but other 
articles are liable to duty. Cigars are often eagerly sought for and 
taxed at apparently quite an arbitrary rate (comp. p. 33). Diffi- 
culties are also frequently made about firearms, and particularly about 
cartridges or other ammunition. Books are sometimes examined, 
and Korans and religious works of a controversial character are 
liable to seizure. In all these cases a bakhshish of a few francs will 
generally ensure the traveller against molestation, but it should of 
course not be offered too openly, or in presence of the superior 
officials. The formalities of the custom-house are strictest at Beirut. 

All goods exported are liable to a duty of 1 per cent on their 
value, and the exportation of antiquities is entirely prohibited. 
The traveller is therefore liable to another examination on leaving 
the country , but he will generally have no difficulty in securing 
exemption in the way above indicated. If luggage has to be sent 
across a frontier, the keys must be sent with it in order that it may 
undergo the custom-house examination ; but the traveller should 
never part from his luggage unless absolutely compelled, and 
should always endeavour to be present at such examinations. 
Luggage belonging to all the foreign consulates is entirely exempt 
from duty. 

(4). Consulates. 

Consuls in the East enjoy the same privilege of exterritoriality 
as ambassadors in Europe. Some of these are consuls by profession, 
or consuls-general ('consules missi'), others merely commercial, or 


vice-consuls. The English and American consuls of the former 
class (at Jerusalem and Beirut only) exercise jurisdiction in all 
<ivil matters of dispute between their countrymen, and in complaints 
against their countrymen by other foreigners. The vice-consuls or 
consular agents have no judicial functions. Disputes between 
Turkish subjects and foreigners are decided by the Turkish courts, 
with the aid of the dragoman of the foreigner's consulate. In all 
emergencies the traveller should, if possible, apply to his consul, 
with whose aid the annoyance of a lawsuit in a native court may 
generally be avoided. Politeness, as well as self-interest, will 
generally prompt new-comers to call on their national representa- 
tives ; and a special introduction to them is of course very desirable. 
The 'kawasses', or consular attendants , are often very useful to 
travellers, and though not entitled to ask payment for their services, 
generally expect a gratuity. 

(5). Steamboats. 

Most travellers reach and quit Syria by sea. The present ser- 
vices of the different steamboat companies are enumerated below ; 
but, as alterations often take place, enquiry on the subject should 
always be made at the local offices , or on board of the vessels 
themselves. Before leaving home the traveller should write to the 
■Administration des Services des Messageries, 16 Rue 
Cannebiere , Marseilles'' for a ' Livret des Lignes 
et de la Mer Noire'' (or to 19 Quai de Bacalan, Bordeaux ; or 20 
Rue Notre Dame des Victoires, Paris; or 97 Cannon St., E. C, 
London ; or G. H. Fletcher & Co., Liverpool), and also to the 'Ad- 
ministration of the Austrian Lloyd's Steamboat Company, Trieste' 
for 'Information for Passengers by the Austrian Lloyd's Steamboats'. 
The latter time-tables are published in English. "With the aid of 
these two sets of time-tables the general outline of the tour may 
be sketched before starting. The Austrian and Russian steamers 
are less punctual and regular than the French. 

Messagekies Maritimks. The steamers of this company are 
the cleanest and most comfortable of all those which ply regularly 
from Western Europe to Syria. The services are punctual, the 
cabins well fitted up, the food (including wine) generally good, 
and the officials civil. The traveller should, however, endeavour 
to avoid encountering the crowds of Christian pilgrims who converge 
towards Jerusalem before Easter from every part of the Mediter- 
ranean, and above all the Muslim pilgrims to Mecca in the month 
of Ramadan, a festival which occurs at a different time every year, 
as on these occasions considerable confusion and discomfort are 
inevitable. The fares in the first and second cabins include pro- 
visions and wine, the second being not greatly inferior to the first 
in point of accommodation and food. Steerage, or third-class pas- 
sengers pay extra for food. 



Austrian Lloyd. The vessels of this company , which are 
generally manned by Italians and Dalmatians, though inferior to 
those of the Messageries , and more patronised by German than by 
English travellers, are on the whole well managed. Food is included 
in the fare, but wine is charged extra. The beer is generally good. 
Travellers of the upper classes seldom travel in the second cabin in 
these vessels, as they frequently do in the vessels of the Messageries. 

Russian Steamboat Company. Russian steamers ply to several 
of the Syrian ports from Constantinople, but are not to be depended 
on for cleanliness or punctuality. Another drawback is , that few 
or none of the languages of Western Europe aTe spoken by the of- 
ficers or crew. Some of these vessels, however, are favourably 
spoken of by travellers. 

English Steamers. There is no regular passenger service 
between England and Syria , but the fine steameTS of the Penin- 
sular and Oriental Co. ply weekly from Southampton and from 
Brindisi to Alexandria. Italian and a few English steamers also 
ply from Genoa, Naples, Brindisi, Venice, and Trieste to Alexandria, 
whence the Syrian coast is reached by one of the other companies. 

On board most of these vessels tea or cafe noir is served at an 
early hour in the morning; about 10 there is a dejeiiner a la four- 
chette, and at 5 dinner, followed by tea or coffee. The steward 
expects a fee of \ — 1 fr. per day from each passenger. 

Services op the Messageries. 
The following are the Lignes Circulates de VEgypte et de la Syrie, 
on each of which a steamer of this company plies fortnightly : — 













'ort Said 





Sund., noon. 
Wed., 8 a. m. 
Thurs. ,6. a. m. 
Sat., 4 p. m. 
Mon., 6 a. m. 
Tues., 1 a. m. 
Wed., 4 a. m. 
Wed., 4 p. m. 
Thurs., 3a. m. 
Frid., o a. m. 
Sat., 7 a. m. 
Sund., 6 a. m. 
Sat. 2 p. m. 
Mon., 4 p. m. 


Frid., noon. 
Sund., 6 p. in. 
Wed., 2 p. m. 
Frid., 3 p. m. 
Sat., 7 p. m. 
Mon. 6 p. m. 
Tues., 8. p. m. 
Wed., 9 a. in. 
Wed., 10 p. m. 
Thurs., 6 p.m. 
Frid., 6 p. m. 
Sat., 6 p. m. 
Tues., 9 am. 
Sat., 7 p. m. 





Port Said 













Sat., 9 a. m. 
Wed., 5 p. m. 
Sund., 8 a. m. 
Mon., 6 a. m. 
Tues., 6 a. m. 
Wed., 3 a. m. 
Thurs., 1a.m. 
Thurs., 9p.m. 
Sat., 5 a. m. 
Tues., noon. 
Wed., noon. 
Sat., 8 a. m. 
Tues., 6 a. m. 
Thurs., noon. 


Thurs., noon. 
Sat., noon. 
Sat., 4 p. m. 
Sund., 5 p. m. 
Mon., 6 p. m. 
Tues., 10 p.m. 
Wed., 6 p. m. 
Thurs., 1 p.m. 
Frid., 10 p.m. 
Sund., 7 p. m. 
Tues., 10 p. m. 
Frid., 4 p. m. 
Sat. 4 p. m. 
Tues., noon. 

Each passenger is allowed 1 cwt. of luggage in the first cabin, 
130 lbs. in the second, and 65 lbs. in the third. Overweight must 
be booked and paid for according to tariff. 











(in francs) 





. Via 









b. Via 








































































































































































































































































158 127 



Port Said. 













329 [389 















249 294 
































































































14 540 

| 615 




























73 490 







295 ! 451 






55| 360 





29 169 

222! 265 



Tickets for the complete circuit may In- purchased at the office at 
Marseilles. 16 Rue Cannobiere, four hours or more before the 
departure of the steamer. These tickets are available for four 
months. Return-tickets, also available for four months, are issued 
at a reduction of 10 per cent, but these tickets are not available 
for the vessels of the Kgyptian line which ply to India. A party of 
three or more persons in the first ot second cabin are entitled to a 
discount of 10 per cent on single tickets, and 15 per cent on return- 
tickets ; but this reduction is not extended to that part of the fare 
which is charged for food. 

Services or the Austrian Li,oyi>. 

Weekly Service between Trieste and Alexandria 

Dep. from Trieste Frid., midnt. | Dep. from Alexandria on 

! arrival of Indian post Tnp« 

Dep. from Corfu . Mon., 5 a. m. j Dep. from Corfu . V A 

Arr. at Alexandria Thurs..5a. m. Arr. at Trieste ' u T ,' 

' ' ouna. 



From Alexandria to Beirut, Smyrna, and Constantinople. 
Fortnightly Service. 

Frid., 11 a. m.'onstantinople Thurs. ,4p.m. 

Sat., 5 p. m. Dep. from Gallipoli Frid., 5 a. m. 

San., 3 p. rat. Dep. fr. Dardanelles Frid., 9 a. m. 

Mon., 1 a. m. Dep. from Tenedos . Frid., 1 p. m. 

Mon., 9 a. m. Dep. from Mytilini . Frid., 8 p. m. 

Mon., 7 p. m. Arr. at Smyrna . . Sat., 3 a. m. 

Tues. 7 p. m. Dep. from Smyrna . Sun., noon. 

Thurs. , 8a. m. Dep. from Chios . . Sun., 4 p. m. 

Frid., 4 a. in. Dep. from Rhodes . Mon., 9 p. m. 

Frid., 11 a. in. Dep. from Larnaka . Mon., 4 p. m. 

Sat., 3 p. m. Arr. at Beirut . . . Thurs., 5a.m. 

Sat., 11 p. m. Dep. from Beirut. . Frid., 7 a. m. 

Sun., 6 a. m. Dep. from Haifa . . Frid., noon. 

Sun., 10. a. m. Dep. from Yafa . . Sat., 4 p. m. 

Sun., 1. p. m. Dep. from Port Said Sun., 6 p. m. 

Mon., 2 a. m. Arr. at Alexandria . Mon., noon. 

Dep. fr. Alexandria . 
Dep. fr. Port Said . 
Dep. from Yafa . . 
Dep. from Haifa . . 
Arr. at Beirut . . 
Dep. from Beirut 
Dep. from Larnaka . 
Dep. from Rhodes 
Dep. from Chios . . 
Arr. at Smyrna . . 
Dep. from Smyrna . 
Dep. from Mytilini . 
Dep. from Tenedos . 
Dep. fr. Dardanelles 
Dep. from Gallipoli 
At Constantinople 






r 3 

(in Jtorinx) 

















& i — i 

a a 

o o 











o a 







Alexandria . . J 

















Beirut . . t . j 



— i 
























Brindisi . . . j 



























Constantinople . j 


























Corfu . . , . j 



























Haifa . . . . j 







































Pirteus (Athens) j 













Port Said . . 1 



























Smyrna . . . j 



























Syra .... J 


























Trieste • • • j 



























Varna . . . . j 



























Yafa .... 



























Passengers in the first cabin are allowed 165 lbs. of luggage, 
and in the second 56 lbs. ; overweight according to tariff. Return- 
tickets for four months at a reduction of *20 per cent. A discount 
of 20 per cent is also allowed when three single tickets are pur- 


chased by one party. These reductions are not extended to that 
proportion of the fare which is charged for food. 

Russian Steamers. 
From Constantinople a J From Alexandria fort- 

fortnightly departure. 

every alternate . . Wed. p. m. 

From Smyrna . . . Frid. a. m. 

From Tripoli . . . Thurs. p. m. 

From Beirut . . . Frid. a. m. 

From Yafa Sun. a. m. 

At Alexandria . . . Tuesday. 

nightly, every alter- 
nate Sat. p. m. 

From Yafa . . . Monday. 

From Beirut . . Wed. a. m. 

From Tripoli . . Thurs. 10a.m. 

From Smyrna . . Thurs. 4. p.m. 

At Constantinople . Sat. a. m. 

(6 '). Mode of Travelling. 

There are as yet no railways in Syria, but one from Yafa to 
Jerusalem has for some years been projected. A firman authorising 
its construction was granted in September, 1875, but it is doubtful 
whether it will pay. as there is no trade of importance in the cul 
de sac of Southern Palestine , and the yearly influx of pilgrims 
is of but short duration. Traces of Roman military roads are still 
numerous , but the only modern roads in Syria are the diligence 
route over Mt. Lebanon from Beirut to Damascus , which was con- 
structed by a French company (R. 26), and the road from Yafa to 
Jerusalem (R. 2). In the absence of railways, roads, and carriages, 
the traveller has therefore no alternative but to ride, in accordance 
with the custom of the country. 

Horses (khe I, caravan-horse gedtsh). Oriental horses are generally 
very docile , and may therefore be safely mounted by the most 
inexperienced rider (comp. p. 19). In climbing rough and precipi- 
tous paths they are so nimble and sure-footed that the traveller 
will soon accustom himself to remain in the saddle at places where 
in other countries one would hardly venture even to lead a horse. 
The saddles and bridles are generally bad (see p. 18). The horse- 
owner or muleteer and his servants are called mukari, a word 
sometimes corrupted by Europeans to 'muker'. 

Camels (for riding dhelul, in Egypt hegln ; for burdens jemel ; 
the Arabian camel with one hump is the only one known in Syria). 
The patient 'ship of the desert', which the traveller need never use 
except for a long journey through the desert (comp. R. 32), is a 
sullen looking animal; and although he commands our respect, 
and even admiration, he rarely gains our affection. The difference 
between camels bred and trained for riding and camels of burden 
is quite as great as that between saddle and cart horses. Riding on 
the former is far from unpleasant ; but as those of the best class 
are not easily procured, travellers are often compelled to ride on ill- 
trained animals of uneasy gait, sometimes even on mere camels of 
burden, and it is of this class only that complaints can justly be made. 


In hiring a horse or camel it is of great importance to secure a 
well-trained animal of easy gait ; and, having done so, the traveller 
should carefully note its colour, size, and other peculiarities, as it is 
a very common trick of the owner, after the completion of the con- 
tract, to substitute an inferior animal for the one selected. Jn the 
case of horses, mules, and donkeys the traveller should also satisfy 
himself that they are free from the sores from which they too often 
suffer; and he should ascertain, if possible, that they are not ad- 
dicted to lying down and rolling, a habit in which beasts of burden 
are sometimes apt to indulge. Before starting it is usual to give 
the owner a ghabun , or earnest-money , which falls to be deducted 
from the final reckoning. 

As we have already remarked, the traveller in Syria will find 
little room for variety in the style of travelling. We may, however, 
enumerate four different plans for his consideration. 

I. With Dragoman and Tents. Travellers who are unacquainted 
with the language and customs of the country will find a dragoman 
(Arabic terjumdn) almost indispensable. 

The word dragoman is derived from the ChaldEean 'targem 1 to explain 
('targum' explanation). The Arabic 'terjem' signifies to interpret. A 
dragoman was therefore originally a mere interpreter and 'cicerone'. In 
Egypt dragomans have existed as a class since the time of Psammetichus I. 
(7th cent. B. C), the first monarch who admitted travellers to his 
dominions, from which strangers had previously been excluded with 
the utmost jealousy. Herodotus mentions these dragomans as a distinct 
caste. He tells us that Psammetichus directed a number of Egyptian 
children to be educated by Greeks, and it was these children who became 
the progenitors of the Egyptian caste of interpreters. 

Dragomans in Syria are more than mere interpreters ; they are 
contractors for the management of tours and of caravans, and they 
relieve the traveller of all the difficulties of preparation and of 
intercourse with the natives. Throughout the whole journey they 
are useful in many important particulars ; but in knowledge of the 
country, and especially of its antiquities, they are often sadly 
deficient. So accustomed are they, moreover, like the horses and 
their owners, to certain beaten tracks, that it is often a matter of 
great difficulty to induce them to make the slightest deviation from 
the usual routes, which in all probability have been followed by the 
caravans for many centuries. It is customary for the traveller to 
«nter into a written contract with the dragoman, and to get it signed 
by him and attested at the consulate, Printed forms of contract are 
as yet procurable at the American consulate at Jerusalem only. 
Many travellers bring their dragomans from the Nile to Syria ; but, 
now that the Nile voyage is frequently made by steamer, this is less 
usual than formerly. 

The contract should if possible be drawn up in a language 
intelligible to the dragoman, in order that he may not have any 
pretext for deviating from its teTms. French, English, Italian, and 
•sometimes German, are the Western languages most commonly 


understood by the dragomans. The annexed form of contract is; 
one which includes almost every possible detail. 

Contract. The following contract , dated , has been 

entered into between the travellers A. and B. and the dragoman C. 

§ 1. The dragoman C. binds himself to conduct the travellers 
A. and B., two in number, from Jerusalem to Beirut by way of 
Nabulus, Jenin, Carmelj Acre, Nazareth, Tiberias, Safed, Banias, 
Damascus, 'Ain Fijeh, Zebedani, Ba'albek, and Shtora. 

§ 2. The dragoman binds himself to defray the whole cost of 
the said journey, including transport, food, expense incurred through 
delays, bakhshish, fees for visiting mosques and churches, and 
outlay for all excursions and digressions. 

§ 3. The dragoman binds himself to provide for the daily use 
of the said travellers . . . horses witli good bridles and European 
(or Arabian) saddles, including . . . ladies' saddles, and . . . strong 
mules or horses for the transport of the travellers' luggage ; also to 
provide fodder for the said horses and mules sufficient to keep them 
in health and strength. In case he do not provide fodder sufficient, 
the travellers shall have power to purchase enough to make up the 
deficiency, and to deduct the amount from the final payment to be 
made to the dragoman. 

§ 4. The travellers shall not be liable for any damage which 
may be occasioned by the fall of the horses, by theft, or in any 
other manner, unless by their own fault. They shall be entitled to 
use the horses daily as much as they please, and also to make di- 
gressions while the beasts of burden follow the ordinary track. 
They shall likewise have power to prevent the overloading of the 
beasts of burden, either by their owner or by the dragoman, in order 
that the speed of the journey may not be unduly retarded. 

§ 5. The dragoman shall provide one good tent (or . . . good 
tents for two persons each), and for each traveller one complete bed, 
with clean mattresses, blankets, sheets, and pillows. The whole of 
the materials necessary for encamping, including a table aiid chairs 
sufficient for the party, shall be in good condition ; otherwise, the 
travellers shall be entitled to cause them to be repaired at the ex- 
pense of the dragoman. 

§ 6. When the drogoman is unacquainted with the route, he 
shall always engage well-informed guides. He shall also, when 
necessary, provide watchmen to guard the tents by night, and an 
escort to accompany the travellers by day, and take every measure 
necessary for the safety of the party, all at his own expense. 

§ 7. The dragoman shall provide a good cook, and a sufficient 
number of servants and of attendants for the horses, in order that 
there may be no delay in packing and unpacking. The servants and 
attendants shall avoid disturbing the travellers at night or annoy- 
ing them in any way, and shall be in every respect obedient and 


§ f$. Breakfast shall consist daily of . . . dishes with coffee (tea, 
chocolate, etc.) ; luncheon, at midday, of cold meat, fowls, eggs, 
and fruit; dinner, at the end of the day's journey, of . . . dishes, 
followed hy coffee (tea, etc.). The travellers shall he supplied with 
oranges at any hour of the day they please. The dragoman shall 
provide . . . bottles of wine for each traveller per day. (Or : the 
dragoman is hound to provide for the carriage, without extra charge, 
of any wine, beer, etc., which the travellers may purchase for the 

§ 9. The dragoman shall he courteous and obliging towards 
the travellers ; if otherwise, they shall he entitled to dismiss him 
at any time before the termination of the journey. The travellers 
shall have liberty to fix the hours for halting and for meals, and 
choose the places for pitching the tents. They shall in every re- 
spect be masters of their own movements, and the dragoman shall 
not be entitled to interfere. 

§ 10. The dragoman shall have everything in readiness for 
starting on . . . April, at . . . o'clock, from and including which 
day the journey shall occupy, or shall be reckoned as occupying, 
eighteen days at least, to which the travellers shall have liberty to 
add days of rest whenever they desire. The dragoman shall not he 
entitled to make any chaTge for his return-journey. 

§ 11. The travellers shall pay the dragoman for each day during 
the whole journey the sum of . . . francs. In towns or villages, 
such as Damascus, Haifa, etc., the travellers shall have the option 
of living at hotels, or monasteries, or in the tents, all at the cost of 
the dragoman. 

Or: During the stay of the travellers at Damascus, Beirut, etc., 
they shall have the option of lodging at a hotel at their own ex- 
pense, during which time the dragoman shall receive no payment; 
but, if they desire it, they shall be entitled to use the horses on 
payment of their daily hire (3 — 4 fr. each). 

§ 12. In case any dispute should arise between the dragoman 
and the travellers, he hereby undertakes to submit to the decision 
of the matter by the nearest British consul. 

§ 13. The dragoman shall receive payment of one-half (or one- 
third) of the estimated minimum cost of the journey before starting, 
and the remaining half (or two-thirds) on the termination of the 
whole journey. He is prohibited from asking the travellers for mo- 
ney during the journey. 


A. B. C, Dragoman. 

Consular attestation and stamp. 

1, the undersigned C, acknowledge receipt of . . . francs from 
Messrs. A and B, as the first instalment of one-half (or one-third) 
of the estimated minimum cost of the above journey. 

Date. C, Dragoman. 

Palestine. 2 


Remarks on § 1. The route should be laid down beforehand 
with the utmost possible accuracy, as the Mukari, or muleteers, 
always endeavour to take the shortest way without the slightest 
regard to points of interest lying off the beaten track. 

On § 2. If the traveller is satisfied with the muleteers, he may 
give them a bakhshish at the end of the journey. If. during the 
journey, they are importunate for bakhshish for every trifling service 
rendered, they will be most effectually checked by silence on the 
part of the traveller. 

On § 3 (a). Biding Gear. On a long journey the comfort of the 
traveller depends to a great extent on the character of the horses and 
on the kind of saddle used. Riding day after day on an uneasy horse, 
or on a bad saddle, or both, is very fatiguing. The Arabian saddles 
are narrow, very high before and behind, and unpadded ; the rider 
cannot alter his position ; and, unless they are well covered with 
rugs, they are very apt to cut ot rub the skin. A European saddle 
should therefore invariably be stipulated for. Those who contem- 
plate a journey of unusual length will And it desirable to have a 
saddle of their own, which may either be purchased at Alexandria, 
or brought from home, packed in a box made for the purpose, and 
fastened with straps to keep it in place and prevent its being injured. 
Bags for hanging over the horses' backs, and straps for fastening 
various objects to the saddle, are also useful. The Arab generally 
carries on his saddle a small double pouch (khurj), which the trav- 
eller will find very convenient, though apt to fall off a European 
saddle if not strapped. They may be purchased at Jerusalem for 
5 — 6 fr. each, but a better choice is to be had at Damascus. The 
muleteers sometimes make difficulties about putting the trav- 
ellers' own saddles on their horses, as they have then to carry other 
saddles for the return-journey, but the travellers should insist on 
having their own way. Saddles for which the traveller has no far- 
ther use may be sold at the end of the journey. — Ladies' saddles 
are not easily procured, and the muleteers who have them generally 
stipulate for an extra bakhshish from the traveller or from the dra- 
goman. — Good bridles are rarely to be had except at Beirut. The 
horse-owners prefer the Arabian bit, which lies on the horse's 
tongue, to the European snaffle and curb, with the use of which they 
are unacquainted. Spurs may sometimes be useful, but it is 
preferable to be provided with a whip of hippopotamus leather, 
which may be purchased in Egypt or at Jerusalem for about 3 fr. 

(b). Luggage. For a journey into the interior of the country the 
traveller should endeavour to dispense with all articles of luggage 
not absolutely necessary, as heavy baggage not only greatly increases 
the cost and trouble, but often materially diminishes the speed of 
travelling. Heavy trunks are unsuitable, owing to their cumbrous- 
ness and the difficulty of packing them so as to weigh equally on 
each side of the baggage horses. Small portmanteaus and bags of 


solid leather, with good locks, are far preferable, being more easily 
and quickly packed, and more readily adjusted on the horses' backs. 
Those who make short excursions from headquarters where they are 
making some stay will of course be able to reduce their 'impedi- 
menta' to a minimum. 

On § 4. On long journeys the horses should be made to walk 
or amble at a good steady pace, but seldom allowed to trot or gal- 
lop, as they would thereby be unduly fatigued for the next day's 
march. The riding-gear, moreover, is generally in such a condition 
that a rapid pace implies serious risk of breakages and mishaps. 
This should be particularly borne in mind in a country where in 
case of an accident no medical aid is procurable. The conductors 
of Oriental caravans generally make the first day's journey a short 
one, in order that their beasts may gradually shake off the inacti- 
vity of the stable ; and for the traveller himself this course is not 
undesirable. As the horses are accustomed to march in single file, 
the rideT should take care not to be too near his neighbour, 
as kicking horses are not uncommon. With a little patience and 
persuasion horses can generally be got to walk abreast, but mules 
are much more inveterately addicted to their single file. Riding 
behind the baggage-horses, as the mukari would fain make the 
traveller do, is intolerably slow and tedious. In many cases, there- 
fore, we indicate side-paths and digressions, which will often enable 
the traveller to escape from the baggage train , and of which he 
should avail himself without the least regard to the remonstrances 
and warnings of the muleteers. Many of the horses are so quiet and 
sure-footed that the rideT may safely let go the reins altogether. 
When mounting, the traveller should direct the muleteer to hold the 
right stirrup, to prevent the not uncommon slipping round of the 
saddle ; and on dismounting he should see that his horse is pro- 
perly secured and prevented from straying. 

On § 7. The attendants have a very common and annoying habit 
of tethering their horses close to the tents, and of chatting half 
the night so loudly as effectually to prevent the traveller from 

On § 8. The items of the bill of fare may be stipulated for 
according to taste. Dinner should always be postponed till the 
day's journey is over, and the same may be said of indulgence in 
alcoholic beverages in hot weather, as riding is otherwise apt to be 
uncomfortably soporific. Fresh meat is rarely procurable except 
in the larger towns and villages, and then generally in the morning 
only. Fowls and eggs are always to be had, but are apt to pall on 
the taste. The bread which the dragoman proposes to take should 
be inspected. The Arabian bread, a thin round kind of biscuit, is 
only palatable when fresh. Frank bread, of which the dragoman 
should have a good supply, soon gets very stale, and should therefore 
be in the form of as large loaves as possible. The traveller may 



also stipulate for preserves of various kinds, which are to he had at 
the larger towns. He had better buy his own wine ; claret or Bur- 
gundy is the best. On the route from Jerusalem to Damascus, Haifa. 
is the only place where a supply can be obtained. The sweet wine 
of the country is uurefreshing and unwholesome. If, as rarely hap- 
pens, the dragoman is entrusted with the purchase of wine, it should 
be tasted before starting. An abundant supply of tobacco, which need 
not be of very good quality, should be taken for the purpose of keeping 
the muleteers, escorts, and occasional guides in good humour. 

On § 9. The stages of the journey depend on the distances be- 
tween the wells and places where provender is procurable. The 
start should always be made early, in order that time may be left 
at the end of the journey for rest or a refreshing walk before dinner. 

On § 10. This article is for the protection of the dragoman, and 
is to prevent his being arbitrarily dismissed at a distance from home 
and without compensation. As a dragoman rarely has the oppor- 
tunity of making more than two or three journeys of any length 
during one year, it is natural that he should stipulate for as high a 
minimum of days for the journey as possible, and it is but fair 
that a certain sum at least should be secured to him, as otherwise 
he might reasonably decline to enteT into the contract. 

The chaTges of the dragomans are high, partly because the duration 
of their harvest is short, and partly because many travellers are too 
Teady to give whatever is demanded. There have moreover been 
of late various government and other expeditions in Syria, whose 
members have been unnecessarily lavish in their expenditure, and 
therefore unjust to succeeding travellers. 

On § 11. The traveller will sometimes, for the sake of change, 
prefer sleeping at a hotel to camping in his tent, and it is there- 
fore important that he should reserve liberty to do so at pleasure. 
When the dragoman is bound to defray the hotel expenses, he ob- 
tains a considerable reduction from the landlords, paying not more 
than 8 — 10 fr. per day for each traveller, and being himself boarded 
and lodged gratuitously. Those who are likely to make a prolonged 
stay at hotels should therefore consider, before entering into the 
contract, what stipulations on this head are most advantageous. 
Again, at places where some stay is to be made, the dragomans often 
dismiss the original horses, or some of them, and hire fresh ones, 
in which case, especially as the baggage hoTses are not required, 
the traveller may fairly stipulate for a considerable reduction on 
the sum to be paid for each marching day. 

II. WithDbagoman, but without Tents. This mode of trav- 
elling will suit very few travellers, and for ladies it is quite im- 
practicable. On all the more frequented tracks there are caravan- 
serais or khans, and at the larger villages there are houses or rooms 
where travellers are accommodated, but unfortunately such places 
always swarm with veTmin (see p. 29). The cottages of the pea- 


santry and their floors are generally of mud, which harbours fleas 
innumerable. When such a room is taken possession of. the straw 
matting which covers the floor should be taken up and thoroughly 
beaten, and the whole place carefully swept and sprinkled with 
water. Every article of clothing belonging to the inmates should 
also be removed to another room. Even after these precautions the 
room will often be barely habitable. Bugs are less common, except 
where the houses are chiefly built of wood. The tents of the Bedu- 
ins are free from these insects , but on the other hand are terribly 
infested with lice. 'Persian' insect powder , which is sold at a 
somewhat exorbitant price at Jerusalem and Beirut only, and camphor, 
are indispensable for a journey of this description, and had better be 
brought from home, where they are of better quality and less expen- 
sive. Scorpions abound in Syria, but they seldom sting unless 
irritated (p. 52). They are often found under loose stones. If the 
bed is slightly raised from the ground, the sleeper is quite safe from 
their attacks. Mosquitoes aTe troublesome in the height of summer, 
and in marshy places, but Syria generally is tolerably free from these 
tormentors, as the nights are too cold for them. Gauze or mosquito 
~be&-<sxiTta,ms(namusiyeh) are used to prevent their intrusion at night. 

Those who are not deterred by these drawbacks may dispense 
"with a tent. Nor is bedding an absolutely necessary item of the 
baggage, as a blanket or carpet is always procurable as a substitute. 
The baggage train, moreover, need not be swelled with horses laden 
with comestibles, as the dragoman will generally have no difficulty 
in providing fowls, rice, burghul (p. 45), eggs, and Arabian bread. 
For the traveller who desires to become thoroughly acquainted with 
•the customs and resources of the natives, this style of travelling is 
not without its attractions ; it is of course much less costly than the 
first named, as many expensive items are dispensed with, and its 
accompanying element of adventure and independence will recom- 
mend it to some. The cost of a journey of this kind will be about 
30 — 35 fr. per day for a single traveller, about 25 fr. each for two, 
■20 fr. for thTee, and 15 — 18 fr. for a larger party. We must, how- 
ever, mention, that it is not always possible to induce a dragoman 
to enter into a contract of this character. 

III. With Servants, but without Dragoman. A still bolder 
proceeding is entirely to dispense with the attendance of a dragoman, 
and to rely on the services of one or more trustworthy attendants, 
coupled with those of the muleteers. As the Syrians generally display 
marvellous aptitude for learning foreign languages, it will always be 
an easy matter for the traveller to find a native acquainted with French , 
English, or Italian , and competent to teach him a few of the most 
necessary Arabic words for the journey. Thus instructed , sup- 
plementing his vocabulary with signs when necessary, and provided 
with one or more native servants and a sufficient number of horses 
and muleteers, he may start on his novel, but in some respects most 


interesting journey. Those who intend making a prolonged tour 
should purchase tents , bedding , and kitchen utensils for them- 
selves , all of which may be disposed of at the end of the journey. 
A man to act as valet and cook may be hired for 60 — 80 fr. per 
month. An attendant of this kind will act in many respects the 
part of a dragoman , but he should be made strictly to account for 
all his expenditure, as he is apt to charge his employer considerably 
more than he has expended for him. This kind of travelling be- 
comes still more venturesome and independent when tents are 
dispensed with, and accommodation is sought at khans, or villages, 
or the tents of Beduins , in the way already mentioned. The 
annoyance of repeated bargaining with the mukari may be avoided 
if the traveller purchases, instead of hiring, the horses necessary 
for his journey ; but as this plan involves a larger staff of servants, 
and gives rise to various unforeseen difficulties and items of ex- 
penditure , it can hardly he recommended. In hiring horses the 
traveller should make a point of inspecting them previously ; for, if 
he leaves this important matter to his servants, he is almost certain 
to be victimised. 

The rates of horse -hire, as already observed (p. 6), are very 
fluctuating. During the spring travelling season a good horse can 
rarely be hired at Jerusalem under 6 fr. per day, and 8 — 10 fr. are 
even occasionally demanded. In treating with the muleteers it 
is advisable always to reckon the charges in piastres. "When a tour 
of any length is contemplated, a written contract between the 
traveller and the mukari should be drawn up in Arabic by the 
dragoman of the consulate, somewhat in the following terms : — 

§ 1. The mukari shall provide the travellers A andB. with . . . 
horses , consisting of . . . saddle-horses with European saddles (or 
without saddles), and . . . baggage-horses (or mules). 

§ 1. The route shall be from Jerusalem to Damascus, via ; 

it shall begin on the morning of . . , and occupy at least . . days ; 
but the travellers shall have full liberty to make whatever digres- 
sions they please, and to choose halting-places for the day or night. 

§ 3. The horses (and mules) shall be well fed ; if otherwise, 
the travellers shall be entitled to purchase provender for them at 
the expense of the mukari. They shall be laden with nothing 
except what the travellers authorise. 

§ 4. The whole cost of food for the attendants , as well as for 
the horses, shall be defrayed by the mukari. The attendants shall 
be . . in number, and they must be well acquainted with the route. 

§ 5. The travellers shall pay for each of the . horses the 
sum of 35 piastres per day , 50 fr. of the whole sum to be paid to 
the mukari before starting, and the residue at the end of the journey 

§ 6. In case of dispute the mukari shall submit to the decision 
of the matteT by the nearest British consul. 

Signatures, etc. 


Remark on § 3. The mukari , from motives of economy, some- 
times take a considerable part of the barley which they require for 
their cattle from the starting-point, and therefore overload the 
horses so much as seriously to retard the rate of travelling. 
Sometimes, too, they add a donkey to the train to carry this supply 
of provender, and, to make matters worse, ride upon it themselves. 
All encroachments of this kind should be strenuously resisted. 

On § 4. If the travellers are satisfied with their mukari they 
may give him the remains of their meals when convenient , or an 
occasional loaf of bread. He and his frugal attendants will be 
grateful for such contributions when they are not permitted to 
regard them as their rightful perquisites. 

IV. With a Muleteer only. Lastly the enterprising traveller, 
whose love of adventure and independence is stronger than his 
dislike to privations , may dispense with personal attendants and 
start on his journey with a mukari only. The contract will be 
of the same character as the last mentioned. This of course is 
the cheapest mode of travelling , as fewest horses are required ; 
while, as the traveller caters for himself, the expense and ex- 
tortions of attendants are avoided. For a frugal meal and a night's 
lodging at the house of a farmer or peasant 4 — 5 fr. will generally 
suffice foT one person , or 3 — 4 fr. each for a party. If a cook be 
attached to the party he should be directed to pay ready money for 
all eatables , in which case 2 — 3 fr. for a night's lodging for each 
person will suffice. A supply of sugar for the children of the 
peasants will be found useful. Luggage , weapons , and saddles 
should be safely housed for the night ; if left outside , they are 
sure to be handled by curious bystanders, if not damaged or stolen. 

(7]. Equipment. Health. 

Dress. A few remarks on this subject will not be unacceptable 
to the less experienced of our readers. In order that the traveller 
may not be overburdened with luggage on his riding tour, we 
recommend him not to take with him more than a couple of suits of 
clothes, light in colour, but of woollen material, as the mornings and 
evenings are often cold during the travelling season. A darkeT suit, 
though not essential , may be added for wearing in towns , visiting 
consuls, attending divine service, etc. , but dress clothes are quite 
unnecessary. If the journey is to be prolonged into the middle of 
summer , a suit of flannel , or the lightest possible tweed , and 
another of cotton material for the hottest weatheT will be indispen- 
sable. Such garments may be purchased in the larger towns , but 
are more satisfactory when brought from home. Linen clothing is 
not recommended. Flannel or soft cotton shirts are the most suit- 
able. StaTched linen shirts cannot be property washed except in the 
larger towns. 


Woollen stockings aud strong boots or shoes are essential to 
comfort, as most travellers will generally have occasion to walk 
considerable distances, and often over very rough ground. Knicker- 
bockers are pleasant both for walking and riding. Those who do 
not wear them should take trouser-straps for riding. Shoes that are 
easily taken off should be worn when a visit is about to be paid 
at an Oriental house (p. 36). Slippers are procurable almost every- 
where, and, if not, Arabian shoes (at 15—25 piastres) may serve 
the purpose. 

The best covering for the head is a 'Billy-cock' hat, or a pith 
helmet (Tress's), as these afford both shade and ventilation. In 
the hottest weather a 'puggery' may be added — i. e. an ample 
piece of strong white or grey muslin , the ends of which hang down 
in broad folds at the back as a protection against sunstroke. Straw- 
hats do not afford sufficient protection against the rays of a southern 
sun, and felt hats are too hot foT the head. Some travellers prefer 
the tarbush, or fez, a red cloth skull cap with black silk tassel, over 
which, in Arabian fashion, they tie a silk keffiyeh (manufactured in 
the country, 15 — 20 fr. each; see p. 89). extending from under 
the chin to the top of the head , and falling down behind in a 
triangular shape. This head-dress protects the cheeks and neck ad- 
mirably against the sun, and will not be found too warm if a folded 
pocket-handkeTchief or a white cotton cap be worn under the fez. 
White parasols or sun-shades of tolerable quality may be purchased 
in the larger towns foT 4 — 5 fr. each. It is fatiguing to carry them 
for any length of time when riding ; but in towns they are most 
useful. An umbrella may probably be dispensed with , as it does 
not afford much shelter to riders, and as rain does not often fall 
during the travelling seasons, while in towns and villages shelter 
from a passing shower is easily obtained. If not provided with a 
waterproof overcoat, the traveller may purchase an Arabian 'abayeK, 
or Beduin mantle of native manufacture, which will answer the same 
purpose tolerably well. The wide brown 'Bagdad cloaks' of finer 
texture cost about 30 fr. each, the coarser striped mantles 15 — 20 fr. 
Light shawls of flue white wool , well adapted for keeping off dust, 
may also be purchased. A blue or green gauze veil is a most useful 
protection against glare , dust , and insects. On some occasions 
large spectacles of neutral tint will be pleasanter. 

Miscellaneous. Travellers who deviate from the ordinary routes 
and intend to explore comparatively unknown districts may consult 
Oalton's Art of Travel (5th edit., 1872) for a complete description 
of their necessary outfit, the whole of which had better be brought 
from Europe. A few of the most important articles may be noticed 
here. A drinking-cup of leather or metal, a flask, a strong pocket- 
knife, a punch for making holes in leather straps, several good note- 
books, writing materials, straps and india-rubber rings, twine a 
pocket-compass of medium size, a thermometer, and an aneroid 


barometer are among the more indispensable articles, to -which 
the scientific traveller will add those pertaining to his special 
object of research. Blotting or stout cartridge paper is useful for 
■obtaining impressions of inscriptions. This is done by wetting the 
paper, pressing it on the inscription with the aid of a brush, and 
removing it when dry. The impressions thus obtained may be rolled 
up and kept in a long round botanist's canister. A small charcoal 
filter will often be very useful. Presents for distribution among the 
natives are among the essential items for a tour of exploration ; these 
should include a few guns , loud ticking watches or clocks , etc. , 
besides a variety of trifling knick-knacks. Knives, scissors, nee- 
dles, and thread , bought wholesale , make oheap , portable , and 
always acceptable presents. The traveller himself should have a 
couple of trustworthy watches for his own use , including perhaps 
a 'remontoir' or keyless watch, as a watch-key lost during the jour- 
ney is not easily replaced. Good coffee, tea, and spirituous liquors 
are obtainable at the principal towns, but chocolate rarely. 

Various other preparations are necessary if the traveller adopts 
the third of the above mentioned plans (p. 21). He will probably 
have to buy a tent with its belongings, which will cost 120 — 160 fr. 
in the travelling season, cooking utensils, a carpet, and a table and 
chairs. Bedding of the ordinary kind is cumbersome and may be 
left out of the list of requisites ; but a light, portable cork mat- 
tress, with waterproof flaps to cover the sleeper in rainy weather, 
is essential to comfort, as tents almost invariably leak. In case of 
necessity a pillow and a Ithaf, or large square Arabian quilted 
coverlet, together with a carpet, form a tolerable though very hard 
couch. If these articles aTe not to be had ready made, the 
materials must be purchased and given to a tailor to make up. 
Those who wish to be luxurious may be provided with a hammock, 
the adjustment and use of which, however, require a little practice. 
Sleeping on the ground is often unsafe, unless, in addition to carpets 
and blankets, a sheet of waterproof material be spread under the 
sleeper. A fdnus, or Arabian lantern , and candles should be taken 
for lighting the tent and the rooms in which quarters for the night 
are obtained; candle-boxes with candlesticks attached are also 
useful ; but best of all are the portable candle-lamps now made 
for reading in cabin, tent, or carriage. No comestibles need be 
taken, as they are procurable on all the ordinary routes, but a supply 
of rice and fat for occasional distribution among the mukari or escort 
is desirable. Lastly, a stock of needles and thread, cord and rope, 
and a hammer and axe should not be forgotten. 

Health. Medical men are to be found at Jerusalem , Beirut, 
Aleppo, and Damascus, but nowhere else. The climate of Syria is 
not unhealthy, but the chilly mornings and evenings aTe often trea- 
cherous. Intermittent fever, of which fits of shivering are the pre- 
lude , is a frequent result of catching cold. Quinine is the best 


remedy, of -which 1—3 doses should be taken on the days when the 
patient is free from fever. Rest and copious perspiration will also> 
materially aid in affording relief. 

Diarrhoea , a very common complaint in this country, is often 
caused by eating unripe fruit. In purchasing fruit in the markets, 
therefore, gTeat care should be exercised. This disorder is also- 
sometimes the result of a cold. Remedies against it, such as the 
concentrated tincture of camphor, had better be brought from home. 
A simple farinaceous diet , with tea , and well matured red wine, 
will be beneficial in such cases, while fruit, meat, and fat are to be 
avoided. In cases of diarrhoea, as well as of fever, the only effectual 
remedy will be sometimes found to be a change of climate, especially 
if the patient is residing in a marshy or unhealthy neighbourhood. 
A stock of slightly aperient medicines, effervescingpowders, sticking- 
plaster, lint , etc. will also be useful, all of which should be care- 
fully kept from exposure to moisture. 

As sunstroke is common in Syria , even in comparatively cool 
weather, the neck and head should be well protected with broad- 
brimmedhat, veil, etc. (p. 24). When headache is caused by exposure 
to the heat, the usual remedies are rest and shade, cold compresses, 
a warm bath, and applications of cold wateT to the head and neck. 
Ophthalmia and other diseases of the eye are less common in Syria 
than in Egypt. Grey spectacles may be used with advantage when 
the eyes suffer from the glare of bright and hot weather. Zinc eye- 
wash, ot some other innocuous lotion will afford relief in such cases. 

In a country where riding and walking are the only modes of 
travelling it need hardly be said that it is of especial importance to 
avoid risk of sprains, bruises, and over-fatigue in exploring ruins, 
botanising, geologising, or sight-seeing. An ordinary sprain is most 
effectually treated with cold compresses , and the injured part 
should be tightly bandaged and allowed perfect rest. 

(8). Beggars. Bakhshish. 

Most Orientals regard the European traveller as a Croesus , and 
sometimes as a madman, — so unintelligible to them are the objects 
and pleasures of travelling. Poverty, they imagine, is unknown 
among us, whilst in reality we feel its privations far more keenly 
than they. That such erroneous views prevail is to some extent the 
fault of travellers themselves. In a country where nature's require- 
ments are few and simple, and money is scarce, a few piastres seem 
a fortune to many. Travellers are therefore often tempted to give 
for the sake of producing temporary pleasure at trifling cost , for- 
getting that the seeds of insatiable cupidity are thereby sown , to 
the infinite annoyance of their successors and the demoralisation of 
the recipients themselves. As a rule bakhshish should never be given 
except for services rendered, or to the sick and aged. 


In every village the traveller is assailed with crowds of ragged, 
half-naked children, shouting 'bakhshish, bakhshish, yd khowdja !' 
The best reply is to complete the Thyme with, 'ma fish, md 
fish' (there is nothing) , which will generally have the effect of 
dispersing them. A beggar may also be answered with the words 
'Allah ya'tiV (may God give thee !), which always have a silencing 

The word bakhshish, which resounds so perpetually in the travel- 
ler's ears during his sojourn in the East, and haunts him long 
afterwards, simply means 'a gift', and as everything is to be had for 
gifts the word has many different applications. Thus with bakhshish 
the tardy operations of the custom-house officer are accelerated, 
bakhshish supplies the place of a passport, bakhshish is the alms 
bestowed on a beggar, bakhshish means black mail, and lastly a large 
proportion of the public officials of the country are said to live 
almost exclusively on bakhshish. 

(9). Public Safety. Weapons. Escorts. Dogs. 

Public Safety. Syria used , at no very distant period, to be 
regarded as a country overrun with robbers and assassins, but at 
the present day there is no danger whatever in traversing the more 
frequented routes. The consuls, moreover, are bound , and are 
always most willing to warn the traveller of any impending danger. 
On the less frequented routes, in the valley of the Jordan, and more 
particularly to the east of Jordan, danger from the nomadic Bedu- 
ins might perhaps be apprehended but for the custom of travellers 
in these parts to provide themselves with a Beduin escort (e. g. 
on the shores of the Dead Sea), to whom a fee of 5 fr. per day is 
usually paid. (The same charge is made for an escort of Turkish 
soldiers, e. g. on the excursion to Palmyra.) In return for these fees, 
a number of Beduin village shekhs , settled near Jerusalem , have 
undertaken to protect the interests of travellers, make compensation 
for thefts, etc., and the traveller who neglects to avail himself of 
this kind of insurance will profit little by appealing to his consul. 
Far higher demands are of course made for escorting travellers 
beyond Jordan, where the Turkish supremacy is but nominally 
recognised , and where, especially in the border districts, the petty 
shekhs affect to disdain francs and shillings , and often demand 
English sovereigns for their services. 

The desert proper, the proprietorship of which is shared by certain 
tribes, is safer than the border land between it and the cultivated 
countr y . Its confines are infested with marauders of all kind s, but once 
in the interior of the territory of a desert-tribe, and under the protection 
of one of its shekhs , the traveller will generally meet with much 
kindness and hospitality. Feuds between the border tribes are not 
uncommon, and it would be rash to attempt to cross the desert when 
such are known to be going on ; but the writer has known instances 


where pretended attacks have been preconcerted between the Beduins 
and the dragoman in order to extort a higher bakhshish from the 
traveller, which was afterwards divided among the conspirators. 
Predatory attacks are occasionally made on travellers by Beduins 
from remote districts, but only when the attacking party is the more 
powerful. To use one's weapons in such cases may lead to serious 
consequences, as the traveller who kills an Arab immediately ex- 
poses himself to the danger of retaliation from the whole tribe. 

Weapons. The sportsman should of course be provided with 
his gun and rifle , although the ordinary routes afford few oppor- 
tunities for sport. Many travellers rejoice in displaying a stock of 
revolvers and otheT arms, which add greatly to their importance in the 
estimation of the natives, but are not often brought into actual use. 

In unsafe districts a guard should be posted outside the tents, and 
objects of value should be placed either under the traveller's pillow or 
as near the middle of the tent as possible, lest they should be within 
reach of hands intruding from the outside. In case anything should 
be missed, a complaint should at once be lodged with the shekh of 
the nearest village and also with the chief magistrate of the nearest 
town of importance. The traveller should likewise be on his guard 
against the thievish propensities of beggars. 

Escorts. With regard to the fees to be paid to Beduin escorts in 
districts which do not recognise the Turkish supremacy, no definite 
rule can be laid down. In describing the different tours we shall 
mention the average charges of the last few years. Information on 
this head should be applied for at the consulates. The larger the 
party , the smalleT of course is the cost in proportion. In each case 
the arrangements must be made the subject of a special bargain. 

The Beduins are generally obstinate to a most provoking 
degree, hoping to weary out the traveller by delay, and thus induce 
him to accept their exorbitant terms. They frequently demand a 
certain sum from each member of the travelling party , but it is 
moTe convenient and advantageous to stipulate to pay them a fixed 
sum in piastres for the whole party. Negotiations should be con- 
ducted through trustworthy agents, or through the medium of the 
consulate, never through unknown persons who officiously proffer 
their services. 

Dogs. The numerous masterless, ill-looking dogs which the 
traveller encounters in the villages and towns, particularly in Da- 
mascus, are often a source of some alarm, but they fortunately 
never bite (comp. p. 50). 

(10). Hotels. Monasteries. Hospitality. Khans. 
Hotels. Yafa, Jerusalem, Haifa, Damascus, Beirut, and Aleppo 
aTe the only places which boast of hotels properly so called, many 
of them having been opened quite recently. Most of these establish- 
ments are tolerably comfortable, but as the landlords and servants 


are generally Syrian Christians (often retired dragomans ) , the 
arrangements are not so satisfactory as in European hotels. The 
average charge for board and lodging is 12 — 16 fr. (sometimes 
shillings) per day ; for a servant, 3 — 4 fr. For a prolonged stay a 
fixed 'pension' should be stipulated for. Wine is generally extra. 
Attendance is not charged in the bill. Orientals attract the attention 
of waiters by clapping their hands, and sometimes 'with the excla- 
mation — ' Ya weled' (Oh boy) I There are no restaurants in the 
European style in the East. 

Monasteries. Most of the religious houses have accommodation 
for pilgrims , and also for travellers of the wealthier classes. The 
faTe is generally tolerable , although fasts are very frequent. The 
traveller is of course expected to pay as much as he would have 
done for the same accommodation at a hotel , although no formal 
charge is made. The monks are for the most part Italian Francis- 
cans (p. 88) , of gentle, obliging and self-denying dispositions. 
Protestant missionaries may also be applied to for accommodation, 
on the same understanding as to payment. The monasteries of Mt. 
Lebanon, those of the Maronites , and others, likewise afford quar- 
ters to travellers , but in these cases the food and the beds are in 
the Arabian style. 

On arriving at a village, the traveller usually enquires for the 
house at which strangers aTe in the habit of alighting (Wrafcdnafc?'). 
Payment varies according to the accommodation; but a bargain 
should be made beforehand if possible. 

Hospitality. At the towns and villages lying on the principal 
routes the traveller need not hesitate to ask for quarters in private 
houses , as the inmates are aware that the Franks always pay, and 
therefore receive them gladly. The dragoman or mukari should be 
sent to enquire where the party can be received ; and if there is a 
consular agent at the place, application should be made to that 
official. The rules as to Temoval of shoes and other points of Orien- 
tal etiquette (p. 36) should of course be strictly observed. Payment 
is made on the same principle as in the monasteries. 

Khans. The Khan, or caravanserai (p. 20), which is generally 
suitable for the reception of the muleteers and horses only , and 
swarms with vermin , should never be resorted to except in case of 
absolute necessity. 

(11). Cafes. 

Coffee-houses abound everywhere , consisting of slight wooden 
booths, furnished with a few seats of plaited rushes. Those at 
Damascus are on a grander scale, containing chairs for the use of 
European visitors. The coffee, which is served in diminutive cups 
(finjdn), is not so good as in Egypt. It is usually presented to the 
customer highly sweetened, but may be asked for without sugar 
(sadeh), or with little sugar (shwoyyet sukkar). The coffee of the Be- 



duins is the best, being always freshly roasted, and pounded in 
wooden mortars. Europeans are charged 20 paras (£ piastre) per 
cup, but natives half that sum only. The cafe' owner provides 
nargilehs, or water-pipes, for his guests. Natives bring their own 
tobacco with them (p. 33) ; the host charges other visitors half-a- 
piastre per pipe. The nargileh should never be smoked quite to the 
bottom. If a second is wanted , the request is made in the words 
'ghayyir en-nefes' ( 'bring another pipe'), whereupon the bowl is 
removed and replaced by one fresh filled. To prevent contact with 
the mouthpiece of the stem (marbtsh), a small tube of paper may 
be inserted in it. 

(12). Baths. 

The baths used in Syria are tliose commonly known as Russian 
and Turkish baths. The Harara (see Plan), as well as the separate 
baths (Maghtas and Hanafiyeh), are roofed with flat ceilings, in which 
are openings covered with coloured glass. The maghtas contain a 
bath let into the pavement and a marble basin for washing, pro- 
vided with taps for cold and warm water, while the hanafiyeh have 
warm water only. All these chambers are paved with marble slabs. 
The harara, or public bath-chamber, is less heated than the sepa- 
rate rooms, and is filled with steam. All the chambers are heated 
by flues under the pavement and behind the walls. 

I. Entrance. 2. Meslak (a kind of antechamber, where the poorer 
bathers undress). 3. FasKyeh (fountain). 4. Dlw&n (better dressing-rooms). 
5. Coffee-seller. 6. Beit-el-awwel (warm dressing room for cold weather) 
8. W. C's. 7. Entrance to the (9) Har&ra (or 'sudatorium'). 10. Dlw&n 

II. Maghtas (chambers with basins).' 12. Hanafiyeh (chambers with basins 

and taps for hot and cold water). '13. Furnaces. 14. Boilers 

BATHS. 31 

When a cloth is hung up at the entrance to the haths they are 
occupied by women only. The baths are always cleanest in the 
early morning. Friday is a day to be avoided, as numerous Muslims 
bathe earty on that day, which is their Sabbath. 

The visitor first enters a large vaulted chamber covered with a 
cupola, having a fountain of cold water in the centre, and the 
bathing towels hung around on strings, these last being swung into 
their places or taken down with bamboo rods according to require- 
ment. The visitor is next conducted to one of the raised divans 
which are still unoccupied (those next the street are to be avoided), 
and having given his shoes to the attendant and had his divan 
covered with clean sheets, he proceeds to undress. Valuables may, 
if desired, be entrusted to the bath-owner. Wrapping a cloth round 
his loins , the bather now issues from his divan , and having been 
provided with pattens or wooden shoes (kabkab) he proceeds to the hot 
rooms in the interior of the baths, to which the attendant will show 
the way if required. These sweating-chambers are vaulted and dimly 
lighted from above. Near one of the basins here a linen cloth is spread 
for the bather , and he is now left to perspire. As soon as the skin 
is thoroughly moist, he calls for the attendant, who pulls and kneads 
the joints till they crack , a process to which Europeans are not 
generally subjected. This is followed by the pleasanter operation of 
shampooing, which is performed by the abu kts, or abu sdbun (_w hence 
'shampoo')j ^ho is requested to do his duty with the word 'keyyisni', 
and who then rubs the bather with the kts, or rough piece of felt. The 
attendant next thoroughly soaps the bather , and concludes the ope- 
rations by pouring bowls of warm water over his head. If the water 
is too hot the bather may ask for cold ('jib moyeh bdrideh'), or say 
'enough' (bes). After this douches of hot or cold water may be 
indulged in according to inclination , but the most refreshing plan 
is to change the temperature gradually from hot to cold, the direction 
to the attendant being '■moyeh bdrideh' ! When desirous of leaving the 
hot room, the bather says to the attendant 'jib el-fuwaf (bring the 
towels) , whereupon he is provided with one fo,r his loins, another 
for his shoulders, and a third for his head. The slippers or pattens 
are then put on, and the antechamber re-entered. When the kab- 
kabs are removed, cold water is sprinkled over the feet, fresh cloths 
are then provided., and the batheT at last throws himself down on 
his divan, wonderfully refreshed, yet glad to enjoy perfect repose 
for a short time. Every bath contains a coffee and pipe establish- 
ment. Coffee and hot eau sucree are the favourite beverages. 
Before dressing, the bather is generally provided with two or three 
more relays of fresh towels, and thus the proceedings terminate. — 
Many of the baths are charitable foundations , where the natives 
pay little or nothing. Europeans are generally expected to pay 5 
piastres or more, and a fee of about 1 p. is given to the 'soap man'. 
Coffee, see p. 29. - — A Turkish bath is particularly refreshing after 


a long journey , and is an admirable preventive of colds and rheu- 
matism, but if too often repeated sometimes occasions boils. 

(13). Bazaars. 
Shops in the East, frequently connected with the workshops 
where the wares are made, are generally congregated together accord- 
ing to handicrafts in a certain quarter of the town, a street, or a 
lane, named after the respective trades, such as l Suk en-Nahhdsin' 
(market of the copper smiths), Joharjtyeh (of the jewellers), Khur- 
dajlyeh (of the ironmongers) , 'Assabtn (of the butchers), etc., and 
sometimes 'after a neighbouring mosque. In all the larger towns 
and villages there are extensive Khans, or depots of the goods of 
wholesale merchants, who however often sell by retail to strangers. 

The shop (dukkdn) is a recess , quite open to the street, and 
generally about 6 ft. in depth, the floor being on a level with the 
mastaba, or seat in front , on which the owner smokes his pipe, 
retails his goods, chats with his friends, and performs his devotions. 
When the owner leaves his shop, he either hangs a net in front of 
it, or begs a neighbour to keep guard over it. The intending 
purchaser seats himself on the mastaba, and after the customary 
salutations proceeds to mention his wishes. Unless the purchaser is 
prepared to pay whatever is asked, he will find that the conclusion of a 
satisfactory bargain involves a prodigious waste of time and patience. 

As a rule, a much higher price is demanded than will ulti- 
mately be accepted, and bargaining is therefore the universal 
custom. If the purchaser knows the proper price of the goods 
beforehand, he offers it to the seller, who will probably remark 
kalW (it is little), but will nevertheless sell the goods. The seller 
sometimes entertains the purchaser with coffee from a neighbouring 
coffee-shop in order to facilitate the progress of the negociations. 
If the shopkeeper insists on too high a price , the purchaser with- 
draws , but is often called back and at last offered the article at a 
reasonable price. A favourite expression with Oriental shopkeepers 
is 'khudu baldsh'' (take it for nothing) , which is of course no more 
meant to be taken literally than the well known 'bett bttak' (my 
house is thy house). When in the course of the bargaining the 
purchaser increases his offer in order to make a concession, he 
generally uses the expression l min shdnak' (for thy sake). Persons 
who are in the habit of dealing with the natives sometimes resort 
to the expedient of asking the merchant what he has paid for Ms 
goods , a question which in the great majority of cases is answered 
truly. When the word of a Muslim is doubted, it is not uncommon 
to make him swear by the Koran or by the threefold divorce (taldk). 

Nothing raises the traveller so much in the estimation of Orien- 
tals as firmness in resisting imposition ; but even the most wary and 
experienced must be prepared to pay somewhat higher prices for 
everything than the natives themselves. The charges mentioned in 


the Handbook will generally afford the traveller an idea of the de- 
mands which may be justly made, but in Syria, as in most other 
countries frequented by travellers, prices have a strong upward ten- 
dency. The dragomans and valets-de-place are always in league 
with the shopkeepers , and if the traveller does his shopping under 
their guidance he is invariably charged a higher price , as these 
worthies receive a commission of 10 — 20 per cent on each purchase. 
— Antiquities, see p. 122. 

Travellers who make purchases of more than ordinary bulk, or 
who have made collections of any kind , will find it convenient and 
comparatively inexpensive to send them home through one of the 
goods-agents at Jerusalem or Beirut (pp. 144, 437). 

(14). Tobacco. 

Cigar-smokers must endeavour to accustom themselves to the Ori- 
ental mode of smoking. Cigars are hardly to be had except at 
Beirut, and they are almost always dear and bad. The duty on im- 
ported cigars is high , and is often raised arbitrarily by the custom- 
house officers ; while on entering and quitting the principal towns 
renewed examinations of luggage are liable to take place , so that 
the traveller had better at once dispense with this luxury. The 
difficulties are hardly less formidable when tobacco is purchased in 
the country to take home. 

In the East every one smokes pipes or cigarettes. The former 
had better be bought in the country itself; the latter the smoker 
must learn to make for himself. Strong tobacco (tiitiin) is takil, mild 
is khaftf. The price of a good quality per okka (2| lbs.) is 10 — 
12 fr. The usual way of keeping it moist is to mix it with strips 
of carrot. 

The Syrian tobacco is cut in long strips like the Turkish (stnm- 
buli) , but less regularly, and is often mixed with woody fibres. 
Many smokers prefer it to the Turkish , as the after-taste is pleasun- 
ter, and the mouth less parched. Korilni is light brown, Jebeli dark 
brown, the latter deriving its colour from being dried in the sttioke 1 
of resinous woods. The latter kind is called Lddikiyeh, or'Eatak'ia. 
in Europe, a name not applied to it in the East. TuriiWtlt '."or' Per- 
sian tobacco , is moistened , lighted with a particular 'kiiid'bf' char- 
coal, and smoked in the naryilehs or long, water-pipe's' dillyV TliAso 
who use this kind of pipe draw the smoke into theirl'tiiigs. '-Women 
generally smoke the nargileh, and peasants 'the' jfizeh (cohip.'p. 470/. 

II! I'l'l I !>1H; ';!i , "II 'fill i" i'lil!lll"'i 
lit! II'. J ) J'lV/''. n!l -. 

I 'I >' ■: y lif' i i tyiii ■ 1 1; 

Down to the time, qfj the Crimean, , war, , ChRhstiaus.wer^ ia,re})» 
permitted to visit Muslim places of worship, but, in consequence of 
the increased influx of Europeans in the, Turkish .dominions isiuce 
that period, thej ajuf.ieiit exriiisiveiuess, has been greatly mpdifie,d, 

Palestine. !> 


V Y ■ [-■u.iii '!ti 


although strict Muslims still dislike to soc 'unbelievers' (Christians 
and Jews) enter their holy places. It need hardly be said that the 
visitor should show all possible consideration for the feelings of the 
worshippers ami his Muslim companions, should abstain from touch- 
ing the Korans lying about, and avoid doing anything calculated to 
arouse their well-known fanaticism. Visitors exchange their shoes 
at the entrance for slippers , which are generally provided for their 
use , but in some cases must be brought for the purpose. In some 
mosques it is held sufficient to put on galoshes or over-shoes, or 
to bind a cloth round the boots. 

Mosques are divided, according to their form, into two leading 
classes : (1) Those which consist of a simple building surrounding a 
rectangular open court, with an internal arrangement of columns or 
pilasters ; ('2) Those where a court, either rectangular or cruciform, 
is surrounded by closed chambers. — The name jdm'a is applied to 
the large, or cathedral mosques, in which sermons (khutba) are 
preached on Fridays and prayers are offered up for the sovereign of 
the country. The general term for a place of worship is mesjid, 
even when it consists of a single chamber (mumlla) only. 

Every jam'a possesses a court of considerable size, generally 
uncovered, called the fasha or «t/tn el-jdm'a, in the centre of which 
is the fountain for the ablutions (hanafiyeh) prescribed by the Mo- 
hammedan religion. Adjoining the E. side of the court is the 
makmra , containing the sacred vessels , and covered with carpets 
or mats. 

The maksura contains: (1) The Mihrdb, or recess for prayer, 
turned towards Mecca (the Kibla), where the Koran is read; (2) 
The Mimbar, or pulpit, to the right of the Mihrab , from which the 
Kltatlb preaches to the faithful ; (3) The Kursi (plur. Kerdsi) , or 
desk, on which the Koran lies open during divine service (at other 
times the Koran is kept in a cabinet set apart for the purpose); 

(4) The Dikkeh, a podium placed on columns and enclosed by alow 
railing, from which the Moballigh (assistants of the Khatib) repeat 
the words of the Koran for the benefit of the people at a distance ; 

(5) The various lamps and lanterns (kan&dtl and fdnus) belonging 
to the mosque. 

At the side of the sahn el-jam'a is another and smaller court, 
with a basin in the centre and niches along the walls. The worshipper 
generally enters this court before proceeding to the sahn el-jam'a. — 
Adjacent to the maksura usually rises the monument of the 
founder of the mosque, and further distant, by the principal entrance, 
is the SebU (fountain) with the Medreseh (school). These fountains 
are often richly adorned with marble and surrounded by handsome 
bronze railings. They are covered by a widely spreading roof, and 
above them is sometimes a more or less handsome hall for the 
school. A flight of several steps generally ascends to the railings 
where the water is distributed. The interior of the sebil consists 


of one large chamber only, raised about 3 ft. above the level of the 
street , where vessels are filled with water from the tank for distri- 
bution to the faithful. 

The Muslims also perform their devotions at the grated windows 
of the mausoleums of their saints fshtkh, or voely) , behind which is 
seen a catafalque covered with carpets of every hue, where however 
the remains of the holy man are by no means invariably deposited. 
These welies (see p. 98) are observable all oveT the country , some- 
times built into the houses , and easily recognised by their outward 
appearance. They are cubical in form and covered with a dome, 
whence they derive the name of kubbeh ; they seldom cover an area 
of more than 20 — 30 sq. yds., they are generally whitewashed, and 
often empty and infested with scorpions. 

(16). Swellings. 

The private houses of Orientals are seldom more than two stories 
in height, and vary greatly in their construction. The following, 
however, is the most usual arrangement : (1) The Principal Rooms, 
particularly those of the Harem, look into the court or garden, 
if there is one. (2) The windows looking towards the street are 
small, at a considerable height from the ground, and closely barred, 
while those of the upper floor are closed with wooden lattices, 
which however are gradually giving way to glass windows with 
shutters. (3) The Corridor , which leads from the street into the 
court, takes an abrupt turn, in order that passers-by may not be able 
to see into the court. (4) The Court (hosh) is paved with slabs of 
stone, and frequently planted with orange and citron trees , with a 
large basin of clear water in the centre. 

Close to the entrance to the court is the Mandara , or reception- 
room of the master of the house , from which a door covered with a 
curtain leads into the court. To the right and left of the passage run- 
ning in a straight direction from this door the floor is slightly raised. 
Visitors leave their shoes below , step upon the straw matting 
placed on this raised floor, and take their seats upon the divan 
which Tuns round three sides of the room. In the walls are gene- 
rally a number of cupboards , and higher up are shelves. Many 
rooms are adorned with enamelled inscriptions. In summer visitors 
are not received in the reception chamber, but under an open arch 
usually adjoining the court and facing the north. — A small door 
leads into a second court and to the women's apartments. The 
houses are very irregularly built, so that each apartment often 
seems to have been constructed without reference to any other. The 
ceilings are of wood and clay. 


(17). Intercourse with Orientals. 

Orientals accuse Europeans of doing everything the wrong 
way , such as writing from left to right , while they do the reverse, 
and uncovering the head on entering a room , while they remove 
their shoes , but keep their heads covered. The traveller should 
endeavour to habituate himself to the custom of taking off the 
shoes on entering a house , as it is considered a grave breach of 
politeness to tread upon the carpets with them. They should be 
left outside before stepping upon the straw matting with which 
every Teception-room is covered. 

The following rules should be observed in paying a visit at an 
Oriental house. The visitor knocks at the door with the iron 
knocker attached to it, whereupon the question '•mivi (who is there ?) 
is usually asked from within. In the case of Muslim houses the 
visitor has to wait outside for a few minutes in order to give the 
women who happen to be in the court time to retire. He is then 
conducted into the reception-room , where a low divan or sofa runs 
round three sides of the room , the place of honour always being 
exactly opposite the door. According to the greater or less degree 
of respect which the host desires to show for his guest, he rises more 
or less from his seat, and approaches one or more steps towards him. 
The first enquiries are concerning the health (see p. 115). The 
transaction of business in the East always involves an immense waste 
of time, and as Orientals attach no value whatever to their time, the 
European will often find his patience sorely tried. If a visitor drops 
in and interrupts the business, it would be an unpardonable affront 
on the part of the host to dismiss him on the plea of being engaged. 
Again, when a visitor is announced at meal-time , it is de rigueur 
to invite him, at least as a matter of form, to partake. At all other 
hours visitors are supplied with coffee , which a servant , with 
Ms left hand on his heart , presents to each in turn, according to 
his rank. To be passed over when coffee is handed round is deemed 
by the Beduins an insult of the gravest kind. Having emptied his 
cup , the visitor must not put it down on the ground , which is 
contrary to etiquette , but keep it in his hand until it is taken from 
Mm by the servant , after which he salutes his host in the usual 
Oriental fashion by placing his right hand on his breast and after- 
wards raising it to his forehead. The longer the host wishes to have 
the company of his visitor , the later he orders the coffee to be 
brought, as the visitor cannot take his leave before partaking of 
coffee. This custom originated with the Beduins , who only re- 
garded the persons of their guests as inviolable after they had eaten 
or drunk with them. "When visited by natives, the European should 
in his turn regale them liberally with coffee, particularly when he 
has occasion to confer with his Beduin escort. — It is also usual to 
offer tobacco to the visitor, the cigarette being now the ordinary form. 


The long pipe with amber mouth-piece , and its bowl resting on a 
brazen plate on the ground, is more in vogue with the Turks. 
Visitors are often asked whether they prefer the nargileh, or water- 
pipe, to the cigarette or the ordinary pipe ; and if they wish to try 
it, a servant brings it in and lights it for them. — All visits 
must of course be returned as in Europe. Those who return to a 
place after an absence receive visits from their acquaintance before 
they are expected to call on them. 

Europeans, as a rule, should never enquire after the wives of a 
Muslim , his relations to the fair sex being sedulously veiled from 
the public. Even looking at women in the street or in a house is 
considered indecorous , and may in some cases be attended with 
danger. Intimate acquaintance with Orientals is also to be avoided, 
disinterested friendship being still rarer in the East than elsewhere! 
Beneath the interminable protestations of friendship with which the 
traveller is overwhelmed, lurks in most cases the demon of cupidity, 
the sole motive of those who use them being merely the hope of 
higher bakhshish than usual. The best way of dealing with persons 
who 'do protest too much' is to pay for every service or civility on 
the spot , and as far as possible to fix the price of every article be- 
forehand , a plan which is usually effectual in putting an end to 
their mercenary designs. 

On the other hand the most ordinary observer cannot fail to be 
struck with the fact that the degraded ruffianism so common in the 
most civilised countries is quite unknown in Syria, and it will pro- 
bably occur to him that the modern expression 'street Arabs' is a 
misnomer and an insult to the people from whom it is inappropriately 
derived. The people of the country, even of the poorest and entirely 
uneducated class, often possess a native dignity, self-respect , and 
gracefulness of manner, of which, the traveller will grieve to admit, 
his own countrymen of a far higher status in society are for the most 
part utterly destitute. Notwithstanding their individual selfishness, 
too, the different native communities will be observed to hold together 
with remarkable faithfulness, and the bond of a common religion, 
which takes the place of 'party' in other countries, and requires its 
adherents to address each other as 'ya akhui' (my brother), is far 
more than a mere name. 

While muchf caution and firmness are requisite in dealing 
with the people, it need hardly be added that the traveller should 
avoid being too exacting or suspicious. He should bear in mind 
that many of the natives with whom he comes in contact are mere 
children, whose waywardness should excite compassion rather than 
anger, and who often display a touching simplicity and kindliness 
of disposition. He should, moreover, do all in his poweT to sustain 
the well established reputation of the 'kilmeh frenfiytV, the 'word of 
a Frank', in which Orientals are wont to place implicit confidence. 


(18). Post Office and Telegraph. 

Postal Arrangements. Turkey, as well as the other countries of 
Europe, has joined the Bernese Postal Union, but the transmission 
of letters to foreign countries still takes place under the superin- 
tendence of the different consulates. Letters are received at the dif- 
ferent steamboat-offices in the coast-towns. The postage for Euro- 
pean letters of ^ oz. is 1 piastre, and for pamphlets 10 paras. 

At Beirut there is also a British Post Office for letters to and 
from England ; and under the superintendence of the British consul 
letters are transmitted fortnightly to Bagdad, and thence to India. 
There is also a Russian Post Office for certain local traffic only, 
and a Turkish, managed by very ignorant officials, for the inland and 
coast service, except in so far as managed by the different consulates. 
Postage of a letter of t oz. , 1 piastre. The addresses for these 
inland offices should be in Turkish or Arabic, as well as in English. 

Telegraph Offices. There aTe two kinds of telegraph offices in 
Syria, International and Turkish, the former class being included 
within the latter. Telegrams in Arabic and Turkish only are 
received at the Turkish offices, while at the international they may 
be written in any of the principal modern languages, particularly 
English, French, and German. The charge for an ordinary Turkish 
or Arabic telegram of 20 words within a governmental district is \ 
silver mejidi (10 piastres in government money), and for each addi- 
tional wilayet, or district, traversed, one-half more (5 piastres). 

The following is the tariff for_iuternational telegrams of 20 words, 
from offices on the sea-coast : — 

Germany 12 fr. Norway 15 fr. 

Great Britain 




From offices in the interior of the country an additional charge 
of 4 fr. is made for a telegram to Europe. 

Telegrams should be written in a very bold and legible hand. 
Payment at the international offices should be made in French 
money, and at the Turkish in Turkish silver, as a considerable loss 
is incurred in the exchange of other currencies. If no international 
office is at hand , the telegram must be sent in Arabic or Turkish 
to the coast, where it is translated, and then forwarded to Europe. 
This had better be done through a mercantile house or a consulate. 

II. Geographical Notice. 

Geography. Climate. Geology. Flora. Fauna. 

Geography. Syria is a country which possesses very marked 

geographical limits, although the name was originally of much wider 

application than at the present day. The subjects of the Assyrian 


11 fr. 


13 - 


13 - 


13 - 


14 - 

12 fr. 

Norway 15 

16 - 

Russia 13 

8 - 

Spain 16^ 

13 - 

Sweden 15^ 

15 - 

Switzerland 12 


Empire, from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean, were known in 
ancient times as Assyrians, or, in the abbreviated form, Syrians. 
At a later period these two names came to have different applica- 
tions, and it became usual with the Greeks to apply the name of 
Syria to the more western of these regions. It should therefore be borne 
in mind that the Syrians were formerly, and to some extent still are, 
a people spreading considerably beyond the confines of modern Syria. 

Syria, in the ordinary sense of the name, is the long and narrow 
district on the E. shore of the Mediterranean, extending from the 
highlands of the Taurus on the N. to Egypt on the S., between 
36° 5' and 31° N. latitude, a distance of about 370 M. — Admirably 
adapted by its situation to form a connecting link between Europe, 
Asia, and Africa, it displayed within itself, more than any other 
country in the world, all the strongly contrasted characteristics of 
the different empires of antiquity. From time immemorial it has 
been inhabited by people of many different races, and its history 
has therefore been a singularly chequered one. 

The country is divided lengthwise into several regions of 
very' different character. From N. to S. extends a range of hills, 
broken by but few transverse valleys. To the "W. of these hills lies 
the sea-board of the Mediterranean, a district which has witnessed 
some of the most important events of ancient times. To the E. ex- 
tends the interior of the country, a fertile steppe, which when arti- 
ficially watered yields the most luxuriant produce. This region, 
which is sometimes called the desert on account of its lack of 
water, extends at a mean level of 1900 ft. to the neighbourhood of 
the Euphrates. It is inhabited by independent, nomadic Beduins, 
and frequently traversed by caravans. 

Syria in the wider sense of the woTd extends eastwards. as far 
as the Euphrates ; but, if it is taken as meaning that part of the 
country only which is cultivated and governed by the Turks , its 
eastern limit is the desert, and is therefore but vaguely defined. 
Whilst the seaboard, with its expanse of country more or less 
covered with sand, offers but little variety, and the desert none 
whatever, the intervening mountainous region presents numerous 
features of interest, which have not failed to exercise an influence 
on the inhabitants of that part of the country. An important con- 
necting link between the heterogeneous regions of the desert and the 
sea-board is formed by the great valley which extends from Antioch 
on the N. to the neighbourhood of the Red Sea towards the S. 

Robinson conveniently divides the country into four different 
legions by thTee imaginary transverse lines drawn across it. The 
northern boundary of the most northern of these regions stretches 
from the Bay of Issus to the Euphrates, while its southern boundary 
is formed by a line dTawn from the river Eleutherus (Nahr el-Kebir) 
to Horns. This is N. Syria, a district rarely visited by tourists, but 
abounding in most interesting ancient ruins. 


The second line is diawn from a point a little S. of Tyre (Silr) 
towards the E., skirting the S. base of Hermon. Within this second 
zone would be included the ancient sea-board of Phoenicia, the most 
important part of Lebanon and Anti-Libanus, rising inland ; and, 
farther E. , the famous region around Damascus , the capital of 
Syria. — A third section , to the S. of the last , would be formed; 
by drawing a line from the S. E. angle of the Mediterranean towards 
the E. ; this region would be identical with the ancient Palestine 
from Dan to Beersheba, and would include the course of the Jordan. 
— The fourth region would consist of the desert Et-Tih, the 'Araba 
(the valley descending to 'Akaba), and to the E. of the latter the 
mountains of Petra, which properly speaking belong to Arabia. 

Of these four sections of Syria the two extreme parts are less 
frequently visited by travellers than the other two, the difficulties, 
fatigue, and even danger to be encountered there being considerably 
greater. Our attention will therefore be chiefly directed to the two 
central sections , including Palestine and Lebanon , the former of 
which in particular justly claims the greatest attractions foT the 
majority of travellers, and will be treated of most fully in the 

With regard to scenery, the attractions steadily decrease as we 
proceed from N. to S. While the two northernmost of the four 
sections of the country possess the highest mountains in Syria, 
and beautiful, well -watered valleys, the southern regions are 
comparatively flat and sterile. In the midst of the table-land of the 
Beka'a, as the beautiful basin which separates Lebanon from 
Anti-Libanus is called, rise within a short distance of each other 
two streams , one of which , the Litany , flows towards the S. 
and after numerous sinuosities falls into the sea to the N. of 
Tyre, while the other, the Orontes, flowing towards the N., de- 
scribes a more circuitous route round the mountains before it 
reaches the sea. On the Anti-Libanus again rise two rivers which 
debouch into inland lakes, viz. the Barada near Zebedani, which 
waters the oasis of Damascus, and farther S. the Jordan, the prin- 
cipal riveT of Palestine. All these streams thus emanate from the 
great central mountain group of Syria. These mountains are divided, 
in the two northernmost regions of Syria, into two parallel ranges, 
running from N. to S., the most eastern of which is the Anti- 
Libanus (Arab. Jebel esh-Sherki, the eastern mountains), culminat- 
ing at its southern extremity in the Oreat Hermon (9383 ft.). The 
western and higher of the two ranges is the Lebanon (Arab. Jebel 
Libndn), which culminates near Beirut and Tripoli in the Jebel 
Makhmal (10,016 ft.), and the J)ahr el-Kodlb (10,052 ft.). Lebanon 
terminates towards the N. near the Nahr el-Kebir (see above), to 
the N. of which begins a range of hills called the Nusairlyeh Mts. 
after the people by whom they are inhabited. Beyond these rises 
the Jebel 'Akrd, the Mons Casius of the ancients, with its con- 


spicuous summit towering above the coast. To the N. of the Otontes 
begins the Jaur Dagh (the Amanus of antiquity), which afterwards 
merges in the Cilician Taurus. 

An offshoot of the Lebanon range also stretches southwards, with 
slight interruptions, throughout the whole of Palestine. On this broad 
chain, the upper part of which approaches the sea and at Mt. CaTmel 
sends forth a lateral branch, but which farther S. is separated from the 
sea by a fertile plain , lie the oldest and most famous places in 
Palestine, and within it are included the mountains of Naphtali, 
the mountains of Ephraim, and the mountains of Judah mentioned 
in the Bible. It is this range which prevents the Jordan from 
flowing towards the sea, and compels it to pursue its southern course 
until it loses itself in the Dead Sea, a remarkable basin which lies 
faT below the sea-level, The secluded character of this part of the 
country has exercised a very marked influence on its climate, its 
inhabitants, and its products, as the traveller will often have occasion 
to observe. 

Beyond Jordan, not far from Hermon, rise the volcanic hills of 
TulvLl. The whole of the Hauran, which is of basaltic formation, also 
exhibits to this day a number of volcanic craters (comp. p. 44). 
Farther S. extend the mountains of Gilead, partially wooded. The 
mountains of Moab form an extensive table-land , separated from 
the desert towards the E. by a low range of hills only. 

Climate. Owing to the great inequalities in the surface of the 
country, the climate varies greatly in different parts of Syria. The 
year, as a rule, consists of two seasons only, the rainy and the dry. 
Spring, the pleasantest time of the year, lasts from the middle of 
March to the middle of May. From the beginning of May to the end 
of October the sky is almost uninterruptedly cloudless. Thunder 
and rain during the wheat harvest (1 Sam. xii. 17, 18) are of very 
rare occurrence, but in May there are occasional thunderstorms and 
showers. In early summer, mists still hoveT about the mountains, 
but later in the season they disappear entirely, and the atmosphere 
is generally brilliantly clear, as is apparent from the intenser 
brightness of the moon and stars. Heavy dews usually fall at night, 
even in the height of summer, but this is not the case in the desert. 
The wind at this season usually blows from the N.W.; the E. wind 
brings drought ; while the S. wind, or Khamsin (so called from its 
prevailing for fifty days), which fortunately seldom lasts for moTe 
than two days at a time , effectually deprives the air of all 
moisture, brings with it an unpleasant haze, and causes headache, 
languor, and sleeplessness. At times it blows in violent gusts. 
Owing to the want of rain, nature soon loses her beauty in summer 
excepting in places like Damascus where there is water enough 
f6T artificial irrigation. The desert then exhibits a dreary waste 
of withered stalks and burnt up grass, the springs gradually dry 
\ip , and the nomadic tribes retire to the mountains. In the hot 


season many of the natives sleep on the flat roofs of their houses, 
but owing to the dewfall , travellers cannot be recommended to 
follow their example, unless well wrapped up. 

Harvest -time varies in different parts of the country; in the 
lower districts it is generally in the latter half of May. and in the 
higheT in the first half of June. 

Towards the end of October clouds begin to rise, and the rainy 
season is sometimes ushered in by several thunderstorms. This is 
the 'first' or 'former' rain of the Bible (Deut. xi. 14; Joel ii. 23), 
which so far softens the parched soil that the husbandman can 
plough it. The S. and S.W. winds then bring showeTS which 
last one or more days, and these are generally followed by N. or E. 
winds, lasting for a few days, during which the weather is delight- 
ful. In November there is frequently a considerable proportion of 
fine weather , but by this time almost all vegetation has dis- 
appeared. December is generally stormy, January and February 
cold and rainy, the rain taking the form of snow among the higher 
mountains in January. The 'latter' rains falling in March and April 
promote the growth of the crops. If they are scanty, or do not fall 
at all at this season, the crops are much impaired or even destroyed, 
the flocks of the nomadic tribes find no pasture, and as there are no 
roads by which supplies can be brought from a distance, a famine 
is the inevitable result. In Syria, therefore, rain is always accept- 
able, though, when too violent, it sometimes causes the collapse of 
the mud hovels of the peasantry. 

The variations of temperature in Syria are very considerable. In 
the interior of the country, in the desert, and in the hill country 
of Palestine, as well as of course among the mountains, the thermo- 
meter often falls below the freezing point. At Damascus (2265 ft. 
above the sea- level), Jerusalem (2494 ft.), and even at Aleppo 
(1143 ft.), snow falls almost every winter, although it does not lie 
except on the higher mountains. According to Dr.Barclay (Robinson's 
Phys. Geog., p. 272) the highest temperature at Jerusalem is 92° 
Fahr., the lowest 28°, the mean temperature about 62^°. These 
data may be held to apply to the whole of the hill country. 
The heat at Damascus and Aleppo , as well as in the desert , is 
necessarily greater, as the mountains to the N.W. keep off the cool 
sea-breezes. The mean temperature on the sea-board is higher than 
that of the interior, but the heat of summer is tempered by the sea 
air. "With the exception of the days when the khamsin or sirocco 
prevails , a cool breeze generally blows on summer evenings at 
Damascus, and the nights and mornings are delightful. Owing, 
however, to the extensive irrigation which is carried on here, colds 
are easily caught if proper precautions are not taken. 

The climate of the Valley of the Jordan is very variable. The 
first small lake through which the river flows, the triangular basin 
of Huleh, lies 275 ft. only above the Mediterranean. A little far- 


ther on, the Jordan descends into a ravine 625 ft. below the sea- 
level , this being the altitude of the Lake of Tiberias. The whole 
of the district traversed by the Jordan as far as the Dead Sea 
(1293 ft. below the sea-level) is called in Arabic El-Ohor, i. e. the 
depression or cavity. The climate resembles that of Egypt, but is 
much more unhealthy. The inhabitants are a sickly race, and many 
of them are cretins. In the height of summer the heat in this valley 
is terrible. On 8th May Lynch's thermometer marked 110° in the 
shade. The harvest in the Gh6r is much earlier than in the rest of 
Syria, taking place at the end of April and the beginning of May. 

Geology. According to the excellent maps of Lartet (Luynes, 
Voyage autour de la Mer Morte), the geological structure of Syria 
is as follows : — 

(1). From both sides of the Red Sea extend masses of granite 
and gneiss across the S. part of the peninsula of Sinai to the 'Araba, 
in the vicinity of the'Dead Sea, the same formation occurring also 
at places on the eastern slopes to the N. of the watershed between 
the Dead Sea and the Bay of 'Akaba. 

(2). Next to this primitive formation occurs a kind of sandstone, 
called by Lartet 'gres nubien' from its extensive occurrence in Nubia. 
This sandstone , which is often very hard and generally of a daTk 
red or blackish colour, also overlies the edge of the granite and 
gneiss of Sinai and ascends both the slopes of the 'ATaba, but 
farthest on the E. slope, and is thus exposed to view almost all 
along the lower (Moabitish) shore of the Dead Sea. On the W. 
slopes , both of Lebanon and Anti-Libanus , the same sandstone 
also occurs, forming a basis for the superincumbent limestone. 

(3). Succeeding the primitive formation [and the sandstone 
appears the limestone , which forms the main mass of the lofty 
Lebanon and Hermon , and which Lartet identifies by its fossils 
with the 'Ne'ocomien' which occurs in the Swiss Jura and belongs 
to the lowest chalk formation. The limestone of this formation 
occupies the whole plateau of Palestine and the country to the E. 
of the Jordan, the peninsula of Sinai to the N. of the part occupied 
by the primitive rocks, and the valley of the Nile to a point far 
above Carnac. 

(4). The nummulite limestone , which belongs to the lower 
tertiary formation, is of rare occurrence, appearing on Carmel, Ebal, 
and Gerizim only, while the tertiary sandstone, though it stretches 
from Lower Egypt to the vicinity of Gaza, does not extend into Syria. 

(5). Th&most recent formations, on the other hand, such as the 
dunes of sea-sand, the alluvium of rivers , and the deposits of 
lakes, cover the whole of the W. margin of Syria, from the Delta of 
Egypt as far as the point where Lebanon approaches the coast, that 
is, the whole of Philistia, the plain of Sharon, and the entire valley 
of the Jordan from the watershed in the 'Araba as far as Hermon. 


The above are the fundamental rock-formations of Syria, but the 
following also occupies a prominent position. 

(6). The basaltic rocks of the Plutonic or Volcanic formation 
occur extensively in Syria. From the vast alluvial tract of the 
desert in the centre of Arabia there begin to rise towards the N.W. 
those masses of basalt which form the plateau of the Tulul (p. 41) 
and the whole of the Hauran, as well as the Tegion to the E. of the 
Lake of Tiberias (Jolan), the hills of Safed to the "W. of that lake, 
and lastly part of the districts of Tiberias "and Nazareth. This 
basaltic region frequently rises into wildly riven and inaccessible 
mountains, furrowed by labyrinthine gullies, and many miles in 
diameter (Harm). Basaltic trap , however , when disintegrated, 
affords the richest arable land. 

To recapitulate , the geological structure of Syria is as follows : 
In the south the primitive rocks prevail ; next occurs a layer of red 
sandstone ; then comes the chalky limestone which forms the 
mass of the country, overlaid with nummulite limestone and allu- 
vial soil ; lastly, in central Syria, appear the colossal erupted masses 
of volcanic rock. 

Flora. The soil of Syria is exceedingly fertile, and in ancient 
times supported a much greater population than it does at the 
present day. Its fertility is extolled in the Talmud and by classical 
authors (Tacitus, v. 6), as well as in the Bible. Even the Syrian 
'desert' consists, not of sand, but of excellent soil, which after the 
eariy rain produces a rich crop of grasses and flowering herbs, affording 
the most luxuriant pasture. Lebanon also, though at the present day 
for the most part barren, was to a great extent under cultivation in 
ancient times, and still possesses fertile soil which would well 
repay the industry of the husbandman. A proof of this is afforded 
by the beautiful cultivated terraces of Phoenician origin, chiefly on 
the W. side of the mountain. In many of the valleys, too , traces 
of similar terraces , of the watchmen's houses mentioned in the 
Bible, and of the enclosures of ancient gardens, are still observable 
in the midst of what is now a complete wilderness. 

In accordance with Boissier's Flora Orientalis , we may distin- 
guish the following different regions of Syrian vegetation. 

(1). The whole of the coast-district belongs to the region of the 
Mediterranean Flora , which extends around the basin of that sea, 
reaching inland as far as the lower hill-country. Of this flora the 
most characteristic plants are numerous evergreen shrubs with 
narrow, leathery leaves, and short-lived spring flowers. The 
vegetation of the coasts of Syria and Palestine is therefore similar 
to that of Spain , Algeria and Sicily, with some few modifications, 
especially towards the S. , in the direction of Egypt. The squill, 
tulip, and anemone, the annual grasses, the shrubs of oleander 
and myrtle , the pine , and the olive clearly distinguish this flora 
as a member of the great Mediterranean family , while the Melia 

FLORA. 45 

Azederach which abounds on the coast of Phoenicia, and the Ficus 
Sycomorus near Beirut mark the transition to a warmer region. 

The region of this Mediterranean flora is a somewhat narrow 
one ; for , as soon as the coast is quitted and the higher ground of 
the interior approached, the character of the vegetation changes. 

(2). This next region is that of the Oriental Vegetation of the 
Steppes. The W. limit of this region is formed by drawing a line 
from the pass of Lebanon, towards the E. of Beirut, to the crest of 
the hills of Judah in the S. of Palestine. Beyond this line is the 
domain of the Oriental Flora. One of its characteristics is a great 
variety of species , but the underwood is of a dry and thorny 
description, and the growth of trees very stunted. Numerous small, 
grey, prickly bushes of Poterium ; the grey, aromatic Eremostachys ; 
brilliant, but small and rapidly withering spring plants ; in summer 
the predominating Cousinia , a peculiar kind of thistle which flou- 
rishes at a time when every green leaf is burnt up ; on the hills 
scanty groups of oaks with prickly leaves, pistachios, etc. ; here 
and there a plantation of conifers (cedar, juniper, cypress, Pinus 
Brutid) ; on the mountain-tops the peculiar spiny dwarf Astragalus 
and Acantholimon — such are the most frequently recurring plants 
of the Oriental family. Others of a much handsomer kind are also 
met with, but these are exceptions. 

(3). Subtropical Flora of the Ghor. In consequence of its 
extraordinary depression, the valley of the Jordan has a hot and 
winterless climate , which gives rise to a vegetation of very 
remarkable character , somewhat resembling that of Nubia on the 
verge of the tropics. Here occurs the 'Oshr (Asclepias procera), a 
plant characteristic of the southern Sahara , the umbrella-shaped 
Acacia Seyal , the blood-red parasitic Loranthus , the Trichodesma 
Africana , the Forskahlea , the Aerua Javanica, the Boerhavia 
verticillata, the Daemia cordata, the Aristida ; then, near Engedi, 
the very curious Moringa aptera, and lastly, on Lake Huleh, 
the genuine African Papyrus Antiquorum. Altogether these species 
present a picture of the vegetation of Abyssinia or Nubia, investing 
the subtropical oasis of the Ghor with great interest. 

Crops. In ancient times Solomon was able to send Hiram twenty 
thousand measures of wheat (about 1165 quarters) and twenty mea- 
sures of oil (1 Kings v. 11). To this day the so-called Nukra, the 
great plain of the HauTan , is the granary of N. Arabia. The chief 
markets for the] export of wheat are Yafa , Acre , and Beirut. 
From wheat is made the burghul, the ordinary food of the Syrian 
peasant, a kind of dough boiled with leaven and dried in the sun. 
The poorer classes make bread of barley, but this grain is generally 
given to the cattle. Oats are not cultivated in Syria, though wild 
varieties, unfit for use, are frequently found. Besides wheat and 
barley, there are crops of dohan wheat (Holcus sorghum) , millet, 
maize , beans , peas , and lentils. Aniseed, cumin, coriander, and 

46 FLORA. 

fennel are grown around Damascus. Liquorice is cultivated chiefly 
in N. Syria , -whence about 130 tons are exported annually, and 
rose-leaves also form an article of commerce. 

The traveller nowhere sees fields of turnip, beet, mangold wurzel, 
or the English fodder grasses, which might all be cultivated to ad- 
vantage. On the other hand the sweet potato and yam may be met 
with, together with other hot country vegetables, which with the 
banana, orange, shaddock, and lime give a tropical aspect to the 
gardens of the warmer localities. 

Damascus carries on a very brisk trade in apricots (mishmish), 
preserved by exposure to the sun, of which between 3000 and 4000 
tonsare exported annually. Thekernels, of which400 to500tonsare 
sent into the market , form a separate article. Around Damascus 
are grown annually about 125 tons of fine raisins, and 2000 to 
2500 tons of an inferior quality. Wine and brandy are prepared 
from raisins in Syria, but experiments lately made there, particularly 
in the neighbourhood of Jerusalem , have proved that good wine 
can be prepared in the more cleanly European manner from fresh 
grapes. The Vino d'Oro of Lebanon enjoys a high reputation. 

Nuts (jdz) come principally from Central Syria, which yields a 
crop of about 600 tons yearly , while pistachios (fustuk) are chiefly 
cultivated in N. Syria (Aleppo), whence 4 — 500 tons are exported. 
Olives (zetun) are another staple product of Syria , but they are 
chiefly used for home consumption and for the manufacture of soap 
(see below). The environs of Damascus yield an annual crop of 
about 150 tons of green olives, and 200 tons of the inferior black 
kind. The fruit is often eaten raw. The oil expressed from them is, 
as a rule, carelessly prepared, and has an unpleasant taste. The 
cultivation of the olive is steadily increasing in Syria, especially on 
the coast neaT Tripoli and Saida. About 7500 tons of oil are produced 
annually. Oil is also obtained from the sesame, which is cultivated 
in the districts of Syria to the N. of Damascus , as also at Jezreel. 
In Central Syria one of the principal crops is alizari, or madder, the 
root of which is used as a dye, and is exported to the extent of about 
180 tons annually. 

Syria is also famous for its tobacco (comp. p. 33). In 1872 
Lebanon yielded about 1250 tons, four-fifths of which were exported. 

In the desert near Damascus , and on Jebel 'Ajlun and in the 
Belka to the E. of Jordan, kali or saltwort (comp. p. 284) is grown 
extensively. The potass prepared from it averages 620 tons 
annually, and is chiefly used in the soap-works of the country. 
About 2500 tons of soap are consumed annually in Syria, princi- 
pally in the large towns. 

An important article of commerce in Northern Syria are the gall 1 
apples produced by the oaks there ; they are used in dyeing, and 
are largely exported to Europe. The bark of the pomegranate tree 
is in great request foT tanning purposes. On the slopes of Anti- 

FLORA. 47 

Libaims , to the N. of Damascus , grows the sumach, which yields 
another dyeing material, but in small quantities only. 

Cotton was cultivated and manufactured as far back as the time 
of the Israelites , and the Syrian cotton fabrics of the middle ages 
were celebrated, but the trade has suffered greatly from foreign 
competition. A coarse, but very durable kind of cotton stuff is 
still woven in extremely primitive looms by the natives, but most 
of it is used in the country itself. In 1869 the quantity of raw 
cotton exported amounted to 2100 tons , but Mersina, beyond the 
confines of Syria, is now the principal seat of the cotton trade. 

Silk-culture is another considerable source of profit, the tree 
most frequently planted for the food of the worms being the 
mulberry-tree with white fruit (Morua alba) , which was first in- 
troduced into Syria in the time of the Emperor Justinian (6th cent.). 
The first silkworms' eggs were brought from Central Asia, and the 
culture rapidly found favour in the environs of Beirut and Tyre. 
The silk-culture of Syria is frequently mentioned in the history of 
the Crusades. Throughout Lebanon the mulberry-tree occupies the 
most important place in every garden. It requires careful manuring 
and irrigation, and the soil round it has to be kept in a loosened 
condition. The feeding of the worms with the mulberry leaves also 
requires great care. In 1872 the fresh cocoons produced amounted to 
2500 tons. About the year 1862 eggs were imported fresh from 
Japan, as the worms were affected with an epidemic, but the eggs 
of the Syrian silkworm have recently come into great request in the 
European market , and the silkworm breeders have also begun to 
produceraw silk for exportation. As in thecase of cotton, the native 
silk manufacture has greatly fallen off since ancient times, the 
fabrics being now exclusively disposed of in the home market. 
They are woven in rude, old-fashioned looms at Beirut, Damascus, 
in several parts of Lebanon, at Antioch, and Aleppo. 

Besides the above-mentioned vegetable products there are several 
others which only occur sporadically, or are used exclusively for native 
consumption. One of these is flax, another is mustard. Sugar-cane 
was formerly cultivated near Jericho ; for several centuries it has 
thriven in the neighbourhood of Tripoli and Antioch ; and it has of 
late been planted near Acre and Yafa. The date-palm thrives in 
the southern sea-coast districts of Palestine only , but occasionally 
grows wild and fruitless in the gorges on the E. coast of the Dead 
Sea, and here and there in the interior. The banana, though not a 
native, ripens in Southern Syria. 

Trees. The largest of the trees of Syria is the noble cedar (comp. 
p. 504), which , as well as the cypress , has now become Tare. The 
Aleppo pine, however , is still very common on the W. slopes of 
Lebanon. In the lower part of the Jordan valley the tamarisk and 
the poplar willow occur. The "Valonia oak flourishes in the N. and 
E. of Palestine , and the evergreen oak frequently occurs to the S. 

48 FLORA. 

of Carmel. The terebinth is another tree of common occurrence. The 
white or silver poplar is planted chiefly in the neighbourhood of 
Damascus, for the sake of its timber for building purposes. The 
carob (^Ceratonia siliqua ; Arab, kharrub ; Luke xv. 16) is by far the 
handsomest tree of Syria. Its massive green foliage is unmatched, 
always affording an agreeable shade, and its fruit, the St. John's 
bread, is a staple article of food with the lower orders. The disagree- 
able smell of the fermenting pods is a familiar one to the traveller 
as he rides by a troop of laden camels. It is imported largely into 
England, and forms an ingredient in various cattle-foods. Its bark-, 
is used for tanning, and a sherbet is made with the pulp of the fruit. 
— Various English trees give a northern aspect to the hilly districts. 
Such are, besides many oaks, the maple, walnut, juniper, alder, 
willow, ash, elder, plane, arbutus, and hawthorn. The dog-Tose, 
cotoneaster, bramble, and sweet bay also occur. 

Syria possesses a great variety of fruit-trees. Vines flourish in 
every part of the country. They are not generally trained on poles, 
but either grow on the ground, or on trellises, or against trees. The 
grapes are excellent. The fig-tree is also very common ; it thrives 
admirably , even on stony soil , and yields fruit throughout a con- 
siderable part of the year. The fruit , either fresh or dried, forms 
an important article of food. The wild fig-tree occurs sporadically. 
In the height of summer the cactus , which in the warmer districts 
forms excellent and formidable hedges , yields its sweet , but 
somewhat mawkish prickly pear with its numerous seeds. Pear and 
apple trees are Tare , and the pomegranates of Syria are inferior in 
flavour to those of Egypt and Bagdad. Yafa is famed for its oranges, 
which are exported in great quantities. Citrons , peaches , and 
almonds are also frequently seen. The famous Styrax of the ancients 
is a common bush, especially on Carmel and Tabor, but the gum 
is not collected from it. 

The cucumbers of Syria are much prized. The long green ones 
with notched skins are the juiciest. They aTe eaten raw by the na- 
tives without any dressing whatever. The lettuce and other salads, 
as purslane and endive , are eaten in the same simple manner. 
Onions form another article of food ; they thrive best in the sandy 
soil about Ascalon. Several varieties of melon, especially the water- 
melon, gourd, and pumpkin, some of them attaining a great size, 
are common. The other vegetables of the country are cauliflowers, 
the egg-plant (Melongena badinjan), and the bamieh (Hibiscus escu- 
lentus). Artichokes and asparagus grow wild , and the delicious 
truffle is found in the desert. Potatoes are planted in various places, 
as at Yabriid, two days' journey to the N. of Damascus, and at 
Jerusalem. The caper plant (Capparis spinosa) abounds in all hot 
parts of Syria, and is extensively used. The date is the only palm, 
and does not ripen its fruit. In the Jordan valley it is now probably 
all but extinct, but bushy tufts of it are to be seen at Haifa, 

FAUNA. 49 

Tiberias, etc., being probably seedling plants from stones dropped 
by travellers. 

Fauna. In the animal as well as in the vegetable kingdom of 
Syria very marked differences are observable between the moun- 
tainous and the low-lying districts, and between one season and 
another. We shall only enumerate some of the leading representa- 
tives of each class. 

Mammalia. (1). Domestic Animals. Foremost in importance 
is the sheep, flocks of sheep having from very ancient times formed 
an important item of property. The desert and the mountainous 
parts of the country suffice for the sustenance of this hardy animal, 
and at the present day, as in ancient times, the region of theBelka, 
to the E. of Jordan , is the most favourable for its support. The 
nomadic tribes of the desert also possess numerous sheep. The 
commonest species is the fat-tailed. Mutton is now almost the 
only meat eaten in Syria. About 150,000 lambs' skins are annually 
sold in the markets of the country, but a considerable number of 
these are imported from Kurdistan , while the sinews are exported 
to Europe for the manufacture of violin and other strings. Sheeps' 
milk is highly prized , and justly so. Damascus exports about 650 
tons of wool annually. That of N. Syria is the finest , and Aleppo 
is the most famous of the wool-markets. In 1872 Aleppo alone 
yielded 500 tons of wool , while a still greater quantity passed 
through the country from the east, besides fine goats' wool. 

Goats are chiefly kept for the sake of their milk, but their flesh 
is eaten by the poorer classes. Almost every village in Syria 
possesses its flocks of goats. — The oxen of Syria are small and ill- 
looking. In the valley of the Jordan the Indian buffalo, which is 
so common in Egypt, is much used for agricultural purposes. In 
Syria the ox is generally used for ploughing only , and is seldom 
slaughtered, except in Lebanon , whence the exportation of ox- 
hides, via Beirut, is not inconsiderable. 

The camel (p. 14) is seldom used except by the nomadic tribes 
in the desert. It is employed for riding, carrying burdens, and even 
for ploughing. The hair or wool is woven into a coarse kind of 
cloth. The peasantry generally have few camels of their own, but 
they often borrow them from the Beduins , especially at the season 
for tilling the soil. The dung of all these animals, from the sheep 
to the camel, is used in many parts of Syria as fuel. 

Horses (pp. 14, 19) afford the usual means of locomotion 
throughout Syria. Down to the time of the kings, the Israelites 
possessed few horses. The finest Arabian horses are those of the 
'Aenezeh Beduins (p. 84), who rarely sell them unless compelled. 
These horses are fed with barley and chaff. 

The Oriental donkey is more nearly allied to the wild ass, and 
is much more active , than his European congener. Donkeys are 
frequently seen in Syria, though not so commonly as in Egypt. The 

Palestine. A 

50 FAUNA. 

most prized are those of the large white variety which is bred by 
the Arabs of the Syrian desert. A species of wild ass is still to be 
met with in E. Syria. 

(2). Wild Animals. A connecting link between the domestic 
and the wild animals is formed in Syria by the dog and the cat. 
Dogs are seldom or never domesticated in the East as with us, being 
regarded by the Muslims as unclean. Each town and village is 
therefore infested with as many masterless dogs as its refuse can 
support. These scavengers of the East , as they are often called, 
bark lustily at strangers, but never bite unless provoked. Hydrophobia 
is unknown in the East. Unowned dogs will sometimes follow 
caravans if they are fed , in which case they will generally make 
themselves useful by their watchfulness at night. While regarding 
them as unclean, the natives treat these dogs humanely, and resent 
their being roughly dealt with. It is hardly possible to keep a dog in 
the house in the East, as the street-dogs will infallibly worry him 
if they have an opportunity. 

Next to the dog must be mentioned the jackal (Arab, wawi), the 
howling and whimpering of which are often heard at night , par- 
ticularly a little after sunset. They show a preference for ruins 
and often rove about in packs. When foxes are spoken of in the 
Bible, it is probable that jackals are included under that name, and 
in some cases they alone are meant (Judges xv. 4). There are two 
species of the fox. In Lebanon the wolf (dtb) also is not uncommon. 
The hyena sometimes ventures close to the gates of Jerusalem, 
but it is not an animal of which human beings need be afraid. 

The domestic cat of the East is rarely quite tame. The beautiful, 
long-haired Angora cat is sometimes seen in the houses. There are 
also several kinds of wild cats, but they are seldom met with. Of 
the larger feline species the leopard (nimr) still occurs, but is now 
almost exterminated ; and the same may be said of the hunting-cat 
or hunting leopard , which is now rarely trained for the chase, as 
it formerly was. The lion, which is so often mentioned in the 
Bible, has long been extinct. 

The bear is another wild beast which is sometimes encountered 
on Lebanon ; his usual food is fruit. The badger and the hedgehog, 
the latter both of the European and another species, are of common 

There are several varieties of bats in Syria, chiefly to be found 
in the numerous caverns of the limestone rocks. There are no apes, 
but rodentia abound , from the squirrel to the blind mouse (Arab. 
khlund), which is often confounded with the mole, an animal quite 
unknown in Syria. House rats and rats of the desert are very 
numerous. There are also marmots, the graceful jumping mouse of 
the southern desert , the prickly mouse, the porcupine, and four 
kinds of hares. Rabbits are unknown in Palestine, but the conies 
mentioned in the Bible (Hyra.v Syriacus), the wabr of the Arabs 

FAUNA. 51 

{daman, ashkoko, or shaphan), inhabit the clefts of the 'stony rocks' 
in the region between the Dead Sea and Mt. Sinai (comp. p. 287). 

Of the cloven-footed animals the pig is the next in importance. 
The wild boar occurs throughout the whole of Syria , but domestic 
swine are never met with except in monastery farms. The existence 
of herds of swine in ancient times (Matth. viii. 30 — 32 ; Luke xv. 
15) is probably to be attributed to Greek influence. Pork, which 
even many of the native Christians abhor , is very apt to disagree 
in summer, but may safely be eaten in winter. 

Of the ruminants Syria possesses numerous examples. The 
gazelle is common, both in the plains and among the mountains. 
In E. Syria it is hunted by the peasantry, by whom, as in Central 
Africa , it is driven into large enclosures , and there captured or 
slain. These graceful animals are very apt to die when in captivity ; 
but the young are frequently brought to the towns alive for sale by 
Beduins and peasants. The mountain goat of Sinai is frequently 
seen in the mountain gorges around the Dead Sea. 

Birds. The domestic hen is very common throughout Syria, 
but is generally of small size. Ducks are only to be found in a wild 
state, being very numerous in the plain of the Jordan. On all the 
hills the Caccabis saxatilis, a large and beautiful kind of partridge, 
is very common; and near the Dead Sea is found the small , grey 
desert-fowl ( Ammoperdix heyi). Quails occur in all the corn-fields 
of the plains. Wild pigeons are especially numerous in Lebanon, but 
these birds are only found in a tame condition in places where dovecots 
are built for them. The plains of Jezreel and some other localities are 
frequented by large flocks of storks, cranes, and becassins. Among 
the birds of prey the eagle and the vulture are the most conspicuous, 
the former haunting the wildernesses about the Dead Sea and on 
the Litany. There are several kinds of ravens in Palestine. Singing- 
birds, too, are tolerably well represented, the most notable being 
the thrush-like nightingale of Palestine (Arab, bulbul). About the be- 
ginning and end of winter are seen vast flights of birds of passage, 
on their way to Egypt and more southern climates, or on their return ; 
among these is the cuckoo, whose note is often heard in spring. 

Reptiles. The traveller will frequently have opportunities of 
observing the 'creeping things' of Syria. In his apartment at night 
he will often hear the shrill cry of the harmless little gecko. In the 
southern coast districts the common chameleon is not unfrequently 
seen. Among the mountains occurs the dark-coloured khardon of the 
Arabs, with its prickly tail and back. The crocodile appears to be 
extinct in Palestine, if indeed it ever existed (comp. p. 352). Snakes 
abound, many of them being poisonous , but their bite is seldom or 
never attended with a fatal result. The land tortoise is common ; 
the small tailed water-tortoise is less frequent. 

Fish. The Jordan and the Lake of Tiberias abound in fish, 
which ascend or descend the streams according to the season. 



Different varieties are found in almost all the perennial waters of 
Palestine. Net fishing in the sea is extensively carried on. — The 
sponge-fishery on the Syrian coast to the N. of Beirut is a pro- 
ductive branch of industry, which employs a large number of hands, 
but the results are very fluctuating. In 1872 the yield was about 
14 tons of sponge, valued at 560,000 fr. 

Insects. In every part of Syria insects of every kind are 
abundant. Those most hostile to the repose of the traveller are 
bugs , lice , and fleas , the last being the most annoying (p. 21).. 
Mosquitoes are not particularly virulent in Palestine ; nor is much 
danger to be apprehended from the wasps and formidable looking 
hornets , which in the time of Joshua sometimes entered the lists 
in the cause of the Israelites (Josh. xxiv. 12, etc.). To this day their 
cousins the bees are extremely useful. The nests of these last are 
still often found , as in ancient times , in clefts of the rocks , while 
numerous hives of tame bees , generally in the form of cylindrical 
vessels of earthenware, are seen in ancient Galilee. Honey is much 
used in the East for sweetening dishes ; a favourite substitute is 
the Arabian dibs, a syrup prepared by boiling down grapes, figs, or 
other fruit, and often eaten with bread. 

Grasshoppers, or locusts, which often entirely devour the crops, 
are a terror to the husbandman. They come in dense flights from 
Central Arabia , suddenly alight on the fields , and speedily strip 
them of every vestige of green , not even sparing trees and shrubs. 
The 'grasshoppers innumerable' were one of the well known plagues 
of antiquity (Joel i. 4; ii. 25; Exodus x. 12 — 19, etc.). The 
Beduins dry these insects , collect them in sacks , mixing them 
with salt, and eat them either raw or stewed (Levit. xi. 22; 
Matt. iii. 4). Beetles and butterflies will interest the entomologist, 
but need not be specially mentioned here. — Scorpions are to be 
found under almost every stone , and frequently in the houses also. 
TheiT sting is very painful, but never fatal (p. 21). 

Lastly we may mention the edible land snail and the other 
land and fresh-water snails, of which there are many pretty varieties, 
and also the murex, or purple shell-fish, found on the sea-coast near 
Tyre (p. 353). 

III. Population, Divisions, and Names of Syria 
at different periods. 

I. The aboriginal inhabitants of the land of Canaan are de- 
scribed in the Bible as a race of giants, consisting of the Anakims 
(Josh. xi. 21, 22), the Rephaims (Gen. xiv. 5), a name afterwards 
applied to the whole of the primeval peoples, and lastly the Emims, 
the Horims, the Suzites or Zamzummims, and the Avims (Deut. ii. 
10 — 23). Traces of this population continued to exist down to the 
time of the kings (2 Sam. xxi. 16 — 22). 


II. (a). On the immigration of the Israelites they found the 
land occupied by the Canaanites. The name Kuna'an , originally 
applied to the plain in the S.W. of Syria, was gradually extended 
to the whole country on this side Jordan. The country to the E. of 
Jordan was called Gilead. in the wider sense of the word. The name 
of Canaanites is sometimes used to signify ethnographically a specific 
lace (e. g. Exod. iii. 8) , but generally to describe collectively the 
peoples descended from Canaan (Gen. x. 15 — 19). According to 
verse 6 of the chapter last named, among other passages, the 
•Canaanites were descendants of Ham ; and if this was the case , we 
must assume that a change of language took place, as they appear 
to have spoken a language allied to Hebrew (Semitic). The Canaa- 
nitish peoples, who were superior to the Israelites in civilisation, 
formed a number of small states governed by kings. The following 
races are mentioned in the Bible : (1) The Amorites , the mightiest 
section of the Canaanites , who dwelt in the S. part of Canaan and 
possessed two kingdoms beyond Jordan, viz. that of Sihon between 
Anion and Jabbok (Wady Mojib and Nahr ez-Zerka), and that of 
Og in Bashan, in the modern Hauran; (2) The Perizzites, in the 
country which was afterwards called Samaria ; (3) The Hittites, in 
the central and southern parts of the country ; (4) The Hivites in 
Shechem(Nabulus) and further to theN. ; (5) The Jebusites, around 
Jebus or Jerusalem ; (6) The Girgashites or Gerisites , probably in 
the centre of the country. — According to the Biblical account, the 
Phoenicians also belonged to the Canaanites (comp. p. 432), and 
they themselves claim descent from that race. 

(b). The Semitic tribes akin to the Hebrews were quite distinct 
from the Canaanitish peoples. They consisted of: (1) The Edomites. 
who occupied the region of the 'Araba (p. 297) as far as the bay of 
'Akaba (Elath) , and the mountains of Seir on both sides of the, 
'ATaba; (2) The Moabites, at the S. E. end of the Dead Sea; 
(3) The Ammonites , whose territory originally lay between Arnon 
and Jabbok, but who were driven farther to the E. by the Amorites. 
— Among the descendants of Esau there are also mentioned in the 
Bible the Amalekites, a wandering tribe, who pitched their tents in 
the desert of Et-Tih to the S. of Palestine. The Amalekites and the 
Midianites, the latter dwelling towards the S. E. in the direction of 
Arabia, were probably nomadic Arabs, whose predatory incursions 
are frequently mentioned. The vast Syrian steppe has probably 
been inhabited from time immemorial by wandering Beduin tribes, 
some of whom from time to time have detached themselves from 
their tribe and settled down at a particular spot. If we assume that 
the whole of the Semites were originally nomads of this kind , the 
transition to a settled life in the case of the Aramaeans (Syrians, 
comp. p. 82) must have taken place at a very early period. 

(c). The Aramaeans had founded political communities in Syria 
at a very remote era. The kingdoms of Aram Dammesek (Damascus) 


and Aram Zoba (the latter probably situated in the Beka'a), both 
contiguous to the Israelites , are mentioned in the Bible. There 
were also Aramaeans in Lebanon , and smaller Aramaic states on 
Hermon, such as that of Abel Maachah, while important kingdoms 
of this race lay in Mesopotamia. 

III. It is no less difficult to lay down with any precision the 
boundaries of the different Israelitish tribes than those of the 
above mentioned sections of the Canaanitish population ; and the 
difficulty is increased by the fact that these boundaries were fre- 
quently altered , and that several of the tribes became merged in 
others. Thus the villages of the tribe of Simeon , which occupied 
the southernmost part of Palestine , afterwards belonged to Judah,. 
while the inhabitants of towns of Dan, driven away from their 
original habitations to the N.AV. of Judah , sought a new dwelling 
in the northern extremity of the country. 

The separate kingdom of Judah consisted of the tribe of that 
name and that of Benjamin , which dwelt to the N.E. of the tribe 
of Judah. Farther to the N. lay the territory of the powerful tribe 
of Ephraim, to the N."\V. of which was that of Half Manasseh, 
while Issachar occupied the plain of Jezreel and a considerable 
district on the bank of the Jordan. Still farther N. lay the territory 
of Zebulon and Naphtali, and on the coast that of Asher. The 
northern kingdom (that of Israel) also embraced the possessions of 
the Israelites beyond Jordan. The Moabites , however, sometimes 
held possession of the territory of Reuben , which lay to the N. of 
their own, and that of Gad still farther N., while the Half Tribe of 
Manasseh in Bashan had great difficulty in defending themselves 
against the incursions of their neighbours. 

After the period of the captivity the ancient differences between 
the tribes disappeared. A single state (that of Judaea) , but of 
fluctuating extent, continued to exist in the southern part of the 
country only , frequently encroached upon , however , by the 
Idumaeans , or Edomites , from the S. The central districts were 
colonised by Cuthaeans , from whom , and also from the remains of 
the earlier population, the Samaritans were descended. 

AfteT the time of Alexander the Great even Greek colonies were 
founded in Palestine, such as Ptolema'is (Acre), Pella, and Gerasa; 
while the Nabataeans, an Arabian tribe, supplanted the Midianites 
and Edomites in the S. E. of Palestine. As early as B. C. 300 the 
Nabataeans weTe settled at Petra. They gradually conquered the 
territory of Moab and Ammon, and even penetrated farther north. 
The high degree of culture to which they had attained is much 
extolled by Arabian authors. 

IV. In the time of Christ the whole ofN. Syria formed a Roman 
province under the name oiSyria or Phoenice, and Josephus informs 
us that Palestine was divided into four tetrarchates, or provinces. 
The country E. of Jordan was known as Peraea (the country beyond) 


in the wider sense, but Peraea proper was the small district extending 
from the river Anion (M6jib) to the Zerka, and now called Belka. 
To the N. of Persea lay the district of Decapolis , or the 'ten cities' 
(Matth. iv. 25, etc.), with its capital Scythopolis to the W. of 
Jordan (the modern Beisan) , a region extending as far as the river 
Hieromax (Yarmuk). Farther to the N., bordering on the territory 
of Damascus, were situated — (1) Oaulanitis, the modern Jolan, 
extending beyond the Lake of Tiberias and along the Jordan as far 
as Hermon ; (2) Basanitis (Bashan) , farther to the E. , nearly 
corresponding with the modern Nukra; (3) Trachonitis, to the N. 
of the last, the modern Leja; (4) Auranilis, the mountainous 
district of the Hauran ; (5) lturaea , the exact position of which is 
a matter of controversy , but which perhaps corresponded with the 
modern Jedur (comp. p. 387). 

The country to the W. of Jordan consisted of — (1) Judaea, the 
most southern province , including Idumsea ; (2) Samaria , which 
extended to the N. of Shechem (Nabulus) as far as the N. margin of 
the plain ; (3) Galilee, a region fartherN. (originally gel'il haggoyim, 
or district of the heathens , a name afterwards extended to a larger 
district; Matth. iv. 15), consisting of Lower (S.) and Upper (X.) 
Galilee. The Galilaeans were a despised race, and their language 
(Aramaic) was distinct from the Jewish. The name of Palestine, 
which was properly applied to the Philistian plain on the coast 
only , is used by Greek and Roman authors about the beginning of 
our era to signify the whole of the country on this side Jordan. 
Under the later Roman empire Palestine was divided into four 
provinces : — (1) Palaestina I., Arab. Filistin , which included the 
greater part of Judah and Samaria, and had Caesarea for its capital. 
( 2) Palaestina II. , Arab. Vrdun (Jordan), Galilee, and Gilead in 
the narrower sense, Scythopolis being the capital. (3) Palaestina 111. , 
Arab. Jibdlod Sherat, including the ancient kingdom of the Naba- 
taeans in the south of the country , and the region of Aila towards 
the east as far as the Arnon, with Petra as its capital. (4) The 
province of Arabia, to the north-east of Palaestina III., embraced 
the whole Tegion of the Hauran, the north part of which had for- 
merly belonged to the province of Damascus (Phcenice ad Liba- 
num), and had Bostra as its capital. 

V. The political constitution of the Kingdom of Jerusalem was 
precisely similar to that of the western feudal states. The most 
prominent crown-vassals were the Prince of Antioch , the Counts 
of Edessa and Tripoli , the Prince of Tiberias , the Count of Joppa 
and Ascalon, and the Lord of Montroyal (the Kerak of ancient Moah). 

VI. Syria is called Esh-Shdm by the Arabs, under which name 
they include Palestine (Filistin). The name signifies the land 
situated to the 'left', as distinguished from El-Yemen, or S. Arabia, 
the land situated to the 'right'. The Turkish name for Syria is Sur- 
istan. The Turks divided the country into five pashalics : Aleppo, 


Tripoli . Damascus , Saida (afterwards Acre) , and Palestine , but 
this division has been much modified in the course of centuries. 
Until recently Syria contained two principal provinces (wilayet) only, 
with Damascus and Aleppo as their capitals respectively ; but Je- 
rusalem also has lately been constituted the seat of a wdly, or cen- 
tral governor, directly dependent on the Porte. This change was made 
with a view to keep in check the turbulent tribes beyond Jordan. 

The ancient statistics we possess refer to Palestine only. Accord- 
ing to Numbers, i. 46, the men capable of bearing arms numbered 
603,550 , and according to Numbers, xxvi. 51 , the number was 
601,730. The Israelites, therefore, at the time they immigrated 
into Palestine , must have consisted of a population of 2| million 
souls at least , not including the tribe of Levi. According to 
2 Sam. xxiv. 9, the men capable of bearing arms in the time 
of David numbered 1,300,000, which would give a total population 
of over five millions. 

Palestine covered an area of about 10,500 sq. M. , or less than 
modern Belgium (11,363 sq. M.). While in the well-peopled 
mountainous country of Switzerland the average population is about 
200 persons to each square mile, that of Palestine , notwithstanding 
its numerous 'waste places', according to the first of these two 
estimates must have been 250 , or according to the second 500 per 
square mile. Josephus probably exaggerates greatly in estimating 
the population of Galilee alone at 5 millions. In accordance with 
the statistics mentioned at p. 85 the area of ancient Palestine is 
now occupied by about 650,000 souls. Assuming that the ancient 
population was four times greater, the highest probable number 
would be 2^ millions , or considerably in excess of Switzerland. 

IV. History of Palestine and Syria. 

Chronological Survey. 

With regard to the most ancient history of the country we 
possess an admirable fund of instruction in the Bible , while we 
derive additional information from the statements of Jewish authors, 
contemporaneous Egyptian and Assyrian records, and from the later 
accounts of the Greeks and Romans. 

I. From a district on the Upper Tigris, at a period now far 
beyond our ken . emigrated a tribe which thenceforward spent a 
nomadic life in Mesopotamia. While here, a branch separated from 
it and proceeded towards the S.W., settling first in Harran, whence 
according to the Scriptural account Abraham migrated with his 
family to Canaan. From that time onwards this tribe received the 
name of Hebmws. To this period belongs the campaign of King 
Chedorlaomer of Elam and his allies, described in Gen. xiv, which 
chapter affords us a glimpse of the conquests made by the dwellers 


in the valley of the Euphrates . and throws most valuable light on 
the obscurity of early Syrian history. At that period but few towns 
existed in Palestine, tradition recording the names of Shechem, 
Hebron , Salem , and a few others only. The Hebrews of that age, 
being a nomadic shepherd population, were probably very similar 
in their customs and mode of life to the Beduins of the present day. 
According to their own traditions they considered themselves akin 
to the various peoples who in modern times are described as Se- 
mitic ; but the position which this race occupied with regard to the 
Hamites (chiefly Egyptians) and to the Japhethites in point of 
pedigree and language is still a matter of much controversy. The 
Hebrews appear at a very early period to have formed a purer con- 
ception of the Supreme Being than their neighbours. Their peculiar 
religious views were closely connected with that strong feeling of 
cohesion and nationality to which they owed their superiority over 
the neighbouring and kindred tribes of Edom to the S. , Moab to 
the S.E. , and Ammon to the E. — Although aware that the 
cognate Arabs boasted of a somewhat longer pedigree, they regarded 
them as an illegitimate offshoot of their race, Ishmael, the progenitor 
of the Arabs , having been the offspring of the bondwoman. Upon 
the right of proprietorship which Abraham established in the land 
of Canaan , and particularly on the early purchase of the cave of 
Machpelah (Gen. xxiii) , his descendants afterwards founded their 
claim to the Promised Land. In the interval, however, between the 
time of Jacob and the Exodus, the small tribe was compelled by 
famine to exchange the region of S. Palestine for that of Goshen 
in N. Egypt. Migrations of this kind still take place among the 
nomadic tribes of these countries. During their sojourn of 430 years 
in Egypt the Israelites had grown into a great people ; and in conse- 
quence of the oppressive treatment they received at the hands of the 
Pharaohs they at length left the country under the leadership of Moses. 
II. With the Exodus and the subsequent delivery of the Law 
from Mt. Sinai begins the second and somewhat less obscure period 
of the history of the Israelites. The Law which Moses promulgated 
to his people, though far from voluminous, sufficed to elevate the 
Israelites above the condition in which they had hitherto been 
placed, and to lay the foundation of a political constitution . That 
constitution was a theocracy. The people in consequence separated 
themselves from all others , acknowledging Jehovah as their sole 
God and Protector, and at the same time regarding him as Lord 
also of all other nations. Thenceforward the principle of theocracy, 
although frequently violated by a relapse into idolatry, formed the 
great characteristic feature in the religion of the Israelites. 

After the death of Moses Joshua led the Israelites into Canaan, 
which at that time was divided among a number of small nations 
and tribes (comp. p. 53). Having been defeated by the Canaanites 
At Hormah on the frontier of the country , the Israelites continued 


theii nomadic life for another generation in the districts to the E. 
of Jordan. Here they defeated the leaders of the Amorites, and 
subjugated Gilead and Bashan, the modern Belka, as far as Hainan. 
The tribe of Reuben to the S. and that of Gad to the N., as well as 
the half-tribe of Manasseh, retained possession of the conquered 
country, somewhat contrary to the original design of their leaders, 
as Canaan, the land of which the Israelites were to obtain posses- 
sion, lay entirely to the W. of Jordan. These tribes, however, as- 
sisted in the conquest of the country, and therefore crossed the Jor- 
dan with their kinsfolk. The remarkable conquest of Jericho was 
the first achievement on this side of Jordan ; thereafter the southern 
Canaanites were subdued and partly exterminated, and the chief- 
tains of the northern Canaanites. particularly the Hazorites, were 
next defeated on the Lake of Merom. As these small Canaanitish 
states had been at variance with each other, so also dissensions 
sprang up among the Israelites after Joshua's death from want of a 
leader, in consequence of which each tribe was ultimately left to 
take possession for itself of the land assigned to it. Severely as the 
Canaanites had been dealt with, many of them still remained in the 
country, either in a state of servitude to the Israelites, or in alliance 
with them. The southern part of the country was allotted to the 
tribe of Judah, the most zealous opponent of the Canaanites, and 
adjoining it were located Simeon to the S. and Benjamin to the 
N. ("With regard to the partition of the country, see p. 53.) To 
the sacerdotal tribe of Levi were awarded dwellings throughout the 
whole of the land of Canaan. Three towns of refuge foT homicides 
were moreover selected on the chain of hills on this side Jordan, 
and three beyond Jordan. The dominions of the Israelites now ex- 
tended 'from Dan' (in the K., at the foot of Hermon) 'to Beersheba' 
(in the S., towards the desert). 

III. A third, but far less prosperous, period in the history of 
Israel was that of the Judges. As soon as the impression produced 
upon the people by the Exodus and its attendant miracles began to 
fade, they speedily suffered themselves to be seduced by the example 
of the nations they had conquered, and the majority of them there- 
fore relapsed repeatedly into idolatry. The worship of Baal (god 
of the sun), and of Astarte (goddess of the moon), whose rites were 
of a most licentious character, were prevalent in Syria, while it was 
customary to sacrifice children to the idol Moloch. The so-called 
worship of high places , which had prevailed among the Hebrews 
at an earlier period, is also mentioned by subsequent historians as 
having been of an idolatrous nature. The connection between the 
different tribes of the Israelites became gradually slighter, although 
the national sanctuary of the Ark still existed at Shiloh ; and in 
some instances feuds arose among them, as in the case of the bloody 
struggle of the other tribes with Benjamin . Under these circum- 
stances it was natural that the people of Israel should be frequently 


molested and oppressed by their neighbours. According to Egyptian 
accounts, Syria was at this period more or less under the suzerainty 
of the Pharaohs ; but if this was the case , the various tribes and 
their princes still had abundant liberty of action. Their history 
affords us a glimpse of a wild and barbarous period of constant 
feuds, when the law of might was alone recognised. Occasionally 
the Israelites recovered in some degree from this deplorable condi- 
tion, as when several of the tribes would band themselves together 
under one of their Judges and succeed for a time in shaking off the 
yoke of foreigners. Thus, for example, they were delivered by 
Othniel from the eight years' supremacy of the King of Mesopotamia. 
After this they groaned under the yoke of the Moabites for eighteen 
years, until Ehud slew the king of their oppressors and drove them 
back beyond Jordan. Jabin, the king of Razor in N. Palestine, then 
ruled over several of the tribes of Israel for a period of twenty years, 
but their rising under their female judge, Deborah, and Barak, the 
Naphtalite, was crowned with success. Another source of disquiet 
to the country was the predatory attacks of the Midianites from the- 
east. During this period the Israelites were frequently compelled to 
seek refuge in caverns and mountain ravines, but from time to time 
their condition was ameliorated under the leadership of some 
powerful and energetic ruler, such as Gideon and Jephthah. 

Again, however, the Israelites fell under the yoke of the Am- 
monites and the Philistines. The former were defeated by Jeph- 
thah (Judges xi.) ; but the latter, probably reinforced by allies from 
without (see p. 312), soon became very formidable to the tribes 
of Israel in the southern regions of the country. 

The attacks of the Philistines , however , were really a source 
of benefit to the Israelites, as they were thereby compelled to take 
energetic steps to consolidate their strength, although not until they 
had sustained many defeats. To the period of these struggles belong 
the herculean exploits of Samson. During the regime of Eli, the 
last of the judges properly so called, the sway of the Philistines 
still continued, particularly in the S., and Eli's own sons fell in 
battle against the enemy. Such misfortunes are always attri- 
buted by the sacred writers to the relapse of the people into ido- 
latry, and not to natural causes. At length the prophet Samuel 
succeeded in reanimating the people, stimulating them to resist the 
Philistines , and to strengthen the ancient theocratic institutions 
by the foundation of schools for the prophets and other means. He 
was soon, however, obliged to yield to the desire of the people, and 
appoint a political and military ruler over them. 

IV. With the coronation of Saul begins the fourth period of 
the history of the Israelites, that glorious period when their poli- 
tical constitution was reorganised and consolidated, and when the 
whole people were united into one Kingdom under one sceptre 
(B. C. 1075 — 975). This regeneration, however, did not take place 


without intestine struggles. Although Saul carried on the war 
against the Ammonites and Philistines with great bravery, he soon 
quarrelled with Samuel, whereupon that prophet determined to 
dethrone him and anoint a new monarch in his stead. 

David now comes on the scene. While yet a captain in the 
army he excited Saul's envy, and was therefore obliged to flee to 
the mountains , where he assembled a band of followers. With 
these he roved throughout the land of Judah, and waited until Saul 
was defeated by the Philistines and perished on Mt. Gilboa (about 
1055). David did not yet, however, become king of the whole 
people, but was prince of Judah only, being probably dependent 
on the Philistines, to whom at that time nearly the whole of Pa- 
lestine as far as Jordan had to pay tribute. The northern part of 
the kingdom (that whicli afterwards formed the kingdom of Israel) 
was governed by Ishbosheth , the son of Saul, aided by his able 
general AbneT, who had reconquered for him the kingdom of Maha- 
naim. It was not until after a protracted struggle, and after Abner 
and Ishbosheth had been assassinated , that David succeeded in 
extending his sway over all the tribes of Israel (about 1048). 

Owing to David's energy the country increased greatly in power, 
both as regards its internal development and its foreign relations. 
But first the land had to a great extent to be conquered afresh and 
to be purged of foreigners. The city of Jebus was wrested from the 
Jebusites, and on Mt. Zion David founded a castle which formed the 
nucleus of his future capital of Jerusalem. He next delivered the 
country from the Philistines by his victory in the valley of Rephaim, 
and began to compel the Canaanites who still dwelt in the land to 
render him obedience. He then humbled the Moabites and Edomites, 
the ancient enemies of Israel, defeated the Syrians, who had come 
to the aid of the Ammonites, and caused Rabbah, the capital of 
the Ammonites, to be besieged and captured. He not only extended 
his dominions as far as Damascus, but even put the Syrian prince 
of Hamath to tribute. He established garrisons in the conquered 
districts, and during his reign the kingdom attained its greatest 
extent, stretching as far as the 'entrance of Hamath' towards the 
N., and as far as Tiphsah (Thapsacus) on the Euphrates towards 
the N. E. Even at a later period these distant points theoretically 
formed the extremities of the Israelitish dominions (Ezek. xlvii. 
16 — 20; Numb, xxxiv. 8). David, however, was soon threatened 
with dangers from within. His son Absalom rebelled against him, 
and the king was compelled for a time to flee beyond Jordan. With 
the aid of Joab he at length succeeded in re-entering Jerusalem in 
triumph ; but the insurrection soon broke out afresh, as even at 
this period the northern provinces made common cause against the 
southern, in which the king had his residence. 

In spite of all these conflicts, this was a period of remarkable 
intellectual activity. The royal court was gradually organised on 


the model of those of the other nations with whom the Israelites 
came in contact. They began also to erect buildings in a handsomer 
style. David caused a census of his people to be made, and estab- 
lished a standing army and a body-guard. The worship of Jehovah 
must likewise have received great eiicouragement from a monarch 
who was personally so devout. To him, also, we are indebted for 
many of the Psalms , those beautiful specimens of lyrical poetry 
which belong to the earliest period of the literature of the Israelites. 

The government of Solomon (1015 — 975) contributed still more 
to develop the resources of the country. "While David had brought 
the national sanctuary of the Ark of the Covenant to the neigh- 
bourhood of his royal residence, Solomon proceeded to erect a spa- 
cious temple and magnificent palaces, and Jerusalem was now forti- 
fied. Intercourse with neighbouring nations, especially with Egypt, 
became more active, and trade received a great impulse. In con- 
sequence, however, of this increased material prosperity, the wor- 
ship of God began to be neglected, although on the other hand the 
sacerdotal caste was invested with increased dignity, and the ritual 
with unwonted splendour. Solomon was regarded, at least among 
later Orientals, as a model of a wise monarch. After a brief period 
of prosperity the decline of the empire began. Damascus threw off 
the yoke of the Israelites, Edom revolted, and dissensions sprang up 
in the interior. On the death of Solomon his kingdom, to its great 
detriment, was dismembered, and a new epoch began extending 
down to the conquest of the country by a foreign power. 

V. After the separation of the northern from the southern king- 
dom Shechem was constituted the capital of the former by Jero- 
boam I., but the seat of government was afterwards Temoved to Sa- 
maria by Omri. Owing to the constant discord and jealousy which 
disquieted the rival kingdoms, as well as their internal dissensions, 
they fell an easy prey to the encroachments of their neighbours. 
The princes of Damascus undertook several successful campaigns 
against the northern kingdom, and it was not until the reign of 
Jeroboam II. that Israel recovered supremacy over the neighbouring 
Syrian states. From this period (about B. C. 896) dates the column 
of King Mesha of Moab, the most ancient monument bearing a 
Semitic inscription that has yet been discovered. While many of 
the sovereigns of both kingdoms, as for example those who were 
influenced by the Syrian princess Jezebel in Syria and her daughter 
Athaliah in Judah , were zealously addicted to the worship of 
strange gods, yet on the other hand the ancient theocracy was fre- 
quently revived by the vigorous efforts of the prophets, and most 
notably by Elijah and Elisha, the resolute opponents of the worship 
of Baal in the northern kingdom. The utterances of the prophets 
range between threats of future punishment and promises of future 
blessing; above all they urgently recommend the moral regeneration 
of their countrymen and a corresponding political improvement. 


Just , however , at the period when Judah had recovered a share 
of its ancient glory (middle of 8th cent.), the Assyrians had 
succeeded in making serious encroachments upon the northern king- 
dom, and it was only with their assistance that King Ahaz, the suc- 
cessor of Jotham, succeeded in defending himself against Israel. 
He, as well as his successor Hezekiah, paid tribute to the Assyrians. 
In 722 the kingdom of Israel was destroyed, the inhabitants sent 
to the east, and colonists substituted for them, as the contempora- 
neous Assyrian monuments testify. The kingdom of Judah still re- 
tained its independence, and there about this period flourished 
Isaiah, the greatest of all the prophets, who sought to stimulate 
the self-confidence of the people, and promised them a glorious 
future after they should have passed through the inevitable ordeal 
of chastening and judgment. In spite of this, Hezekiah entered into 
an alliance with Egypt and IHhiopia, in consequence of which Sen- 
nacherib of Assyria proceeded to attack the allies. The conquest of 
Jerusalem, however, was prevented by the well-known incident of 
the destruction of Sennacherib's army, caused possibly by the sud- 
den breaking out of a plague. Judah now became alternately the 
victim of Assyria and of Egypt. Idolatry, too, was again introduced, 
but the worship of Jehovah was restored in all its purity by Josiah, 
during whose reign the prophet Jeremiah commenced his labours. 
At length in 599 the kingdom of Judah was virtually destroyed, 
and Nebuchadnezzar carried off King Jehoiakim with 10,000 of the 
principal inhabitants, including the prophet Ezekiel, to Babylon. 
A revolt by the last king Zedekiah resulted in the destruction of 
Jerusalem in 588 and a second deportation of its inhabitants. Soon 
after this many Jews , and Jeremiah among them , migrated to 
Egypt. Thus was the ancient Jewish kingdom at length thoroughly 
disintegrated ; and a new period, during winch Hebrew literature 
regained a share of its former lustre, now begins. 

VI. During the captivity, besides Ezekiel and Jeremiah, there 
flourished also the sublime anonymous prophet who wrote chap- 
ters 40 — 66 of the Book of Isaiah for the comfort of his afflicted 
people. In the year 538 Cyrus the Persian, after having conquered 
Babylon, permitted the Jews to return to their native country. 
Those who availed themselves of this permission were almost ex- 
clusively natives of the southern kingdom, which accordingly 
thenceforth formed the principal part of the Jewish state. The erec- 
tion of the new Temple, which had long been obstructed by the 
Samaritans, was chiefly promoted by the prophets Haggai and 
Zachariah (516), but the new edifice fell far short of the splendour 
of that of Solomon. Ezra , however , revived the ancient traditions, 
and Nehemiah established anew a set form of ritual. At a later period 
the Samaritans erected a sanctuary of their own on Alt. Gerizim. 

A period of repose now followed, which lasted down to the 
establishment of the Macedonian Supremacy in 332, but after 


Alexander's death Palestine became the scene of the wars between 
the 'Diadochi', as his generals, who succeeded to his vast domin- 
ions, were called. Even before the great revolution effected by 
Alexander's campaign in the East , Greek influence had begun to 
be felt in Syria, at least in the coast districts, and now military 
colonies and Greek towns were founded in the interior of the 
country. About this time the Aramaic language gradually began 
to supplant the Hebrew, although a knowledge of the latter was 
preserved by the hierarchy. Greek also came into frequent use, 
being chiefly disseminated through the Jewish schools in Egypt, 
where the sacred books were translated into Greek. Among the Jews 
there was even formed a party favourable to the Greeks, who, aided 
by Jason, the Mgh-priest, succeeded in securing the supreme 
power in the state. In consequence of this a fierce struggle took 
place , for which King Antiochus Epiphanes chastised the Jews 
severely. The desecration of their temple had been the main cause 
of the revolt. At the head of the insurgents was the heroic priest 
Mattathias (167 ), whose son Judas Maccabieus at length succeeded 
in defeating the Syrians in several hardly contested battles, and 
restored the Temple to its sacred uses. Under the Asmonean 
princes, or Maccabees (166 — 37), the Jews enjoyed a comparatively 
prosperous period of national independence, and in the middle of the. 
second century John Hyrcanus even succeeded in considerably ex- 
tending the dominions of Judaea by his conquests. During this 
epoch the form of government was a theocracy, presided over by a 
high priest, who at the same time enjoyed political power. The in- 
dependence of the country was at length disturbed by the interference 
of the Romans in 63, when Jerusalem was captured by Pompey. 

VII. The Asmonean Hyrcanus II. reigned after this date under 
Roman suzerainty. His political power was much circumscribed, 
and with him were associated in the government the Idumsean Anti- 
pater, and afterwards Phasael and Herod, the sons of Antipater. In 
the year B. C. 40 the Parthians plundered Syria and Palestine, and 
in the troubles of that period Herod succeeded in obtaining from 
the Romans the sole governorship of Judeea. It was not, however, 
till the year 37, after he had conquered Jerusalem, that he actually 
entered upon his office. He was entirely subservient to the Ro- 
mans , and caused many handsome edifices to be erected in the 
Roman style. He also caused the Temple to be rebuilt; but the 
Jews who remained faithful to their law, represented chiefly by the 
Pharisees, keenly felt the pressure of his temporal jurisdiction and 
the interference in their affairs by a foreign power. 

In the year B. C. 2, according to the ordinary reckoning, Herod 
the Great died, Christ having been born during that monarch's reign . 
The dominions of Herod were now divided. To Philip were given 
the districts of the Hauran, to Herod Antipas Galilee and Persa, to 
Archelaus Samaria, Judaea, and Idumsea. In the year A. D. 6 the 


territory of Archelaus was added to the Roman province of Syria, 
but was governed by procurators of its own. Thenceforward the 
patriotic party among the Jews became still more antagonistic to 
the foreign yoke. Founding their hopes on the prophecies which 
spoke of a future kingdom , in which they would again enjoy inde- 
pendence , they expected the Messiah to bring to them political 
deliverance, whereas Christ himself declared that his kingdom was 
Tiot of this world. Enfuriated by this announcement, they compelled 
Pilate , the Roman governor, to yield to their desires and to crucify 
their Victim. The power of the native princes, such as Herod Agrip- 
pa I. and II., became merely nominal as that of the Roman governors 
increased. At length , in consequence of the maladministration of 
Gessius Florius , a national insurrection broke out with great 
violence. Jerusalem itself was governed by several different parties 
in succession, but it was at length captured by Titus, A. D. 70, 
when the Temple was destroyed and many of the Jews slain. 
Although part of the people was scattered , and those who remained 
in the country were now completely powerless , their rage against 
their oppressors burst forth afresh on one other occasion. 

Under the leadership of Simon , surnamed Bar Cochba ('son of 
the star'), who was recognised by the celebrated Rabbi ben Akiba 
as the Messiah, they revolted against the Romans, and succeeded in 
canying on the waT for three years and a half (132 — 135), after 
which the insurrection was quelled and the last remnant of the Jew- 
ish kingdom destroyed. Jerusalem became a Roman colony, and 
the Jews were even denied access to theiT ancient capital. — During 
these last centuries, however, and even later, Jewish literature 
continued to be cultivated. The learning of the schools, which, in 
connection with the written law , had hitherto been handed down 
by oral tradition only, was now committed to writing, and thus the 
Talmud came into existence. On the other hand the germs of a 
different kind of literature also sprang up among the early Christian 
communities. In N. Syria the Gentile, and in S. Syria the Jewish 
Christians predominated, while from the Alexandrian school were 
disseminated the principles of Gnosticism in the 2nd century, a 
religious system in which the doctrines of Christianity were curiously 
intermingled with those of Greek Platonism. 

Since the beginning of the Greek period Antioch had become, 
and continued to be, the most important town in Syria. It was 
founded by Seleucus Nioator about the year B. C. 300, and named 
after his father. At the same time Damascus continued to flourish 
as the chief seat of the caravan trade. Throughout Syria at this 
period the Aramaic language, a dialect akin to Hebrew, was chiefly 
spoken, although the Greek language and culture were gradually 
being introduced. Under the Greek, and afterwards under the Ro- 
man supremacy, there sprang up , even in remote parts of the 
country, numerous edifices of great splendour. About the beginning 


of our era Palmyra, in particular, was noted for the magnificence 
of its architecture. For a considerable time it was the capital of 
an important, independent empire, and its monuments of the later 
Roman period still bear witness to its ancient glory. Notwithstand- 
ing the growth of Roman influence in Syria, and the foundation of 
many Roman colonies, it is, however, worthy of mention, that after 
the beginning of the Arabian supremacy most of the Roman names 
were superseded by the old Semitic (thus 'Akka instead of Ptole- 
mais), a proof that western culture had not taken very deep root. 

VIII. In A.D. 611—614 the whole of Christian Syria, in- 
cluding Palestine , was wrested from the Eastern Roman empire by 
Chosroes, King of Persia, and severed from it for ten years, soon 
after which the Arabs proved a still more formidable foe to the 
Byzantine emperors. From time immemorial nomadic tribes of Arabs 
had ranged over the vast Syrian plain as far as Mesopotamia (comp. 
p. 53). During the first centuries of our era premonitory symptoms 
of their great approaching expansion had manifested themselves 
among these tribes. In consequence of the distress caused by wars 
and by the bursting of an embankment in S. Arabia (Yemen), cer- 
tain tribes of that region had migrated northwards in search of a 
new home. These southern Arabs (Yoktanides, or Kahtanides), who 
in ancient times had boasted of considerable culture , now settled 
in Syria, and particularly in the Hauran. Their great opponents were 
the purely nomadic tribes of N. Arabia {Ishmaelites], their differences 
with whom gave rise to the sanguinary feuds of the Kaisites and Ye- 
menites, which were prolonged almost down to modern times. For 
centuries before the promulgation of El-Islam the Arabs had every- 
where, in Syria as well as on the Euphrates, and particularly in the 
Hauran, been a thorn in the side of the tottering Byzantine empire, 
but now that they were united they proved a most formidable foe. 

This union of the scattered tribes was effected by Mohammed 
(see p. 89), whose doctrines awakened in the Arabs that religious 
enthusiasm which prompted them to undertake their marvellously 
successful campaigns of the 7th and following centuries, though 
hope of plunder was doubtless a strong additional incentive. As 
early as the beginning of the reign of 'Omar, the second khalif, 
whose political energy contributed quite as much to the con- 
solidation of the Arabian sway as the 'revelations' of the prophet, 
Syria was thrown open to the Arabs by the bloody battle of the 
Hieromax (Yarmuk) in 634, and at the beginning of the following 
year Damascus was captured by the generals Khalid and Abu 
TJbeida. Within a short period the Byzantines lost the whole of 
Syria as far as Aleppo, and 'Omar himself was present at the 
capitulation of Jerusalem (p. 158). In many of the towns and 
villages Arabian military colonies were now planted. The most 
glorious part of this period of Syrian history began with the 

Palestine. 5 


assassination of 'Mi, the son-in-law of the prophet, and fourth 
khalif. A political reaction on the part of the Meccan aristocracy 
in Arabia had sprung up against the parvenus of plebeian origin ; 
for it was only after the unprecedented successes of the Muslim 
arms that the countrymen of Mohammed began to appreciate the 
full scope of the new religion. Many believers, however, adhered 
to 'AM as the rightful vicegerent of the prophet , and even re- 
pudiated the title of the first three khalifs ; and it was from this 
schism that the great sect of the Shtites (p. 99), which still exists 
in Persia, took its origin. National hatred, too, contributed greatly 
to foment the quarrel, and a series of bloody conflicts ensued. The 
Meccan aristocrats, however, conquered 'Ali , and the seat of the 
khalifate was transferred by Mu'dwiya from Medina to Damascus, 
as the latter city lay nearer the centre of the conquered countries, 
and thus afforded greater facilities for the preservation of the unity 
of the empire. Mu'awiya succeeded in securing the hereditary right 
to the khalifate to his descendants, the 'Omayyades, many of whom 
proved most gifted and efficient monarchs. Even during the reign 
of Mu'awiya the able generals of the Muslims penetrated eastwards 
as far as India and Central Asia, westwards as far as the Atlantic 
Ocean, and north-westwards as far as Constantinople. The ancient 
simplicity of manners, however, had disappeared ; there was now 
a vast empire, a despotism, with a court of constantly increasing 
splendour ; and a love of magnificence soon began to show itself 
in artistically constructed buildings. This period may also be 
regarded as the golden age of Arabic literature. A strict adherence 
to the doctrines of Mohammed was still externally professed by the 
Omayyades , but their religion was essentially subordinated to 
their political ambition. 

A reaction was inevitable, and it was in Persia that it first showed 
itself. Religious questions afforded a pretext for intrigues against 
the 'Omayyades. The powerful family of the 'Abbasides, who were 
also of Meccan origin, used every available means for the realisation 
of their ambitious schemes, and at length accomplished their object 
by the cruel assassination of the 'Omayyades (750). The central 
point of the empire was now removed to the banks of the Euphrates 
and the Tigris. As had already been the case under several of the 
'Omayyades, Syria again became the theatre of fierce party struggles, 
while political rivalries were aggravated by the dissensions of religious 
sects, some of which manifested communistic tendencies and plotted 
against the existing constitution. The political history of the Arab 
rulers of these centuries presents a continuous scene of waT and 
bloodshed, accompanied by an interminable series of intestine dis- 
sensions, intrigues, and murders. At the same time, however, espe- 
cially during the reign of Harfin er-Rashid, the Arabs began to 
manifest a greater taste for scientific knowledge. A number of 
schools of philosophy were founded in Syria, and particularly at 


Damascus. The Arab scholars obtained their knowledge of the Greek 
philosophers from the Syrians, whose literature, dating from a post- 
Christian epoch , flourished for a prolonged period, even under the 
Muslim regime. 80, too, an acquaintance with medicine, astronomy, 
and mathematics reached the Arabs directly or indirectly through the 
Greeks ; and indeed in no department of science did they exhibit 
much originality. Even in works on the grammatical structure of 
their own language, a subject which they treated with great acumen, 
the Arabs were surpassed by their neighbours the Persians. Many 
of these scientific efforts were made in connection with the Koran 
and its interpretation, and the utmost zeal was evinced in collecting 
the oral utterances of Mohammed. In all these scientific pursuits, 
however, the Arabs were far more remarkable for prolixity than depth. 
Arabian literature thus speedily swelled to prodigious dimensions, 
theology and the system of jurisprudence founded upon it being the 
predominating subjects. Down to the present day books in the same 
style as that of this early literature, in the same language, and often 
with the same turgidity, are still written. The traveller unacquainted 
with the language of the country, who comes in contact with the na- 
tives through the medium of his dragoman or muleteer only, will 
naturally be sceptical as to the existence of intellectual aspirations 
among the Syrians of the present day ; but we can assure him, from 
an experience of many years, that the native mind and imagination 
are much more active than is commonly believed. The art of printing, 
which was not practically introduced into Syria until the beginning 
of the 19th century, contributes much to the spread of education. 
The printing-press at Beirut in Syria, and that at Bulak in Egypt, 
are those which have exercised the greatest influence; and it is 
worthy of mention that no fewer than 7000 copies of a bulky and 
comparatively expensive work containing the traditions of Mohammed 
have been sold at Cairo within twenty-five years. 

The power of the khalifate was gradually undermined by the 
dissensions already mentioned, and in Syria itself there sprang up 
secondary dynasties, more or less subordinate to the sway of the 
reigning sovereign. Thus the Hamdanides from Mosul, where they 
had been the chief opponents of the Curds, took possession of N. 
Syria, and had their headquarters at Aleppo for a considerable 
period. Among the princes who resided there must be mentioned 
the illustrious Seif ed-Vauleh, whose glorious reign began in 944, 
at a time when the power of the khalifs of Bagdad was steadily 
declining. As the Greeks again began to renew their attacks upon 
Syria, some effective barrier against their encroachments became 
very desirable. At this period the Fdtimites, the rulers of Egypt, 
held the supreme power at Damascus, and during the great revo- 
lutions which took place in the latter half of the 10th cent, they con- 
quered the whole of Syria. The reign of the Fatimite sovereign 
Hakim biamr-Illah (from 996), in particular, was fraught with im- 


portaut results to Syria. From the outset of their career the Fatimites 
had assumed a hostile attitude towards the Islam, and under Hakim, 
a member of this family, the peculiar religious or philosophical doc- 
trines of his party degenerated into grotesque absurdity. (To this 
day the sect of the Druses regard him as having been an incarnation 
of the Deity; comp. p. 100.) Towards the close of the 11th cent, 
the Okeilides and the Mirdasides came into power, but they in their 
turn were supplanted by the Seljuks in 1086. These were the 
chiefs of nomadic Turkish tribes, who now for the first time made 
their appearance as conquerors in western Asia. In several parts of 
Syria the Assassins (p. 99), a sect who unscrupulously practised the 
crime named after them, possessed considerable power, and even 
occupied a number of fortresses. It was by their hand that Nizam 
el-Mulk, the great vizier of the all-powerful Seljuk Malekshah 
(1072 — 92), was murdered. After Malekshah's death the empire 
of the Seljuks was divided , one branch establishing itself at 
Damascus, another at Aleppo. 

IX. These interminable disorders within the Muslim empire 
contributed greatly to the success of the first intrepid little bands of 
the Crusaders. Baldwin succeeded in conquering N. Syria as far 
as Mesopotamia , and Bohemund captured Antioch in 1098 ; but 
Damascus successfully resisted every attack. Even among the 
Christians, however, much discord and jealousy prevailed ; their 
enthusiasm for the holy cause soon grew cold, and political con- 
siderations again became paramount. It was not until after the 
capture of Jerusalem (15th July, 1099) that the Muslims "became 
fully aware of the danger which threatened them from the Crusaders. 
But the jealousies among the Muslim rulers' enabled the Christians 
to maintain themselves for a considerable time, although with 
varying fortunes, atEdessa, on the coast of the Mediterranean, and in 
Palestine. Godfrey deBouillon, the first king of Jerusalem (d. 1100), 
was succeeded by his brother Baldwin I. About the beginning of the 
reign of the next king, Baldwin II. (1118), the European conquests in 
the East had reached their climax, and atthe same period were founded 
the orders of the Knights of St. John and the Templars, which were 
destined to become the great champions of Christianity in the East. 

In 1136 the victorious progress of the Franks was effectually 
checked by the opposition of the bold emir Zenghi. In N. Syria 
John, the Byzantine emperor, again attempted to interpose, his 
designs being hostile to Christians and Muslims alike, but was 
obliged to retire, whereupon Edessa also declared itself in favour 
of Zenghi (1144). At the time of his death Zenghi was master of 
Mosul, Mesopotamia, and a great part of Syria, and he bequeathed 
the principality of Aleppo to his son Nureddin. The second con- 
quest of Edessa by the latter in 1146 gave rise to the Second Crusade 
(1147 — 49). The Franks, however, met with no success, and the 
capture of Damascus was frustrated by the intrigues of Oriental 


Christians. Nureddin wrested many of their possessions from the 
Franks, and at last captured Damascus also, which had hitherto 
been occupied by another dynasty. In 1163 he sent an expedition 
against Egypt under his general Shirkuh, who was associated with 
the Curd Saldh ed-Din (Saladin). The latter, a man of singular 
energy, soon succeeded in making himself master of Egypt; and 
after Nureddhrs death in 1173 he took advantage of the dis- 
sensions in Syria to conquer that country also, and thus became 
the most dangerous enemy of the isolated possessions of the 
Franks. A breach of truce by the weak Guy of Lusignan, King 
of Jerusalem, at length led to war. In 1187, at the battle of Hattin 
(p. 366), Saladin signally defeated the Franks, after which the whole 
of Palestine fell into his possession ; but he treated the Christians 
with leniency. The fall of Jerusalem caused such sensation in the 
West that a Third Crusade was undertaken. Frederick I., Emperor 
of Germany, who headed the expedition, was drowned in Cilicia, 
before leaching the Holy Land. The town of 'Akka (St. Jean dAcTe), 
after a long siege, chiefly conducted by the vessels of French and 
English Crusaders, was at length captured in 1191; but the con- 
quest of Jerusalem was prevented by the outbreak of dissensions 
among the Crusaders, particularly between Richard Coeur de Lion 
of England and Philip Augustus of France. In spite of pro- 
digies of valour on the part of the English monarch, the sole ad- 
vantages obtained by the Franks from Saladin at the ensuing peace 
were the possession of a nanow strip of the coast district, and per- 
mission for pilgrims to visit Jerusalem. Saladin died soon after the 
departure of the Franks ; his empire was dismembered ; and Melik 
el-'Adil was now the only formidable antagonist of the Franks. 
The Fourth Crusade (1204) promoted Frankish interests in Palestine 
as little as the third.- In both of these crusades the Italian cities 
of Pisa, Genoa, and Venice had actively participated with a view 
to their commercial interests. The Fifth Crusade, led by King 
Andreas of Hungary (1217), was equally unsuccessful. At length, 
the state of political affairs being highly favourable to his enterprise, 
the heretical Emperor Frederick II., who had been compelled by the 
Pope to undertake a crusade, had the good fortune to obtain posses- 
sion of Jerusalem by convention for a period of ten years (1229). 
Meanwhile Syria was the scene of uninterrupted feuds among the 
petty Arabian princes, particularly the Eyyubides. In 1240 a French 
army once more endeavoured to gain a footing in Palestine, but the 
expedition proved a signal failure. The last Crusade, undertaken 
by St. Louis in 1248, was equally fruitless. 

Meanwhile a new enemy appeared on the scene. Predatory hordes 
from Central Asia began to devastate Syria in the year 1240, and at 
length settled in N. Syria, but, owing to the incessant wars among 
the different dynasties, they were afterwards driven towards Jeru- 
salem, where they treated the Christians with great cruelty. These 


strangers took service with various princes, who, in accordance with 
a custom which had been prevalent for centuries, were in the habit 
of providing themselves with a body-guard composed partly of 
slaves purchased for the purpose, generally of Turkish origin. In 
Kgypt these military slaves succeeded in usurping the supreme 
power. Eibek, the first founder of a Mameluke dynasty, had to 
undergo many conflicts withNasir, the Eyyubide prince of N. Syria, 
before he gained possession of Syria. The Mongols now assumed 
a more and more threatening attitude towards Syria. They had 
long since put an end to the empire of the khalifs at Bagdad, and 
they now directed their attacks against Nasir. Hulagu captured 
cAleppo (Haleb) about 1260, after which he continued his victorious 
areer through Syria, murdering and plundering the inhabitants 
almost unopposed. Damascus, having surrendered, was spared. 
On reaching the confines of Egypt, however, Hulagu was compelled 
to retire; and the Mameluke Sultan Kotuz, with the aid of his 
famous general Bibars, recovered nearly the whole of Syria from 
the Mongols. Bibars himself now usurped the supreme power, 
and notwithstanding the repeated predatory incursions of the Mon- 
golian hordes, maintained his authority in both countries. The 
Franks, too, who had taken the part of the Mongols, trembled 
for the safety of their few remaining possessions in Syria. Bibars 
captured Caesarea and Arsuf in 1265, Safed and Yafa in 1266, and 
Antioch in 1268, and reduced the Assassins of Syria to great extrem- 
ities. Not a year passed without his personally undertaking some 
campaign, and to this day many towers and fortifications in Syria 
bear his name. He died in 1277, and his degenerate son was de- 
throned in 1279 by the emir Kilawun, who maintained his autho- 
rity in Syria by force of arms, and has left many memorials of his 
glorious reign. He encroached so much on the possessions of the 
ETanks that they retained a few towns on the coast only : and at 
length, after the storming of Acre in 1291, they wert completely 
driven out of Palestine. 

After this period the history of Syria presents few points of 
interest. The contests of the Mamelukes, and, after 1382, those of 
the Circassian sultans, those of the native princes and the Mongolian 
governors, and particularly those of the Ilkhans of Persia, continued 
incessantly, but few of these princes displayed ability or energy 
worthy of special mention. In the year 1400 the deplorable con- 
dition of Syria was farther aggravated by a great predatory in- 
cursion of the Mongols under Timur, on which occasion multitudes 
of the inhabitants were mercilessly butchered . Many of the scholars 
and artists of the country, including the famous armourers of Da- 
mascus, were carried to Samarkand. 

X. In the year 1516 war broke out between the Osmaks and 
the Mamelukes, and the latter were defeated to the N. of Aleppo 
by Sultan Selim. The whole of Syria was conquered by theOsmans, 

H1ST0KY. 71 

#id thenceforward the country shared the fortunes of the Osman 
dynasty. The sultans claimed to be the successors of the khalifs ; 
that is. they maintained the form of the ancient theocratic constitu- 
tion. As soon, however, as the first flower of the Osmans had 
passed away, the inferiority of the Turkish race to the Arabian 
became apparent. To this day the government is carried on in the 
same way as it was under Selim, and the formal pretence of ad- 
ministration by rapidly changing pashas still continues. 

Napoleon I., when returning from Egypt, captured Yafa in 1799 
and laid siege to Acre. He defeated the Turks on the plain of 
Jezreel, and penetrated as far as Safed and Nazareth. During the 
present century, however, Syria has witnessed somewhat better 
days since Sultan Mahmud (1809 — 39) effected various reforms, 
established a regular class of officials, and organised a militia on the 
European model. Of late years a few elementary schools (medreseh 
rushdlyeK) have been founded, but there is a great want of teachers. 

'Abdallah Pasha, son of the infamous upstart Jezzar Pasha, 
having rendered himself almost independent in Palestine, thus 
afforded a pretext to Mohammed 'AU, the powerful ruler of Egypt, 
to intervene forcibly in the affairs of Syria(1831). Mohammed was 
in alliance with the Emir Beshir (p. 458), the prince of the Druses, 
and with his aid Ibrahim Pasha, son of Mohammed, an able 
general who had already acquired experience in his Arabian cam- 
paigns, captured Acre and then Damascus, defeated the Turks at 
Iloms and Beilan in N. Syria with an army organised to some ex- 
tent in the European style, and even extended his victorious career 
beyond the confines of Syria. He then continued his march towards 
Constantinople, and his success might have been still more brilliant 
had not the European powers, and Russia in particular, intervened 
for the purpose of bringing about a peace between Egypt and the 
Porte. The Egyptian supremacy in Syria did not, however, improve 
the condition of that unhappy country so much as had been hoped, 
the taxation and conscription continuing to be as burdensome as 
under the Turkish domination. On the whole Mohammed 'Ali meant 
well, but his measures were not always judicious ; and though a 
parvenu, he exhibited a tyrannical spirit which brought upon him 
the hatred of the Syrians. In 1834 an insurrection broke out against 
him in Palestine, but was quelled, although the Druses and Be- 
duins were still far from being subdued. In 1839, at Nisib, Ibrahim 
Pasha gained another brilliant victory over the Turks, in whose 
camp the afterwards celebrated General Moltke was present. Mean- 
while the discontent which prevailed in Syria in consequence of 
the heavy burdens imposed on the land steadily increased. In 1840 
Lebanon revolted, and the French government thereupon withdrew 
its protection from Mohammed. At length, during the same year, 
the somewhat feeble intervention of England and Austria regained 
Syria for the sultan 'Abdul-Mejid, the scale having been turned 



against the Egyptians by the bombardment and capture of Acre 
by Napier. The Turkish authority was now re-established. 

Since that period the Turks have had considerable difficulties to 
contend with owing to the great conflict of religious opinions, toleration 
being nominally extended to all alike. The last of the innumerable 
tragedies of which Syria has been the theatre was the revolt of 
1860, when at the instigation of the Turkish officers the Druses in 
Lebanon and at Damascus massacred a great number of Christians 
(comp. p. 464). On that occasion France, as the guardian of Roman 
Catholic interests, sent a body of troops to protect the Christians 
in Syria , and caused the disturbed districts to be occupied for a 
considerable time. Since that intervention the pasha of the Lebanon 
district has been required to profess the Christian religion, and he 
receives his instructions direct from the Porte. 

Chronological Table. 

B. C. 


(2000, according 

to others! 

1321—14, accor- 
ding to Egyptian 
sources (accor- 
ding to others 

about 1494) 
About 1075 


1040 et seq. 



Abraham , the ancestor of the Hebrews , enters Ca- 

Jacob with his family migrates to Goshen in Egypt. 

Birth of Moses. 

Exodus of the Israelites'from Egypt; Delivery of the 
Law on Mt. Sinai ; conquest and partition of Ca- 
naan ; battles under the leadership of the Judges. 

Samuel, the last Judge, anoints Saul of the tribe of 
Benjamin, as king. After his victory over Nahash, 
King of the Ammonites, Saul is recognised as king 
by the whole people. 

David becomes King of Judah'at Hebron. 

David becomes King over the whole people. Jerusa- 
lem finally conquered and constituted the capital. 
The Ark deposited on Mt. Zion. 

David conquers Damascus. Hiram'I., King of Tyre, 
concludes an alliance with David, as afterwards 
Abibaal ' and Hiram II. The kingdom attains its 
greatest extent. 

David dies, and is succeeded; by Solomon. 

Foundation of the Temple. Tyre flourishes under 
Hiram II. 

Dedication of the Temple. 

Death of Solomon and partition of the kingdom. 



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728 — 699 H&zekiah , son of Ahaz , aided by Isaiah and Micah , re- 
stores the worship of Jehovah. Alliance with Egypt. 
I Sennacherib invades Jndah when on his expedition 
against Egypt. 

699 — 43 Manaeseh, son of Hezekiah, returns to idolatry, bnt after- 
wards repents. 

643 — 41 Amon, son of Manasseh, relapses into idolatry. 
640 — 10 Josiah , under the guidance of Jeremiah and Zephaniah, 
restores the worship of Jehovah. Invasion of the Scy- 
thians. Reformation by Hilkiah. Josiah falls whilst 
fighting against the Egyptians at Megiddo. The king- 
dom dependent on Pharaoh-Necho, King of Egypt. 
609 Jehoahaz, son of Josiah, dethroned by Pharaoh-Necho. 

609 — 599 Eliakim, brother of Jehoahaz, made king by Necho under 
the name of Jehoiakim. Syria tributary to Egypt. Af- 
ter Necho's defeat at Carchemish, Jehoiakim serves 
Nebuchadnezzar, but rebels after three years. 
599 Jehoiachin, son of Jehoiakim. Nebuchadnezzar takes Jeru- 

salem and carries away 10,000 captives. 
599 — 88 Zedekiah, uncle of Jehoiachin, relying on Pharoah-Hophra, 

King of Egypt, rebels against Nebuchadnezzar. 
588 Siege of Jerusalem; destruction of the Temple; the 

princes carried away captive to Babylon; others flee 
to Egypt. End of^the kingdom of Judah. 
586 The Babylonians besiege Tyre (13 years). 

561 Jehoiachin is released from prison by Evil-merodach. 

537 By permission of Cyrus, Zerubbabel and Jeshua conduct 

about 50,000 of the Jews back to Palestine. 
534 Foundation of the Second Temple. Its erection obstructed 

by the Samaritans. 
515 Completion of the Temple. Restoration of the Sacrifices 

by the priests and Levites. 
458 During the reign of Artaxerxes Longimanus, Ezra brings 

back 6000 Jews. 
444 Nehemiah, of the tribe of Judah, cupbearer of Artaxerxes, 

is appointed'governor of Jerusalem, and fortifies the city. 
360 Erection of a temple on Mt. Gerizim , and institution of 

the Samaritan worship. 
351 Sidon destroyed by the Persian king Ochus. 

333 Alexander the Great conquers Syria after the battle of Issus . 

332 Tyre captured and destroyed. The Jews submit to Alexan- 

der. Andromachus , and afterwards Memnon , governor 
of Palestine. 
320 Ptolemy takes possession of Syria and Palestine. 

314 Antigonus wrests Palestine from him. 

312 Beginning of the era of the Seleucidse. 


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570 or 571 


Herod the Great. 
Partition of the kingdom. 

Birth of Cheist. 

Quirinius appointed proconsul. Census (Luke ii. 1 — 5). 
Judas Gaulonites rebels in consequence of the appointment 

of Eoman procurators. 
Caiaphas, high priest. 
Pontius Pilate appointed governor. 
Ministry of Christ. Crucified about 31. 
Marcellus succeeds Pilate. 
Revolt of Theudas quelled by the procurator Cuspius 

Cumanus, procurator. 
Felix, procurator of Judaea. 
Porcius Festus, procurator, resides at Csesarea. 
Gessius Floras, procurator of Judsea, causes the outbreak 

of a rebellion. 
Vespasian conquers Galilee. 
Titus captures Jerusalem. Lucilius Bassus and Flavins 

Sylva quell the insurrection in the rest of the country. 
Bar Cochba, acknowledged as the Messiah by the Rabbi 

Akiba, is put down. 
Ammius Rufus, governor of Palestine. 
Bar Cochba heads a predatory war against the Romans. 
Bar Cochba captures Jerusalem. Julius Severus, sent by 

Hadrian, storms Jerusalem. 
Bar Cochba slain. Jerusalem converted into a heathen 

colony, under the name of jElia Capitolina. 
Antonius Heliogabalns of Emesa, Emperor of Rome. 
Philip Arabs of the Hauran, Emperor of Borne. 
Odenatus, King of Palmyra. 

Aurelian defeats Zenobia and destroys Palmyra. 
Constantine the Great. Recognition of Christianity. 
Pilgrimage of St. Helena to Jerusalem. 
Justinian I. 

Chosroes II., King of Persia, conquers Syria and Palestine. 
Heraclius , Emperor of Byzantium , reconquers these pro- 
Birth of Mohammed. 
Mohammed's flight (Hegira) from Mecca to El Medina 

(16th July). 
Death of Mohammed. 
Abu Bekr, father-in-law of Mohammed, first Khalif. The 

general Khalid conquers Bosra in Syria. 










780 (1) 

901 (2) 
934 (5) 



1070 (1) 



Syria falls into 
Jerusalem, and 

'Omar, Khalif. 

Defeat of the Byzantines on the Yarmuk. 

the hands of the Arabs. Damascus, 

Antioch captured. 
r Othman, Khalif. 
'Ali, Khalif. 
Mu'awiya, the first Khalif of the family of the 'Omayya- 

des, makes Damascus his residence. 
Yezid I. 
Merwan I. ; he defeats the Keisites in the neighbourhood 

of Damascus. 
'Abd el-Melik. Battles with 'Abdallah ibn ez-Zubeir at 

Mecca (692) and with 'Abd er-Rahman (704). 
Welid I. ; the Arabian supremacy extended to Spain (711). 
Suleiman defeats the Byzantines. 
'Omar II. 
Yezid II. 
Welid II. 
Yezid III. 

brother of 

revolt in Palestine. — Ibrahim 

Yezid, reigns for a few months. 
Merwan II. deprives Ibrahim of his authority. Continued 

disturbances in Syria. 
Merwan defeated by the 'Abbasides at the battle of the 

Zab. The central point of the kingdom removed to 

'Irak (Bagdad). 
Ahmed ibn Tulun, governor of Egypt, conquers the whole 

of Syria. 
Rise of the turbulent sect of Carmates. 
Ikhshid , founder of the dynasty of Ikhshides , appointed 

governor of Syria and Egypt. 
Seif ed-Dauleh, a Hamdanide, fights against the Greeks and 

the Ikhshides at Aleppo. 
The Fatimites conquer Egypt, and, after repeated attempts, 

the whole of Syria also. Continued struggles. 
Rise of the Seljuks, who gradually obtain possession of 

the whole of Syria — capturing Damascus about 1075, 

and Antioch about 1085. 
Beginning of the first Crusade ; Godfrey de Bouillon, Bald- 
win, Bohemnnd, Raimund IV. 
The Crusaders capture Antioch. 

Baldwin declared prince of Edessa. Conquest of Jerusa- 
lem. Godfrey de Bouillon king; defeats the Egyptians 

at Ascalon. 



1100—1118 Baldwin I., King of Jerusalem. The Franks capture Cse- 

sarea, Tripoli, and Beirut. 
1104—1128 Toghtekin, Prince of Damascus, defeats the Franks. 
1118—1131 Baldwin II.; under him the Frank dominions reach 

their greatest extent. 
1131—1143 ' Fulke of Anjou, King of Jerusalem. 
1143—1162 I Baldwin HI., conquers Acre in 1153. 
1146 Nureddin, son of Zenghi, ruler of N. Syria , captures Da- 

i mascus (dynasty of the .Uabekes); he takes Edessa and 
oppresses the Franks. 
1147—1149 I Second Crusade, under Louis VII. uf France and Con- 
rad III. of Germany. 
1148 The Franks endeavour to capture Damascus, of which Nu- 

reddin gains possession six years later. 
1161 Salah ed-Din (Saladin), the Eyyubide, puts an end to the 

dynasty of the Fatimites in Egypt. 
1162 — 11,73 Amalrich , King of Jerusalem , undertakes a campaign 

against Egypt. 
1173—1185 Baldwin IV., the Leper. 
1180 Victory of the Franks at Bamleh. 

1183 Saladin becomes master of the whole of Syria, except the 

Frank possessions. 
1185—1186 Baldwin V. 
1186 — 1187 Guy of Lusignan. 
1187 Saladin gains a victory at Hattin, and conquers nearly the 

whole of Palestine. 
1189—1192 Third Crusade, under Frederick Barbarossa, Richard Coeur 
de Lion, and Philip Augustus. 
1193 Saladin cedes the seaboard from Yafa to Acre to the 

Franks. Death of Saladin. 
1228 — 1229 Fifth Crusade. Frederick II. obtains Jerusalem, etc., 

from Kamil, Sultan of Egypt. 
1244 The Khaurezmians , invited to aid the Egyptians, ravage 

1259 — 60 The Mongols under Hiilagu conquer N. and Central 

Syria, and penetrate as far as the Egyptian frontier. 
1260 — 1277 Bibars , the Mameluke Sultan of Egypt , recaptures Da- 
mascus, and defeats the Franks (1265 — 1268). 
1279—1290 Kilawun, Sultan of Egypt. 
1291 His son, Melik el-Ashraf, puts an end to the Frank rule 

in Palestine. 
1400 Timur (Tamerlane) conquers Syria. 

1518 Selim I. wrests Syria from the Mamelukes and incorpo- 

rates it with the Turkish empire. 









Fakhreddin, emir of the Druses. 

Napoleon conquers Yafa. Battle of Mt. Tabor. Retreat. 

Mohammed 'AH Pasha of Egypt ; his adopted son Ibrahim 

conquers Syria, and the country is ceded to Egypt by 

Turkey at the peace of Kutahya in 1833. 
Turkey introduces reforms. Sultan r Abdul Mejid issues 

the Hatti Sherif of Giilkhaneh. 
Intervention of the European powers. Syria re-conquered 

for the Porte, chiefly by the English fleet. 
An affray in the church of the Nativity at Jerusalem 

leads, after long negociations, to war with Russia (1852 


The Druses rise 
dition in 1861. 

against the Christians. French expe- 

V. Present Population and Statistics of Syria. 

I. Population. Ethnographically, the population of Syria con- 
sists of Syrians , Greeks , Arabs , Turks , Jews , and Franks ; or, 
according to religions , of Mohammedans , Christians . Jews , and 
several other sects. 

By Syrians we understand not only the Aramaic race , but also 
the descendants of all those peoples who spoke Aramaic at the 
beginning of our era, with the exception of the Jews. The native 
Christians are descendants of the population which occupied Syria 
before the promulgation of El-lslam. A few Greeks have recently 
settled in the country . but there is now no trace of the descendants 
of those Greeks who settled in Syria during the supremacy of the 
Europeans , which extended over nearly a thousand years, and who 
mingled with the Syrians of that period. 

The establishment of El-Islam as the state religion of Syria 
caused a number of Christians (Syrians and Greeks) to embrace it. 
■while others adhered to their own religion. The Aramaic language 
gave place to the Arabic , though the former held its ground for 
a considerable time. The only trace of Aramaic at the present day 
is an admixture of that language witli the Arabic spoken in three 
villages of Anti-Libanus. The Jews who remained in the country 
were but few in number; most of those who now reside in Palestine 
are comparatively recent settlers from Europe (see p. 89). 

The traveller will soon learn to distinguish the Jews, Christians, 
and Muslims of Syria by their physiognomies. As the purity of the 


Arabic language has been somewhat impaired by contact with the 
Aramaic , so also the race of Arabian dwellers in towns has been 
modified by admixture of the Syrian type (as it has been in Egypt 
by the Coptic). The Arabian population consists of hddari , or 
settled , and bidawi (pi. bedu), or nomadic tribes. The former are 
of very mixed origin ; the latter are the more interesting on account 
of the purity of their race, and must therefore be mentioned first. 

The Beduins are professedly Muslims , but as a rule their sole 
«are is for their flocks and their predatory expeditions , and they 
attend but little to their religious rites. They are the direct 
descendants of the half savage nomads who have inhabited Arabia 
from time immemorial (comp. p. 53). Their dwellings consist of 
portable tents made of black goats' hair. (Such doubtless were the 
black tents of Kedar mentioned in Solomon's Song, i. 5.) The material 
is woven by the Beduin women, and is of very close texture, almost 
impervious to rain. The tent is formed by stretching this stuff over 
poles , one side being left open to a height of five or six feet. It 
is then divided into two compartments, one for the women, the other 
for the men. In the centre of the latter is arranged a fire-place , the 
fuel used in which consists of dried brushwood and dung. The 
Beduins live by cattle-breeding, and can rarely be induced to till 
the soil. Several tribes, however, are gradually becoming more 
settled, and this transition is actively promoted by government. The 
Beduins generally live very poorly , their chief food being bread 
and milk ; but when a guest arrives they kill a sheep or goat, and 
occasionally even a camel. The traveller should generally make for 
the first tent on the right of the entrance to the encampment, that 
being the tent of the shekh or chief. The Beduins regard the laws of 
hospitality as inviolable, and they deem it their duty to protect their 
guest for three days after his departure from their camp. 

War occupies much of the time of these tribes , the occasion 
being usually some quarrel about pastures or wells. The law of 
retaliation also causes many complications. Travellers, however, 
need be under no apprehension for their lives , unless they offer 
armed resistance, and have the misfortune to kill one of their 
assailants. Among these children of the desert life is highly prized 
a7id not lightly to be destroyed ; but they are notorious thieves, and 
have little respect for the property of others. They have been 
known to leave the traveller whom they have waylaid in a perfectly- 
helpless condition, and even stripped of his clothes. For thousands 
of years there has been constant hostility between the nomadic and 
the settled tribes, and it requires the utmost efforts of government to 
protect the latter against the extortions of their wandering brethren. 
It sometimes happens, however, that the peasantry prefer paying 
'brotherhood' (khuwweh , a tribute in grain), or black mail, to their 
predatory neighbours , to trusting to the protection of government, 



as the Turkish governors and tax-gatherers are often even more 
oppressive and Tapacious than the Beduins. 

Fortunately for the government, these wandering tribes are 
seldom on amicable terms with each other. They consist of two 
main branches : one of these consists of the r Aenezeb, who migrate 
in winter towards Central Arabia , while the other embraces those 
tribes which remain permanently in Syria. The 'Aenezeh at the 
present day form the most powerful section of the Beduins , and 
are subdivided into four leading tribes (Kabileh) ■ — the Wuld 'Ali,. 
the Heseneh, the Ruwala, and the Bisher, numbering altogether 
about 300,000 souls. The settled tribes are those permanently 
lesident in Palestine, the Hauran, the Beka'a, and N. Syria ; thus 
in the Belka, are the 'Adwan, in the valley of the Jordan the so-called 
<ihor Arabs (Ghawarineh), and in Moab the Beni Sakhr. These are 
called l ahl esh-shemdV , or people of the north , while the Beduins 
to the S. of the Dead Sea are known as l ahl el-kibli', or people of 
the south. 

Every tribe of Beduins is presided over by a shekh, whose 
authority, however, is more or less limited by the jealousy of his 
clansmen ; nor is he the principal leader in time of war. The Beduins 
are very fond of singing, story telling, and poetry, which last, 
however, is at present in a state of very imperfect development. 

The Turks (p. 70) are not a numerous class of the community 
in Syria. They are intellectually inferior to the Arabs , but are 
generally good-natured. The effendi (aiid-ii'Trjg), or Turkish 
gentleman , however , is sometimes proud and arrogant. There are 
two parties of Turks — the Old , and the Young , or liberal party. 
The governors in the provinces change with the change of govern- 
ment at Constantinople. As the two parties usually come into office 
in rapid succession, none of the governors can reckon with any 
certainty on his plans being carried out by his successor. The 
'young' Turks, who profess to imitate European manners, do so in a 
purely superficial manner. They generally begin at the wrong end, 
many of them fancying that the proof of a modem education consists 
in wearing Frank dress and in drinking spirituous liquors. Through- 
out Turkey, indeed, the whole race is in a decaying and degenerate 
condition. In N. Syria, as well as on the Great Hermon, there are 
still several nomadic Turkish tribes, or Turcomans , whose mode of 
life is the same as that of the Beduin Arabs. 

II. Statistics. The following statistics are taken from the 
Beirut state-calendar for 1291 (1874), but we cannot vouch for their 
accuracy. The pashalics of Jerusalem and Aleppo are distinct, and 
are not included. Each house or family may be reckoned as con- 
sisting of three male and three female members, or six persons 
in all. 

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According to the calendar of 1871, the district of Jerusalem with 
Gaza and Yafa contains 30,495 houses, -which would indicate, at 
most, a population of 220,000 souls. We should thus obtain a total 
of about one million inhabitants ; to this there must be added the 
population of N. Syria with Aleppo, regarding which, however, we 
possess no statistics. The above statistics are unquestionably 
defective in two respects. In the first place the census of Beirut 
appears to belong to a much earlier date ; and in the second place 
it is well known that the tax-gatherers always underrate the number 
of the inhabitants. There is, however, reason to believe that the 
population of Syria hardly amounts to two millions, which would 
give an average of about 40 persons to the square mile (in England 
420 to the square mile). 

III. Religions. The three Semitic races which people Syria, 
Jews, Syrians, and Arabs, are similar in intellectual character. The 
Semites possess a rich fund of imagination , but no capacity for 
abstract thought. They have therefore never produced any philoso- 
phical system, properly so called, nor have they ever developed the 
Mgher forms of epic or dramatic poetry, or shown any taste for the 
line arts. To some extent this is to be accounted for by the fact that 
they have had little opportunity for enriching their imaginations by 
contact with other nations, or by acquaintance with those abstractions 
from nature which gave rise to the wealth of form and colour which 
characterised ancient mythology. The three great religions, the 
Jewish, the Christian, and indirectly also the Mohammedan, have had 
their origin in Syria , and the Semites are thus entitled to a very 
important rank in the world's history. The last phase which religious 
thought assumed among the primitive and unmixed Semites was 
that of El-Islam, the last practical attempt to introduce a theocracy 
on the part of a people who deemed such a system necessary. 

The Muslims , according to the above table , form about four- 
fifths of the whole population of Syria. They still regard themselves 
as possessors of the special favour of God, and as Tulers of the 
world , preferred by Him to all other nations. In Egypt European 
influence, having been encouraged at court since the beginning of 
the present century, has greatly mitigated the arrogance of Muslims 
towards strangers ; but in Syria the contrasts between the different 
sects are still very marked. El-Islam, being conscious here of having 
retained its hold on the bulk of the population, displays unmasked 
its true fanatical spirit, and thus renders itself more interesting to 
the student of human nature. (Islamism, see p. 89.") 

The Christians of the East chiefly belong to the Greek Church, 
and as, with few exceptions , they speak Arabic , their services are 
usually conducted in that language. Most of the superior clergy, 
however, are Greeks by birth, who read mass in Greek, and understand 
no other language. The Greeks possess many schools, in the upper 
classes of which the Greek language is taught. The members of 


this church are called ' Orthodox Greek', and those of Syria are 
divided into two patriarchates, that of Jerusalem, and that of 
Antioch. The patriarch of Jerusalem has jurisdiction over the 
greater part of Palestine , while a number of bishops 'in partibus 
infldelium' reside in the monastery at Jerusalem, being appointed 
with a view to enhance the importance of their chief. These are the 
bishops of Sebastiyeh, Nabulus, Lydda, Gaza, and Es-Salt. The 
bishops of Acre, Kerak, Petra, and Bethlehem , on the other hand, 
reside in their dioceses. The patriarchate of Antioch was removed 
to Damascus in 1531, and has recently been transferred thence to 
Beirut. To this patriarchate belong the dioceses from Tyre to Asia 
Minor, including Damascus, Aleppo, Ba r albek, Sednaya, etc., the 
bishops being styled 'matrans' (metropolitans). The Greeks are 
generally very fanatical , but the Latins are far moTe bitterly hated 
by them than the Protestants. 

Armenians and Copts are almost unknown except at Jerusalem, 
but there is a sect akin to the latter, called the Syrian Jacobite church. 
The Jacobites are monophysites ; that is, they adhere to the doctrine, 
condemned by the Council of Chalcedon, that Christ possesses one 
nature only ; or, in other words, they admit the existence of his two 
natures, but maintain that in him they became one. They derive their 
name from a certain Jacob Baradai, Bishop of Edessa (d. 587), who 
during the persecution of this sect under Justinian I. wandered through 
the East in poverty, and succeeded in making numerous proselytes. 
Like the Greeks, they use leavened bread for the communion, and 
cross themselves with one finger only. The Greeks and Syrians use 
the Greek calendar; and the monks still sometimes reckon from 
the era of the Seleucidse (p. 75). Their ecclesiastical language is 
ancient Syrian. The patriarch of the Jacobites formerly resided at 
Antioch, but his headquarters are now at Diarbekr and Merdin. 
Most of the Jacobites reside there , and some of them still speak 
Syrian. These Syrians are for the most part poor and of very humble 
mental capacity , and their monks are deplorably ignorant. The 
Jacobite monks , like the Greek , never eat meat ; with almost the 
whole sect, indeed, religion is a matter of mere external observance. 

The Roman Catholic, or 'Latin', church in Syria likewise embraces 
several sects. Generally speaking, the Roman Catholic clergy, thanks 
to the Propaganda of Rome and the efforts of many Franks of that 
faith in Palestine, are far superior to the Greek and the Syrian. 
For several centuries past Rome has made great efforts to obtain 
a firm footing in the East, and she has succeeded in founding two 
affiliated churches , the Greek Catholic , and the Syrian Catholic, 
among the Greeks and Syrians respectively. To this day Lazarists, 
Franciscans , and Jesuits are actively engaged in extending these 
churches. These Oriental catholic churches, however, have hitherto 
asserted their independence of Rome in some particulars. They 
celebrate mass in Arabic (at least the Greek section), they administer 


the sacrament in both kinds, and their priests may be married men, 
though they may not marry after ordination. The Greek Catholic 
church (Melchites) is a very important body. It is governed by a 
patriarch at Damascus , and to this sect belong the wealthiest and 
most aristocratic of the Christians. The Syrian Catholics have a 
patriarch at Aleppo, who sometimes also resides at Merdin. 

Since 1182 the Maronites have also belonged to the Romanists. 
They were originally monothelites ; that is they held that Christ 
was animated by one will only. Their name is derived from a 
certain Maron, who is said to have lived about the year 400. The 
complete subjection of the Maronites to the Romish Church was 
effected about the year 1600 , after a Collegium Maronitarum had 
been founded at Rome in 1584 , where a number of Maronite 
scholars distinguished themselves. The Maronite church still 
possesses special privileges, including that of reading mass in Syrian, 
and the right of the inferior clergy to marry. The patriarch , who 
resides in the monastery of Kannobin (p. 506), is elected by the 
bishops , subject to the approval of Rome. The episcopal dioceses 
are Aleppo, Ba'albek, Jebeil , Tripoli, Ehden , Damascus, Beirut. 
Tyre , and Cyprus. The Maronites are a vigorous , warlike people, 
although intellectually undeveloped, and are most bitter enemies of 
their neighbours the Druses. Their chief seat is in Lebanon, 
particularly in the region of Bsherreh, above Tripoli, where they 
possess many handsome monasteries (with about 1500 monks), 
some of which even contain printing-presses for their liturgies and 
other works. The entire Maronite population of Lebanon comprises 
about 200,000 souls. The Maronites live by agriculture and cattle 
breeding, and the silk-culture forms another of their chief occu- 
pations. They have succeeded in asserting a certain degree of inde- 
pendence of the Turkish government; they are governed by a 
Christian pasha, and partly also by a native nobility. (With regard 
to the events of 1860, comp. p. 464.) 

Among the Latins must also be included the foreign Frank 
Monks, who have long possessed monasteries of their own in the 
Holy Land (p. 29). The Franciscans in particular deserve great 
credit for the zeal they have manifested in providing suitable 
accommodation for pilgrims at many different places. They are 
generally Italians and Spaniards, and more rarely Frenchmen. The 
schools over which they preside exercise a very beneficial influence 
on the native clergy. — A Latin patriarchate has been established 
at Jerusalem within the last twenty or thirty years. 

The Protestants in Syria have been converted chiefly through 
the agency of American missionaries , and now number about 
300souls. Beirut is the headquarters of the Americans (seep. 441), 
whose influence is greatest among the Christians of Lebanon. — 
The chief reproach directed by the other religious communities 
against the Protestants is that they observe no fasts. 


The Oriental Jews are of several different classes. The Sephardim 
are Spanish-Portuguese Jews , who immigrated after the expulsion 
of the Jews from Spain under Isabella I., and who still speak a 
corrupt Spanish patois. The Ashkenazim are from Russia, Galicia, 
Hungary, Bohemia, Moravia, Germany, and Holland, and speak 
German with the peculiar Jewish accent. These again are subdivided 
into the Perushim (Pharisees) and the Chasidim from the Moldau, 
Austria, Warsaw, and many other places. The Jews of the East 
have retained their original character to a considerable extent, and 
are easily recognised, both by their physiognomy and their dress. 
They are generally tall and slender in stature , wear their peculiar 
side locks of hair and broad-brimmed felt hats or turbans of 
dark cloth. 

The Christians are also distinguishable by their costume. In 
the towns they generally wear the simple red fez, which is 
occasionally enveloped in a black or dark turban. The Muslims 
generally wear white turbans with a gold thread woven in the 
material, while the descendants of the prophet wear gTeen turbans. 
(Travellers had therefore better avoid wearing anything green.) 
The Druses wear turbans of snowy whiteness. The peasants and 
Beduins generally wear merely a coloured cloth over their heads 
(keffiyeh), bound with a cord made of wool or camels' hair fagal). 
The Muslims usually wear yellow shoes , while the Christians 
wear red. 

VI. Doctrines of El-Islam. 
Manners and Customs of the Mohammedans. 

Throughout the vast tract of country from China to Morocco, Is- 
lamism possesses a multitude of adherents, among whom doubters 
or free-thinkers are very rare. In Africa this religion is still on the 
increase. We shall now proceed to examine its dogmatical and 
its ethical character. 

Mohammed as a religious teacher took up a position hostile 
to the 'age of ignorance and folly', as he called heathenism. The 

a. Mohammed (ike praised', or 'to be praised') was a seion on the 
paternal side of the family of Hashim , a less important branch of the 
noble family of Kureish, who were settled at Mecca and were custodians 
of the Ka r ba. His father r Abdallah died shortly before his birth (about 
570). In his sixth year his mother Amina took him on a journey to 
Medina, but died on her way home. The boy was then educated by his 
grandfather c Abd el-Muttalib, and, after the death of the latter two years 
later, by his uncle Abu Talib. For a number of years Mohammed tended 
sheep. He afterwards undertook commercial journeys, at first in company 
with his uncle, and then, when about twenty- five years of age, in the 
service of the widow Khadija, who "became his first wife. On one of these 
iourneys he is said to have become acquainted with the Christian monk 
Bahira (p. 407) at Bosra. 


revelation which he believed it was his mission to impart was, 
as he declared , nothing new. His religion was of the most remote 
antiquity, all men being supposed by him to be born Muslims, 
though surrounding circumstances might subsequently cause them 
to fall away from the true religion. Even in the Jewish and Chris- 
tian scriptures (the Torah, Psalms, and Gospels), he maintained, 
there were passages referring to himself and El-Islam, but these 
passages had been suppressed, altered, or misinterpreted. So far 
as Mohammed was acquainted with Judaism and Christianity, he 
disapproved of the rigour of their ethics , which were apt to 
degenerate into a body of mere empty forms, while he also rejected 
their dogmatic teaching as utterly false. Above all he repudiated 
whatever seemed to him to savour of polytheism, including the 
doctrine of the Trinity , which 'assigned partners' to the one and 
only God. Every human being who possesses a capacity for belief 
he considered bound to believe in the new revelation of El-Islam, 
and every Muslim is bound to promulgate this faith. Practically, 
however, this stringency was afterwards relaxed , as the Muslims 
found themselves obliged to enter into pacific treaties with nations 
beyond the confines of Arabia. A distinction was also drawn 
between peoples who were already in possession of a revelation, 
such as Jews, Christians, and Sabians, and idolaters, the last of 
whom were to be rigorously persecuted. 

The Muslim creed is embodied in the words : 'There is no God 
but God (Allah), and Mohammed is the prophet of God' " (Id ilaha 
ill' Allah, tea Muhamrnedu-rrasal-Alldh). This formula, however, 
contains the most important doctrine only; for the Muslim is bound 
to believe in three cardinal points : (1) God and the angels, (2) 

About that period a reaction in the religious life of the Arabs had 
set in, and when Mohammed was about forty years of age he too was 
struck with the vanity of idolatry. He suffered from epilepsy, and during 
his attacks imagined he received revelations from heaven. He can scarcely 
therefore be called an impostor in the ordinary sense. A dream which 
he had on Mt. Hira near Mecca gave him the first impulse, and he soon 
began with ardent enthusiasm to promulgate{monotheism and to warn 
his hearers against incurring the pains of hell. It is uncertain whether 
Mohammed himself could read and write. His new doctrine was called 
Islam, or subjection to God. At first he made converts in his own family 
only, and the 'iluslims 1 were persecuted by the Meccans. Many of them, 
and at length Mohammed also (622), accordingly emigrated to Medina, 
where the new religion made great progress. After the death ofKhadija, 
Mohammed took several other wives, partly from political motives. 

He now endeavoured to stir up the Meccans , and war broke out in 
consequence. He was victorious at Bedr, but lost the battle of the Uhud. 
His military campaigns were thenceforth incessant. He obtained great 
influence over the Beduins , and succeeded in uniting them politically. 
In 630 the Muslims at length captured the town of Mecca , and the idols 
were destroyed. Mohammed's health, however, had been completely 
undermined by his unremitting exertions for about twenty-four years ; 
he died on 8th June 632 at Medina, and was interred there. 

a. Allah is also the name of God used by the Jews and Christians 
who speak Arabic. 


-written revelation and the prophets, and (3) the resurrection, judg- 
ment, eternal life, and predestination. 

(1). God and the Angels. According to comparatively modern 
inscriptions (Syrie Centrale, pp. 9, 10) it would appear that the 
emphatic assertion of the unity of God is by no means peculiar to 
Mohammedanism. As God is a Spirit, embracing all perfection 
within Himself, ninety-nine of his different attributes were after- 
wards gathered from the Koran , and these now form the Muslim 
rosary. Great importance is also attached to the fact that the creation 
of the world was effected by a simple effort of the divine will. (God 
said 'Let there be', and there was.) 

The story of the creation in the Koran is taken from the Bible, 
with variations from Rabbinical, Persian, and other sources. God 
first created his throne ; beneath the throne there was water ; the 
earth was then formed. In OTder to keep the earth steady, God 
created an angel and placed him on a huge rock , which in its turn 
rests on the back and horns of the bull of the world. And thus 
the earth is kept in its proper position. 

In connection with the creation of the firmament is that of the 
Ginn (demons), beings occupying a middle rank between men 
and angels, some of them believing, others unbelieving. These 
ginn are frequently mentioned in the Koran , and at a later period 
numerous fables regarding them were invented. To this day the 
belief in them is very general. When the ginn became arrogant, an 
angel was ordered to banish them , and he accordingly drove them 
to the mountains of Kaf by which the earth is surrounded, whence 
they occasionally make incursions. Adam was then created on the 
evening of the sixth day, and the Muslims on that account observe 
Friday as their sabbath. After the creation of Adam comes the fall 
of the angel who conquered the ginn. As he refused to bow down 
before Adam he was exiled and thenceforward called Jblis, or the 
devil. The fall of man is connected with Mecca and the Ka'ba ; 
Adam was there reunited to Eve ; and the black stone derives its 
colour from Adam's tears. At Jidda, the harbour for Mecca, the 
tomb of Eve is pointed out to this day. Adam is regarded as the 
first orthodox Muslim; for God, from the earliest period, provided 
for a revelation. 

Besides the creative activity of God , his maintaining power is 
specially emphasised as being constantly exercised for the preser- 
vation of the world. His instruments for this purpose are the 
angels. They are the bearers of God's throne and execute his 
commands. They also act as mediators between God and men, 
being the constant attendants of the latter. When a Muslim prays 
(which he does after the supposed fashion of the angels in heaven) 
it will be observed that he turns his face at the conclusion first over 
his right and then over his left shoulder. He thereby greets the 
recording angels who stand on each side of every believer, one on 


the right to record his good , and one on the left to record his evil 
deeds. The traveller will also observe the two stones placed over 
every grave in a Muslim burial-ground. By these sit the two angels 
who examine the deceased , and in order that the creed may not 
escape his memory it is incessantly chanted by the conductor of the 

While there are legions of good angels , who differ in form, but 
are purely etheseal in substance , there are also innumerable sa- 
tellites of Satan, who seduce men to error and teach them sorcery. 
They endeavour to pry into the secrets of heaven, to prevent which 
they are pelted with falling stars by the good angels. (This last is 
a notion of very great antiquity.) 

(2). Written Revelation and the Prophets. The necessity 
of a revelation is based on the principle of original sinlessness, and 
on the natural inclination of every human being towards Islamism. 
The earliest men were all believers , but they afterwards fell away 
from the true faith. A revelation therefore became necessary, and 
it is attained partly by meditation, and partly by direct communi- 
cation. The prophets are very numerous , amounting in all , it is 
said, to 124.000; but their ranks are very different. Some of them 
have been sent to found new forms of religion, others to maintain 
those already existing. The prophets are free from all gross sins; 
and they are endowed by God with power to work miracles , which 
power forms their credentials ; nevertheless they are generally 
derided and disbelieved. The great prophets are Adam, Noah, 
Abraham, Jesus, and Mohammed. 

Adam, who has been already mentioned, is regarded as a pattern 
of human perfection , and is therefore called the 'representative of 
God'. — Noah's history is told more than once in the Koran, where 
it is embellished with various additions , such as that he had a 
fourth, but disobedient son. The preaching of Noah and the occur- 
rence of the Deluge are circumstantially recorded. The ark is said 
to have rested on Mt. Judi near Mossul. The giant 'Uj . son of 
'Enak , survived the flood. He was of fabulous size, and traditions 
regarding him are still popularly current. 

Abraham (Ibrahim) is spoken of by Mohammed, after the 
example of the Jewish writers , as a personage of the utmost im- 
portance, and, as in the Bible, so also in the Koran, he is styled the 
'friend of God' (comp. James ii. 23). Mohammed was desirous of 
Testoring the 'religion of Abraham' , and he attached special im- 
portance to that patriarch as having been the progenitor of the Arabs 
through Ishmael. Abraham was therefore represented as having 
tiuilt the Ka'ba, where his footprints are still shown. One of the 
most beautiful passages in the Koran is in Sureh vi. 76, where 
Abraham is represented as first acquiring a knowledge of the one 
true God. His father was a heathen, and Nimrod at the time of 
Abraham's birth had ordered all new-born children to be slain (a 


legend obviously borrowed from the Slaughter of the Innocents at 
Bethlehem). Abraham was therefore brought up in a cavern, which 
he quitted in his fifteenth year. 'And when the darkness of night 
came over him he beheld a star and said — That is my Lord ; but 
when it set, he said — 1 love not those who disappear. Now when 
he saw the moon rise, he said again — This is my Lord ; but when 
she also set, he exclaimed — Surely my Lord has not guided me 
hitherto that I might belong to erring men. Now when he saw the 
sun rise , he spake again — That is my Lord ; he is greater. But 
when he likewise set , he exclaimed — O people , I will have 
nothing to do with what ye idolatrously worship ; for I turn my 
face steadfastly towards Him who created heaven and earth out of 
nothing ; and I belong not to those who assign Him partners !' 

Besides the slightly altered Bible narratives we find a story of 
Abraham having been cast into a furnace by Nimrod for having 
destroyed idols , and having escaped unhurt (probably borrowed 
from the miracle of the three men in the fiery furnace). 

The history of Moses , as given in the Koran , presents no 
features of special interest. He is called the 'speaker of God', he 
wrote the Torah, and is very frequently mentioned. — In the story 
of Jesus Mohammed has perpetrated an absurd anachronism, Mary 
being confounded with Miriam , the sister of Moses. Jesus is call- 
ed r lsa in the Koran; but 'Isa is properly Esau, a name of reproach 
among the Jews ; and this affords us an indication of the source 
whence Mohammed derived most of his information. On the other 
hand Jesus is styled the 'Word of God' , as in the Gospel of St. 
John. A parallel is also drawn in the Koran between the creation 
of Adam and the nativity of Christ ; like Adam, Jesus is said to 
have been a prophet from childhood, and to have wrought miracles 
which surpassed those of all other prophets , including even Mo- 
hammed himself. He proclaimed the Gospel , and thus confirmed 
the Torah ; but in certain particulars the law was abrogated by him. 
Another was crucified in his stead, but God caused Jesus also to 
die for a few hours before taking him up into heaven. 

Modern investigation shows with increasing clearness how little 
originality these stories possess, and how Mohammed merely repeat- 
ed what he had learned from very mixed sources (first Jewish, and 
afterwards Christian also), sometimes entirely misunderstanding 
the information thus acquired. The same is the case with the 
numerous narratives about other pretended prophets. Even Alexan- 
der the Great is raised to the rank of a prophet, and his campaign 
in India is represented as having been undertaken in the interests 
of monotheism. Alexander is also associated with the Khidr, or 
the animating power of nature, which is sometimes identified with 
Elijah and St. George. The only other matter of interest connected 
with Mohammed's religious system is the position which he 
himself occupies in it. Moses and Christ prophesied his advent, 


but the passages concerning him in the Torah and Gospel have 
been suppressed. He is the promised Paraclete, the Comforter 
(St. John xiv. 16), the last and greatest of the prophets ; but he 
does not profess to be entirely free from minor sins. He confirms 
previous revelations, but his appearance has superseded them. His 
whole doctrine is a miracle , and it therefore does not require to be 
confirmed by special miracles. After his death, however, a number 
of miracles were attributed to him, and although he was not exactly 
deified, the position assigned to him is that of the principal mediator 
between God and man. The apotheosis of human beings is, more- 
over, an idea foreign to the Semitic mind, and it was the Persians 
who first elevated 'Ali and the imams (literally reciters of prayers) 
who succeeded him to the rank of supernatural beings. 

The Koran itself was early regarded as a revelation of entirely 
supernatural origin. The name signifies 'rehearsal', or 'reading', 
and the book is divided into parts called surehs. The first revelation 
vouchsafed to the prophet took place in the 'blessed night' in the 
year 609. With many interruptions the 'sending down' of the 
Koran extended over twenty-three years, until the whole book, 
which had already existed on 'well-preserved tables' in heaven, 
was in the prophet's possession. During the time of the 'Abbaside 
khalifs it was a matter of the keenest controversy whether theKoran 
was created or uncreated. (The Oriental Christians have likewise 
always manifested a great taste for subtle dogmatic questions, such 
as the Procession of the Holy Ghost.) The earlier, orMeccau Surehs, 
which on account of their brevity are placed at the end of the book, 
are characterised by great freshness and vigour of style. They are in 
rhyme, but only partially poetic in form. In the longer Surehs of a 
later period the style is more studied and the narrative often 
tedious. The Koran is nevertheless regarded as the greatest master- 
pieceof Arabic literature. The prayers of the Muslims consist almost 
exclusively of passages from this work , although they are entirely 
ignorant of its real meaning. Even by the early commentators 
much of the Koran was imperfectly understood, for Mohammed, 
although extremely proud of his 'Arabic Book' , was very partial 
to the use of all kinds of foreign words. The translation of the 
Koran being prohibited, Persian, Turkish, and Indian children learn 
it entirely by rote. 

(3). Future State and Predestination. The doctrine of the 
resurrection has been grossly corrupted by the Koran and by sub- 
sequent tradition; but its main features have doubtless been bor- 
rowed from the Christians, as has also the appearance of Antichrist 
and the part to be played by Christ at the Last Day. On that day 
Christ will establish El-Islam as the religion of the world. With 
him will re-appear the Mehdi, the twelfth Imam (p. 99), and the 
beast of the earth (p. 91), while the peoples of Gog and Magog 
will burst the barrierbeyond which they were banished by Alexander 


the Great (p. 93). The end of all things will begin with the 
trumpet-blasts of the angel Asrafil ; the first of these blasts will kill 
every living being ; a second will awaken the dead. Then follows 
the Judgment; the righteous cross to Paradise by a bridge of a 
hair's breadth, while the wicked fall from the bridge into the abyss 
of hell (p. 181). Some believe in a kind of limbo, like that of the 
Hebrews and Greeks , while others maintain that the souls of the 
dead proceed directly to the gates of Paradise. At the Judgment 
every man is judged by the books of the recording angels (p. 91). 
The book is placed in the right hand of the good , but is bound in 
the left hand of the wicked behind their backs. The scales in which 
good and evil deeds (p. 169) are weighed plays an important part 
in deciding the soul's fate, a detail which gave rise to the subse- 
quent doctrine of the efficacy of works. This doctrine is carried so 
far that works of supererogation are believed to be placed to the 
credit of the believer. The demons and animals too must be judg- 
ed. Hell, as well as heaven, has different regions ; and El-Islam 
also assumes the existence of a purgatory, from which release is 
possible. Paradise is depicted by Mohammed, in consonance with his 
thoroughly sensual character, as a place of entirely material delights. 
The course of all events, including the salvation or perdition 
of every individual , is , according to the strict interpretation of the 
Koran, absolutely predestined; although several later sects have 
endeavoured to modify this terrible doctrine. It is these views, 
however, which give rise to the pride of the Muslims. By virtue of 
their faith they regard themselves as certainly elect, and as a rule 
they make no attempt to convert others, as they have no power to 
alter the irrevocable decrees of God. 

In the second place the Koran is considered to contain, not only 
a standard of ethics , but also the foundation of a complete code of 
positive law. 

The Morality of El-Islam was specially adapted by its founder 
to the character of the Arabs. Of duties to one's neighbour, 
charity is the most highly praised , and instances of its practice are 
not unfrequent. Hospitality is much practised by the Beduins, 
and by the peasantry also in those districts which are not overrun 
with travellers. Frugality is another virtue of the Arabs, though 
too apt to degenerate into avarice and cupidity. The law of debtor 
and creditor is lenient. Lending money at interest is forbidden 
by the Koran, but is nevertheless largely practised, the lowest rate 
in Syria being 12 per cent. The prohibition against eating unclean 
animals, such as swine, is older than El-Islam, and like the pro- 
hibition of intoxicating drinks is based on sanitary considerations. 
Wine, however, and even brandy, is largely consumed by the upper 
classes, especially the Turks. 

Although Polygamy is sanctioned, every Muslim being permit- 
ted to have four wives at a time, and few men remain unmarried, yet 


among the bulk of the population monogamy is far more frequent, 
owing to the difficulty of providing for several wives and families 
at once. The wives moreover are very apt to quarrel, to the utter 
destruction of domestic peace , unless the husband can afford to as- 
sign them separate houses. The treatment of women as mere chattels, 
which is of very remote Oriental origin, constitutes the greatest 
defect of the system of El-Islam, although the position of the female 
sex among the Oriental Christians and Jews is little better than 
among the Muslims. It is probably owing to this degradation of 
women that the Muslims generally dislike to see women praying or 
occupying themselves with religion. The practice of wearing veils 
is not confined to the Muslim women, but is universal in the East. 
An Oriental lady would, indeed, regard it as an affront to be per- 
mitted to mingle in society with the same freedom as European 
ladies. Even in the Christian churches , the place for women is 
often separated from the men's seats by a railing. The peasant and 
Beduin women, on the other hand, are often seen unveiled. The 
ease with which El-Islam permits divorce is due to Mohammed's per- 
sonal proclivities. A single word from the husband suffices to banish 
the wife from his house, but she retains the dowry which she has 
received from her husband . The children are brought up in great sub- 
jection to their parents, often showing more fear than love for them. 

The repetition of Peayeks five times daily forms one of the 
chief occupations of faithful Muslims. The hours of prayer are 
proclaimed by the mu'eddins (or muezzins) from the minarets of the 
mosques: (1) Maghreb , a little after sunset ; (2) 'Ashd, nightfall, 
about 1^ hours after sunset ; (3) Subh, daybreak ; (4) Duhr, midday ; 
(5) 'Asr, afternoon, about ^ hour before sunset. These periods 
of prayer also serve to mark the divisions of the day. The day is 
also divided into two periods of 12 hours each, beginning from 
sunset, so that where clocks and watches are used they require to 
be set daily. Most people however content themselves with the 
sonorous call of the mu'eddin : Allahu akbar (three times) ashhadu 
anna Id ildha ill' Allah , wa Muhammedu-rrasul-Alldh (repeatedly) 
hayya 'alds-sald (repeatedly); i. e. 'Allah is great; I testify that 
there is no God but Allah, and Mohammed is the pTophet of Allah ; 
come to prayer'. This call to prayer "sometimes also reverberates 
thrillingly through the stillness of night, to incite the faithful 
who are still awake to good works. — The duty of washing before 
prayer is a sanitary institution , and tanks are provided for the 
purpose in the court of every mosque. In the deseit the faithful 
are permitted to use sand for this religious ablution. 

The person praying must remove Ms shoes or sandals and turn 
his face towards Mecca, as the Jews and some of the Christian sects 
turn towards Jerusalem or towards the East. The worshipper 
begins by holding his hands to the lobes of his ears, then a little 
below his girdle , and he interrupts his recitations from the Koran 
by certain prostrations in a given order. On Fridays the midday 


recital of prayer takes place three quarters of an hour earlier than 
usual, and is followed by a sermon. Friday is not, however, regarded 
as a day of rest, and it is only of late that the courts of justice have 
been closed in imitation of the Christian custom of keeping Sunday. 

The Muslims frequently recite as a prayer the first Sureh of the 
Koran , one of the shortest , which is used as we employ the Lord's 
prayer. It is called el- fdtiha^ the commencing'), and is to the follow- 
ing effect : — 'In the name of God, the merciful and gracious. Praise 
be to God, the Lord of creatures, the merciful and gracious, the 
Prince of the day of judgment; we serve Thee, and we pray to 
Thee for help ; lead us in the right way of those to whom thou hast 
shown mercy , upon whom no wrath resteth , and who go not 
astray. Amen'. 

Another important duty of the believer is to observe the Fast 
of the month Ramadan. From daybreak to sunset eating and 
drinking are absolutely prohibited, and the devout even scrupulously 
avoid swallowing their saliva. The fast is for the most part rigor- 
ously observed, but prolonged repasts during the night afford some 
compensation. Many shops and offices are entirely closed during 
this month. As the Arabic year is lunar, and therefore eleven days 
shorter than ours, the fast of Ramadan runs through all the seasons 
in the course of thirty-three years, and its observance is most severely 
felt in summer when much suffering is caused by thirst. 

The Pilgrimage to Mecca, which every Muslim is bound to 
undertake once in his life, is also deserving of mention. In Syria 
the chief body of pilgrims start from Damascus in the month Dhul- 
ka'deh and follow the pilgrimage route to Mecca by Medina, 
with which we shall afterwards become acquainted. In the neigh- 
bourhood of Mecca the pilgrims undress, laying aside even their 
headgear , and put on aprons and a piece of cloth over the left 
shoulder. They then perform the circuit of the Ka'ba, kiss the 
black stone, hear the sermon on Mt. 'Arafat near Mecca, pelt Satan 
with stones in the valley of Mina, and conclude their pilgrimage 
with a great sacrificial feast. On the day when this takes place at 
Mecca, sheep are slaughtered and a festival called the Great Beiram 
observed throughout the whole of the Mohammedan countries. (The 
'Lesser Beiram' follows Ramadan.) Many of the pilgrims who travel 
by land fall victims to the privations of the journey, but most of 
them now perform the greater part of the distance by water. The 
month of the pilgrimage is called Dhul-hijjeh (that 'of the pil- 
grimage'), and forms the close of the Muslim year. — In order ap- 
proximately to convert a year of our era into one of the Muslim era, 
subtract 622, divide the remainder by 33, and add the quotient to 
the dividend. Conversely, a year of the Mohammedan era is con- 
verted into one of the Christian era by dividing it by 33, subtract- 
ing the quotient from it, and adding 622 to the remainder. On 
5th Feb., 1875, began the Muslim year 1291. 

Palestine. 7 


Most of the Arabic Literature is connected with the Koran. 
"Works were written at an early period to interpret the obscure pas- 
sages in the Koran, and there gradually sprang up a series of ex- 
egetic writings dwelling with elaborate minuteness upon every 
possible shade of interpretation. Grammar, too, was at first studied 
solely in connection with the Koran, and a prodigious mass of 
legal literature was founded exclusively upon the sacred volume. 
Of late years, however, some attempts have been made to super- 
sede the ancient law and to introduce a modern European system. 
The Beduins still have their peculiar customary law. 

With regard to theological, legal, and still more to ritualistic 
questions, El-Islam has not always been free from dissension. There 
are in the first place four Orthodox sects , the Hanefites , the Shdfe- 
'ites, the Malekites, and the Hambalites, who aTe named after their 
respective founders. In addition to these must be mentioned the 
schools of Free Thinkers who sprang up at an early period, partly 
owing to the influence of Greek philosophy. The orthodox party, 
however, triumphed, not only over these heretics, but also in its 
struggle against the voluptuousness and luxury of the most glorious 
period of the khalifs. 

Ascetism and fanaticism were also largely developed among 
professors of El-lslam, and another phase of religious thought was 
pure Mysticism, which arose chiefly in Persia. The mystics (sufi) 
interpret many texts of the Koran allegorically, and this system 
therefore frequently degenerated into Pantheism. It was by mystics 
who still remained within the pale of El- Islam (such as the famous 
Ibn el-'Arabi, born in 1164) that the Orders of Dervishes were 
founded. The dervishes, as well as insane persons, are still highly 
Tespected by the people. They generally carry about a wooden 
goblet into which the pious put alms or food. They are still reputed 
to be able to work miracles. One of their practices is to shout for 
hours together the word hu (he , i. e. God) , in order to work 
themselves into a state of religious frenzy. 

The Worship of Saints and Martyrs was inculcated in con- 
nection with El-Islam at an early period. The faithful undertook 
pilgrimages to the graves of the departed in the belief that death 
did not interrupt the possibility of communication with them. 
Thus the tomb of Mohammed at Medina and that of his grandson 
Hosein at Kerbela became particularly famous , and every little 
town soon boasted of the tomb of its particular saint. In many of 
the villages of Syria the traveller will observe the small dome- 
covered buildings, with grated windows, called Welies, the word 
'wely' signifying either a saint or his tomb (comp. p. 35). Shreds 
of cloth are often seen suspended from the railings of these tombs, 
or on certain trees which are considered sacred, having been placed 
there by devout persons. This curious custom is of ancient origin. 

About the end of the 18th century a reaction against the abuses 


of El-Islam sprang up in Central Arabia. The Wahhabites, or 
Wahhabees, named after their founder 'Abd el-Wahhab, endeav- 
oured to restore the religion to its original purity ; they destroyed 
all tombs of saints, including even those of Mohammed and HOsein, 
as objects of superstitious reverence; they sought to restore the 
primitive simplicity of the prophet's code of morals ; and they even 
forbade the smoking of tobacco as being intoxicating. They soon 
became a great political power, and had not Mohammed 'Ali deemed 
it his interest to suppress them, their influence would have been 
far more widely extended than it now is. The region occupied by 
these Puritans of the desert, however, is still of considerable area, 
and it is almost impossible to obtain access to it. For a time the 
Wahhabites exercised a kind of supremacy over the Beduin tribes 
even within the confines of Syria. The whole of this revo- 
lution may be regarded, in its political aspect, as a protest against 
the Turkish re'gime , the Turks being far more to blame than the 
Arabs for the deplorable degeneracy of the East, owing to their 
culpable neglect of education, as well as other shortcomings. 

We have hitherto spoken of the doctrines of the Sunnites (from 
sunna, 'tradition'), who form one great sect of El-Islam. At an early 
period the Shi'ites (from shi'a, 'sect') seceded from the Sunnites 
(see p. 66). They assigned to r Ali, the son-in-law of Mohammed, 
a Tank equal or even superior to that of the prophet himself; they 
regarded him as an incarnation of the Deity, and believed in the 
divine mission of the Imams descended from r Ali. Mehdi, the 
last of these , is believed by them not to have died , but to be 
awaiting in concealment the coming of the last day. Opinions are 
very various as to the number of these imams. The Persians are 
all Shi'ites, and in Syria also there are several native sects of that 
persuasion, besides a small number of immigrant Persians who are 
under the protection of their consulate. Towards the west also Shf- 
'itism was widely disseminated at an early period, particularly in 
Egypt under the regime of the Fatimite sovereigns. The Shi'ites 
are extremely fanatical, refusing even to eat in the society of per- 
sons of a different creed. Among the Syrian sects that of the Me- 
tdwileh has maintained the Shi'ite doctrines in the greatest purity. 
They possess villages in N. Palestine and in Lebanon as far as the 
neighbourhood of Horns, and even farther to the north, and have a 
very bad reputation as thieves and assassins. A similar sect is that 
of the Isma'tlians, who derive their name from Isma'il, the sixth 
of the imams (latter half of the 8th cent.), and are probably iden- 
tical with the notorious Assassins (literally 'hemp-smokers', p. 68) 
of the middle ages. These early ages of Mohammedanism witnessed 
the most extraordinary religious fermentation : ancient heathen 
superstition , misapprehended Greek philosophy , early Persian 
dualism, the theory of the transmigration of souls, and even ma- 
terialistic systems were combined to form a series of the most 



fantastic religions, the doctrines of which cannot now be clearly 
understood without much laborious and unprofitable research. 
Several of these religions exist to this day in the foTm of secret 
doctrines, known to the initiated only ; but, so far as they have 
been unveiled, they consist for the most part of mere mystic mum- 
meTy, without any solid foundation of principle. The adherents of 
these sects are generally ready to profess Christianity to Christians, 
and El-Islam to Muslims, in order to escape being questioned regard- 
ing their religion. There are several degrees of initiation among 
them ; the higher the degree, the greater is the extent to which the 
allegorical interpretation of the Koran is carried, until little or 
nothing is left of the original system of Mohammed. — The Is- 
ma'ilians live in the neighbourhood of Horns in N. Syria, and in 
the same region are settled the Nusairtyeh , who resemble them in 
many respects. Attempts have recently been made to identify the 
Nusainyeh with the Manichaeans and other sects ; but all that is 
known of them with certainty is that they made their appearance 
as early as the 10th century of our era, and were originally settled 
on the banks of the Euphrates. They appear to have retained many 
of the heathen superstitions of ancient Syria ; but they also cele- 
brate a species of Eucharist, and believe in a kind of Trinity, and 
possess certain religious books. When praying they turn towards the 
rising and the setting sun at morning and evening. They inhabit the 
so-called Nusairiyeh Mts. in N. Syria, where they live by agriculture 
and cattle-breeding. 

From the same chaos of superstition emanated the religion of 
the Druses. The khalif Hakim-Biamrillah (996—1020) having 
declared himself in Egypt to be an incarnation of 'Ali, his doctrine, 
together with that of the transmigration of souls, was promulgated 
in Southern Lebanon (Wady et-Teim) by Mohammed ibn Isma'il 
ed-Darazi , a shrewd Persian sectary , who succeeded in making 
many converts. Another sectary, called Hamza, reduced the new re- 
ligion to a system. The Druses, though for centuries they have 
held themselves aloof from the other inhabitants of Syria, are not 
a foreign race, but of mixed Syrian and Arabian origin, the ancient 
Syrian element decidedly predominating. They describe themselves 
as 'unitarians'. They believe in the existence of a God, inscrutable 
and indefinable, but who has occasionally manifested himself in 
human form, his last incarnation having taken place in the person 
of Hakim. This Hakim, the last prophet, and the founder of the 
true religion , is said to have subjected himself to death only with 
a view to ascertain whether any of his followers embraced his 
doctrine from worldly motives. At a future day he will return, 
found a vast empire, and convert the whole world to the Druse 
religion. The Druses possess numerous religious writings. The 
most highly initiated among them are called 'akkdl, or the 'under- 
standing'. The initiated abjure tobacco-smoking. They preform 


their worship in solitary chapels called khalweh. Their women used 
to wear the tantur, or horned head-dress so often mentioned by 
travellers, but now very rarely seen. The Druses are generally a 
hospitable and amiable race, and on good terms with the British 
consulates. They are noted and feared for their bravery, and were 
it not for their internal dissensions they would often have proved 
most formidable enemies to the Turkish government. Their princely 
families in Lebanon have from an early age been too ambitious to 
submit to the authority of any one of their own number. For a 
considerable period the Druses maintained themselves as an inde- 
pendent power in Syria, and to some extent this is still the case. 
One of their most powerful princes was the Emir Beshir , of the 
Shehab family, whose power, however, declined when Mohammed 
*Ali lost possession of Syria. The greatest enemies of the Druses 
are the Maronites in Lebanon (p. 88). In 1860, when an attempt 
was made to chastise the Druses for the massacre of the Christians 
at Damascus , many of them migrated to the Hauran (p. 402). 
They are governed by village chiefs, orshekhs, who when on horse- 
back and fully caparisoned present a most imposing appearance. 
One of their most powerful champions was the shekh Isma'il el- 
Atrash , whose headquarters were in the Hauran (see p. 412), and 
under whose rule the Hauran enjoyed far more tranquillity than has 
fallen to its lot for many years past under the Turkish garrisons. 

Customs of the Mohammedans. The traveller will often have 
occasion to observe that the customs of the population of Syria still 
closely resemble in many Tespects those described in the Bible. 

Circumcision is performed on boys up to the age of six or seven, 
or even later, the ceremony being attended with gTeat pomp. The 
child is previously conducted through the streets in holiday attire, 
the procession frequently joining some bridal party in order to 
diminish the expense of the proceedings. The boy generally wears 
a turban of red cashmere, girls' clothes of the richest possible 
description, and conspicuous female ornaments, which are designed 
to attract attention , and thus avert the evil eye from his person. 
A handsomely caparisoned horse is borrowed to carry him ; he half 
covers his face with an embroidered handkerchief; and the barber 
who performs the operation and a noisy troop of musicians head 
the procession. Two boys are frequently thus paraded together. 

Girls are generally married in their 12th or 13th, and some- 
times as early as their 10th year. The man in search of a bride 
employs the services of a relative , or of women whose profession 
it is to arrange marriages, and he never has an opportunity of seeing 
his bride until the wedding-day, except when the parties belong 
to the lowest classes. When everything is arranged, the affianced 
bridegroom has to pay a sum of about $ 25 , or more , for the 
purchase of the bridal outfit when the lady is a spinster, but less if 
she is a widow. Generally speaking, about two-thirds of the sum, 


the amount of which always forms a subject of lively discussion, 
is paid down , while onethird is settled upon the wife , being 
payable on the death of the husband, or on his divorcing her against 
her will. The marriage-contract is now complete. Before the wedding 
the bride is conducted in gala attire and with great ceremony to the 
bath. This procession is called 'Zeffet et Hammam\ It is headed 
by several musicians with hautbois and drums of different kinds ; 
these are followed by several married friends and relations of the 
bride in pairs, and after these come a number of young girls. The 
bride is entirely concealed by the clothing she wears, being usually 
enveloped from head to foot in a cashmere shawl, and wearing on 
her head a small cap or crown of pasteboard. The procession moves 
very slowly, and another body of musicians brings up the rear. 
The hideous shrieks of joy which women of the lower classes utter 
on the occasion of any sensational event are called zagh&rU. The 
bride is afterwards conducted with the same formalities to the 
house of her husband. 

The ceremonies observed at funerals are not less remarkable 
than those which attend weddings. If the death occurs in the morn- 
ing the funeral takes place the same day, but if in the evening 
the funeral is postponed till next day. The body is washed and 
mourned over by the family and the professional mourning women 
(noddfibehsj ; the ftkth, or schoolmaster, reads several surehs of the 
Koran by its side ; the ears and nostrils of the deceased are filled 
with cotton ; the body is then enveloped in its white or green 
winding sheet, and is at length carried forth in solemn procession. 
The foremost persons in the cortege are usually six or more poor, 
and generally blind men, who walk in twos or threes at a slow 
pace, chanting the creed — 'There is no God but God; Mohammed 
is the ambassador of God; God be gracious to him and preserve 
him !' The bier, with the head of the deceased foremost, comes next, 
being borne by three or four of his friends, who are relieved from 
time to time by others. After the bier come the female relatives, 
with dishevelled hair, sobbing aloud, and frequently accompanied 
by professional mourning women whose business it is to extol the 
merits of the deceased. The body is first carried into that mosque 
for whose patron saints the relatives entertain the greatest veneration, 
and prayers are there offered on its behalf. After the bier has been 
placed in front of the tomb of the saint, and prayers and chants have 
again been recited, the procession is formed anew and moves towards 
the cemetery, where the body is interred in such a position that its 
face is turned towards Mecca. Another custom peculiar to the Mus- 
lims is that the separation of the sexes is as strict after death as 
during life. In family vaults one side is set apart for the men, the 
other for the women exclusively. Between these vaults istheentrance 
to the tomb, which is usually covered with a single large slab. The 
vaults aTe high enough to admit of the deceased sitting upright in 


them when he is being examined by the angels Muukar and Nekir 
on the first night after his interment (see p. 92); for, according to 
the belief of the Muslims, the soul of the departed remains with 
his body for a night after his burial. — The catafalque, executed in 
stone, and resting on a pedestal of more or less ornate design, 
bears two upright columns (shahid) of martle or other stone. On one 
of these, over the head of the body, are inscribed texts from the 
Koran and the name and age of the deceased. On the upper 
extremity is represented the turban of the deceased, which shows 
his rank. In the case of persons of high position a dome borne by 
four columns is erected over the tomb, or the closed form of the 
tombs of the shekhs is adopted (p. 35). On festival days the cata- 
falque and the hollows of the pedestal are adorned with flowers. 
On such occasions the female relatives frequently remain for days 
together by the tomb, occupying themselves with prayer and alms- 
giving. As it was necessary to provide accommodation for these 
mourners , it became customary to construct mausolea with sub- 
sidiary apartments, almost as spacious as those of the mosques 
themselves, including apartments for the family, sebils and schools, 
stabling for the horses, a residence for the custodian, and other 
conveniences, giving the establishment, when unoccupied, some- 
what of the appearance of a small deserted town. A mausoleum 
of this larger description is called a hdsh. 

VII, The Arabic Language. 

Throughout Syria, except in a few localities which are decreas- 
ing in number, the language of the country is that of its Muslim 
conquerors. The golden era of Arabic literature was coeval with the 
great national development of the race, which was favoured by the 
introduction of El-Islam. The poems of that period and one 
somewhat earlier, together with the Koran, constitute the classical 
literature of the Arabs. Besides the language of literature, which 
is the dialect of Kureish (the family of Mohammed) , different 
dialects were prevalent among the various Arabian tribes, just 
as different dialects of English prevail in various parts of Great 
Britain ; though in the case of Arabic, notwithstanding the vast 
tract of country throughout which it is spoken — from Yemen to 
Mesopotamia, from Bagdad to Morocco — a greater degree of uni- 
formity is observable. To this day classical Arabic is still written 
with greater or less purity according to the education of the writer 
and the colloquial expressions he is in the habit of using. The 
language of the present day, however, has been considerably 
modified by the introduction of foreign woTds, as the Turks have 
been in possession of the country for centuries , and Turkish is 
the official language of the Serai , the government , and to some 
extent that of the courts of Ijustice. The Aramaic language, which 


was spoken in the country previously to the Mohammedan conquest, 
has also exercised some influence on the Arabic of Syria. Lastly it 
must be mentioned that a patois called the lingua franca, composed 
of a mixture of Arabic with several European languages, was for a 
considerable time spoken in the seaport-towns. 

Arabic belongs to the Semitic group of languages, and no re- 
lationship has yet been traced between it and the languages of 
Europe. It is this entire dissimilarity between Arabic and the lan- 
guage of the learner which renders it so difficult and formidable to 
beginners. Arabic, however, and particularly the colloquial dialect, 
has many points of resemblance to Hebrew, and a slight knowledge 
of the latter will often be found useful. The Arabic characters 
have been developed from the Syriac, which in their turn were 
derived from the Hebrew-Phoenician. In old MSS. the letters are 
generally better formed than in modern writing, and the present run- 
ning hand is small, indistinct, and unpleasing. The types used in 
the printing-office of Cairo are chiefly of small size ; those employed 
at Beirut are larger and more distinct. The vowel signs are now 
very rarely added , so that it is impossible to read Arabic correctly 
without an accurate acquaintance with the grammatical rules. 

The pronunciation of Arabic vowels more nearly resembles that 
of Italian or German than that of English. The language of the 
peasantry and the inhabitants of the desert is purer and more similar 
to the classical language than that of the dwellers in towns. The 
Muslims generally speak more correctly than the Christians, being 
accustomed to a more elegant diction and pronunciation from their 
daily repetition of passages of the Koran. The chief difference 
between the language of the Koran and the modern colloquial dialect 
is that a number of terminal inflexions are dropped in the latter. 
The proper pronunciation and accentuation of Arabic is only to be 
learned by long and attentive practice. 

We annex here a few of the most important grammatical rules 
of the ordinary Arabic of Syria, and add a list of some of the com- 
monest words and phrases. 

Alphabet. We give the corresponding sounds, so far as it is 
possible to represent or describe them to the English reader. It 
should also be observed that in the following pages we use the 
vowel sounds of a, e, i, o, u as they are used in Italian (ah, eh, 
ee, o, oo). The e used in the Handbook is a contracted form of ei, 
and is used in preference to it, as it exactly represents the ordinary 
pronunciation (viz. that of a in fate). The original diphthong 
sound of ei is only used in the reading of the Koran and a few 
isolated districts. Where a sound resembling the French u occurs 
it is represented by u (as in tutirnj. This system of transliteration 
will be found most convenient, as the words will then generally 
resemble the forms used in German, French, and Italian, instead 
of being distorted to suit the English pronunciation. Thus : emir, 



^which is pronounced 'aymeer' ; ahekh (or sheikh), pronounced 'shake' 
(with a guttural k) ; tulul, pronounced 'toolool'; Beirut (or Berut), 
pronounced 'bayroot' ; Huleh, pronounoed 'hoolay' ; etc. 


accompanies an initial vowel , and is not 
pronounced as a consonant. 

as in English. 

as th in 'thing', but pronounced t in the 
towns, and s by the Turks. 

as in English, but pronounced g in Egypt 
and by the Beduins. 

a peculiar guttural h, pronounced with 
emphasis at the back of the palate. 

like the harsh Swiss German ch. 

AU as th in 'the', but pronounced d in the towns, 
u and z by the Turks. 

pronounced with a vigorous vibration of the 

as in English. 

emphasised s. 

• I both emphasised by pressing the tongue 
firmly against the palate. 

generally pronounced in Syria like No. 15. 
a strong and very peculiar guttural. 

gjj a guttural resembling a strong French or 
German r. 

emphasised guttural *, pronounced g by the 
Beduins, and replaced by townspeople 
by a kind of hiatus or repression of 
the voice. 

as in English. 


Vowels. The short -vowel symbols Fathath, Kesrah, and Bum- 
meh (a, e, u), -which are generally omitted, are prolonged by Alef, 
Waw, and Ye (into d, e, i, 6, u, au). 

The numerous gutturals of Arabic render the language un- 
pleasing to the ear. The consonants Nos. 15, 16, and 21, which 
are sometimes called 'emphatic', are very peculiar, and modify the 
vowels connected with them : thus after them a and u approach the 
sound of o, and i that of e. The sounds of the French u and eu 
(German u and 6) are rare in colloquial Arabic, and so also are 
diphthongs (except in Lebanon). 

Abdress. The inhabitants in towns use the 2nd person plural 
in addressing a person, or a periphrasis, such as jendbak (your 
honour), khadretak (your presence), or to a patriarch ghubtetkum, 
to a pasha sa'ddetak. Yd s'tdi (0 sir) is also frequently used. 
Instead of ana, the first person singular (I), people of the lower 
classes use el-faktr (the poor man). 

Possessives. These are expressed by means of affixes. Thus, 
farasi, my mare ; farasak, your mare (i'fc, when the person addressed 
is feminine) ; farasu (6), his mare ; faras'ha, her mare ; farasna, 
out mare; faraskum, your mare; farashum, their mare. 

Article. The definite article el is assimilated before dentals 
and sibilants, and before n and r: thus, esh-shems, the sun. 

Demonstratives. Hdda, this ; which, in connection wich the 
article el, becomes hal; another form is hai, pi. hddoli. Hdddk, that. 

Relative : elli, which is omitted after an indefinite sub- 

Declension. The substantive is not declinable. The genitive 
of a substantive is formed by simply placing it immediately after 
the substantive to be qualified, the latter being deprived of its ar- 
ticle: thus, ibn el-bdsha, the son of the pasha. The feminine ter- 
minations a, e, i are in such cases changed into at, et, it: thus 
mara, wife ; marat el-kddi, the wife of the judge. 

Dual. The dual termination is en, fern, eten: thus seneh, year; 
seneten, two years; ijr, foot; ijren, two feet. 

Plural. In the masculine the termination is in (as fellahin, 
peasants); in the feminine at (as hdreh, town, quarter, etc., pi. 
hdr&i). The plural is, however, usually formed by a change of the 
vowel sounds of the singular, the change being effected in thirty or 
forty different ways, so that it becomes necessary for the learner to 
note carefully the plural form of every substantive: thus, 'ain, 
spring, pi. 'uyun; tdjer, merchant, pi. tujdr; jebel, mountain, pi. 
jibdl; kab'deh, tribe of Beduins, pi. kabdil. 

Verb. Many of the verbs consist of different cognate roots, 
somewhat iff the same maimer as the English verbs lay and lie are 
akin to each other. Each verb consists of a perfect and present 
imperfect tense, an imperative, a participle, and an infinitive. 



The above remarks are merely made in order to afford a slight 
idea of the structure of the language , the difficulties of which aTe 
such that few travellers will venture to encounter them , unless 
they make a prolonged stay in the country. We should, however, 
recommend our readers to commit to memory the following words 
and phrases of everyday occurrence, a knowledge of which will often 
prove useful. 

Arabic Vocabulary, 
one — wdhid, fern, wahdeh the first 

the second 

the third 

the fourth 

the fifth 

the sixth 

the seventh 

two — 
three — 
four — 
five — 
six — 
seven — 
eight — 
nine — 
ten — 
11 — hedd'sh 
12 — etnd'sh 
14 — arba'ta'sh 










- 'dsher 
20 — 'ashrin 
40 — arba'in 
50 — khamsin 

■ — dwwel, fern 
— tdni 

— tdlit 

— rabi' 

— khdmis - 

— sddis 

the eighth — tdmin 
the ninth — tdsi' 
the tenth — 'dshir 

15 — khamstd'sh 60 — sittin 
16 — sittd'sh 70 — seba'in 
17 — seb'atd'sh 80 — temdnin 
18 — tmantd'sh 90 — ti'sin 


rabi' a 
- 'dshireh 
300 — telatmiyeh 
400 — arba'mVyeh 
2000— aJfgn 
3000— telattdldf 
100,000— mitalf 

19 — tis'atd'sh 100 — miyeh; or, before nouns, mtt. 1,000, 000 — milyun 
four times 
five times 
six times 

a half 
a third 
a fourth 
a fifth 
a sixth 

— nus 

— tult 

— rub'eh 

— khums 

— suds 

a seventh — sub' 
an eighth — tumn 
a ninth — tus' 
a tenth — 'usher 

— marra 

— marrattn 

— telat marrdt 

— arba' marrdt 

— khdms marrdt 

— sitt marrdt 
seven times — seb'a marrdt 
tight times — teman marrdt 
nine times — tis'a marrdt 
ten times — 'dsher marrdt 

The Substantives following the numerals above ten are used in 
the singular; thus: 4 piastres, arba' kurush ; 100 piastres, mUkirsh. 

I, ana; thou, inte, fern, enti; he, hu; she, hi; we, ndhen; you, 
entu; they, hum. 

Yes, na'am (Egyp. aiwa~); no, Id; not, ma; no, I will not, Id, 
ma berid (Egyp. mush'dwez) ; it is not necessary, musk lazim; there 
is nothing, mdftsh; I will, ana berid; wilt thou, tertdenteh; we 
will, nerid; will you, teridH. 

I go, ana rdih; I shall go, dna beruh; we shall go, menruh; go, 
ruh; go ye, ruhu. 


I have seen, shuft; he has seen, shdf; see, shuf. 

I speak, behki; I do not speak Arabic, dna ma behki bil'ardbi; 
do you speak Italian, btehkibil-italydni; French, fransdwi; English, 
ingltzi ; what is your name, shU ismak. 

I drink, bishrab; I have drunk, dna shirtbt; drink, ishrab. 

I eat, dna bdkul; I have eaten, dnaakalt; eat, kul; we will eat, 
bedna ndkul. 

I sleep, bendm; get up, kumu; I am resting, besterlh. 

I mount, berkab; I start, besdfir; I have ridden, rikibt. 

I have come, fit; I come, bafi; come, ta'dleh; he has come, jd. 

To-day, el-yom; to-morrow, bukra; the day after to-morrow, 
ba'd bukra ; yesterday, embdreh ; the day before yesterday, awwel 

Much, very, kettr ; a little, shwoyyeh; good, tayyib; bad (not 
good), mush tayyib; very good, tayyib kefir ; slow, slower, shwdyyeh 
shwoyyeh, 'ala mahlak; forwards, yallah yallah. 

How much, Item; for how much, bekem; enough, bes; how many 
hours, kem sd'a? 

For, for what purpose, minshdnesh ; never mind, md'alesh. 

Everything, kul; together, sawasawa; each, kul wdhid; one 
after the other, wdhid wdhid. 

Finer, better, dhsan; the best of all, el-dhsan min el-kul. 

Here, hon (Egyp. henefi) • hither, lahon; hence, minhon; there, 
hdnik (Egyp. hendk); above, fok; below, taht; over, 'ala; deep, 
ghamik; far, ba'td; near, kartb ; within, inside, juwwa; outside, 
bdrra; where, wen; yet, lissa; not yet, ma lissa (with a verb); 
when, emta ; still, ba'd; later, ba'den; never, abadan; always, 
ddiman; perhaps, belki. 

Old, kadim; great, kebir; celebrated, meshhur; occupied, mash- 
ghul; knavish, khawwan; drunken, sekrdn; blind, a'md; stupid, 
ghastiim; lazy, kesldn; fat, semin; strange, gharlb; glad, ferhdn; 
healthy, sdh, mabsut (also content); hungry, ju'dn; untruthful, 
kedddb; tired, ta'bdn; satisfied, shib'dn; weak, da'if; dead, meyyit; 
mad, mejnun (Egyp. megnuri); trustworthy, amin. 

Bitter, murr; sour, hamud; sweet, hilu. 

Broad , 'arid ; narrow , ddyyik ; large , 'adim , kebir ; hot , har ; 
high, 'dli; empty, khdli, fddi; new, jed'td; low, wdti; bad, battal; 
dirty, wiisikh ; steep, 'asi; dear, ghdli. 

White, dbyad: black, dark, aswad; red, dhmar; yellow, asfar; 
blue, azrak; green, dkhdar. 

Hour, clock, sd'a; what o'clock is it? kaddesh es-sd'a? it is 
3 o'clock , essd'a bitteldteh ; it is half-past four , essd'a arba' unu$ ; 
it is a quarter to 5, hssa'a chdmseh ilia rub'eh. 

Forenoon, ddhd; noon, duhr; afternoon (1^ hr. before sunset) 
c a*r; night, lei; midnight, nuss el-lel. 

Sunday, yom el-ahdd • Monday, yom el-itnen ; Tuesday, yom et- 


teldteh ; Wednesday, yom el-arba'a ; Thursday, yom el-khamis ; Friday, 
yom el-jum'a; Saturday, Sabbath, yom es-sebt. The word ydm 
(day) is, however, generally omitted. The week, usbv,'; month, 
shaher, pi. ushhur. 

January, kdntin et-tdni; February, eshbdt; March, addr; April, 
nisdn ; May, iydr ; June , hezirdn ; July , tamtiz ; August , db ; Sep- 
tember, elul; October, tishrin el-awwel ; November, tishrin et-tdni; 
December, kdnun el-awwel. 

The Muslim months form a lunar year only (comp. p. 97). 
Their names are : Muhdrrem, Sdfar, RebV el-awwel, RebV et-tdni, 
Jumdda el-awwel, Jumdda et-tdni, Bejeb, Sha'bdn, Ramadan (the 
fasting month) , Shawwdl , Dhul-ka'deh , Dhul-hijjeh (pilgrimage 

Winter, shita; summer, sef; spring, rebi'. 
Rain, matar, shita; snow, telj; draught of air, hawa. 
Heaven, semd; moon, kamar; new moon, hildl; full moon, 
bedr ; sun , shems ; sunrise , tulu' esh-shems ; sunset, maghreb ; star, 
kdkeb, pi. kawdkib. 

East, sherk; west, gharb, maghreb; north, shemdl; south, kibla. 
Father, abu; mother, umm; son, ibn, pi. beni; daughter, bint, 
pi. bendt ; grandmother, sitt ; brother, akh, pi. ikhwdn ; sister, ukht, 
pi. akhwdt; parents, wdliden; wife, mdra; women, niswdn, harim; 
boy , weled , pi. uldd ; man , rijdl ; human being , insdn , pi. nds ; 
friend , sadik ; neighbour , jar ; bride , 'arils ; bridegroom , 'arts ; 
wedding, 'oers. 

Fastening of the keffiyeh, 'agdl ; Beduin cloak , 'abayeh ; fez, 
tarbush; felt cap, libdeh; girdle, zunndr; trousers, shelwdr; jacket, 
fermeliyeh ; kaftan , kumbdz ; skull-cap, 'arkiyeh ; silk , harir ; boot, 
jezmeh; woman's boot, mest; slipper, bdbuj; shoe, surmdyeh; 
stocking, jerdb; turban, shdla, leffeh. 

Eye, 'ain, dual 'ainen; beard, dakn, lihyeh; foot, ijr, dual, ijren; 
hair, sha'r; hand, Id, dual idin; right hand, y tm"m; left hand, 
shemdl; fist, keff; head, rds; mouth, fum , turn; moustache, 

Fever, sukhuneh; diarrhoaa, insihdl; pain, waj'a; quinine, kina; 
opium, afiyiLm. 

Abraham, Ibrahim; David, Ddud; Gabriel, Jibrdil, Jubrdn, 
Jebbur , Jabdra; George, Jirjis; Jesus, 'Isd; John, Hanna (a con- 
traction of Yuhannd); Joseph, Yusef, Yusuf; Mary, Maryam; 
Moses , Mtisa ; Paul, B&lus ; Peter, Budrus ; Solomon, Suleiman. 

American, amerikdni, amelikdni ; Arabic, 'arabi; Austria, Bilad 
Nemsd ; Austrian, nemsdwi; Beduin, Bedawi, pi. bedu,orel-'arab; Con- 
stantinople, Stambul ; Druse, druzi, pi. ed-deruz ; Egypt, Masr ; Eng- 
land , Bildd el-Ingiliz; English, inglizi; France, Fransa; French, 
fransdwi; Frank(i. e. European), Frenji; Frankish gentleman, khowdja 
(literally 'the respected'), pi. khowdjdt ; Greece, Rdm; Greek, rUmi; 
Italian , italyani ; Italy , Bildd Italia ; Prussia , Bildd BrUssia ; 


Prussian , brussidni ; Russia , Bildd Moskof; Russian , moskowi ; 
Switzerland, Suizzera; Syria, esh-Shdm; Turkish, turki. 

Christian, Nusrdni, pi. Nasdra; Jew, Yehudi; Greek orthodox, 
rum kadim ; [Greek catholic , rum kdtulik ; Catholic , kdtultki , pi. 
kuwetelch ; descendant of Mohammed, seyyid ; Protestant, protestant. 

Saint (or grave of a Mohammedan saint"), wely; Christian saint 
(Syrian), mar; prophet, neby, or (applied to Mohammed) rasul. 

Army, 'aaker; baker, khdbbdz; barber, halldk; Beduin chief, 
shekh el-'arab ; bookseller, kutubi ; butcher, kassdb ; caller to prayer, 
mueddin; consul, kunml; consul's servant (gensdarme), kawwds; 
cook , tabbdkh ; custom-house officer , gumrukchi ■ doctor , hakim, 
pi. hukamd ; dragoman , terjumdn ■ gate-keeper , bawwdb ; gold- 
smith, sdigh , pi. siydgh; guide (mounted), khayydl; judge, 
kadi, pi. kuddt; missionary, mursal, pi. mursalin; money-changer, 
sarraf- monk, rdhib ,; muleteer, mukdri (corrupted to 
mukr), pi. mkdriyeh; pilgrim, hajji; police, zdbtiyeh; porter, 
hammdl; robber, hardmi, pi. hardmly eh; scholar, 'dlim, pi. 'ulemd; 
servant, khddim; shoemaker, surmaydti ; cobbler, skdfi; soldier, 
'askeri; tailor, khayydt; teacher, ma'dllim; village-chief, shtkh 
el-beled; washer, ghassdl; watchman, ghaflr. 

Almond, loz ; apricot , mishmish ; banana , muz ; barley , sha'ir ; 
bean, ful, lubiyeh; citron or lemon, lemun; cotton, kutn; date, 
temr; fig, tin; flower (blossom), zahr, pi. azhdr; garlic, turn (fum); 
grapes, 'enab; melon (water), battikh, (red) jebzeh ; olive-tree, zeturt; 
onion, basal; oranges, bortugdn; peach, durrdk; pistachio, fustuk; 
pomegranate, rummdn; St. John's tree, kharrub; tree (shrub), 
sajara , pi. asjdr. 

Brandy (generally prepared from raisins in Syria) , 'arak, raki ; 
bread, khubz (Egyp. 'esh); flat Arabian bread, raghif, pi. rughfdn; 
breakfast , futur , (second) ghddd ; cigarette-paper , warakat sigdra ; 
coffee, kahweh; dinner, 'asha ; egg, bed, (boiled) bed berisht, (baked) 
bed makli; honey, 'asal; milk (fresh), haltb, (sour) leben; oil, zet; 
pepper, fulfill; rice, ruz; salt, milh; sugar, sukkar; water, moyeh; 
wine , ncbld , shardb . (of Cyprus , the kind chiefly used) nebid 

Book, kitdb, pi. kutub ; letter, mektub, pi. mekdtib ; inscription, 

Tent, khemeh, (Arabian) bet ; tent-block, watad, pi. autdd; tent- 
pole, 'amxid. 

Carpet, besdt; chair, kursi; garden, jeneneh, pi. jandin or bustdn ,■ 
gate, bdb,bawwdbeh; house, bet, pi. 6ij/ut(Egyp. ddr); inn, lokanda; 
room, oda; sofa, dtwdn; stair, derejeh; straw-mat, hasira; table, 
mdida; wall, sur; window, tdka. 

Dervish -monastery, tekkiyeh; hospital, muristdn; minaret, 
mddineh; monastery, der; mosque, jdmi', mesjid, pi. masdjid; 
prayer-niche, mihrdb; pulpit, mimbar; tomb, kabr, pi. kubur. 

Bridle, lejdm; fodder-sack, 'altka ; luggage , 'afsh, himl; horse- 


shoe , na'l ; saddle (European) , serj frenji , (Arabian) serj beledi ; 
saddle for luggage , jeldl ; stirrup , rekab , pi. rekdbdt ; travelling- 
bag (Arabian, for laying over the saddle), khurj. 

Dagger , khanjar ; gun , bundukiyeh ; gunpowder , milh ; pistol, 
tab&nja, ferd; sword, sef. 

Axe, kaddum; candle, shem'a; candlestick, shem'addn; drinking 
glass, kubdyeh; fan, mirwah; knife, sikktn; lantern, fdnus; soap, 
sdbun; stick, 'asdyeh; string, cord, habl: thread, Met; tube, kirba, 
pi. kirab. 

Bath, hammdm; cistern, btr; fountain (public), sebtl; pond, 
birkeh (pi. burdti), bohera; spring, 'ain, neba'. 

Charcoal, coal, fahm; fire, ndr; iron, hadld- lead, resds; light, 
ntir; stone, hajar; wood, khdshab. 

Anchorage , mersd ; harbour , mina ; island , jezire ; promontory, 
rds ; river , nahr ; sea , bahr ; ship , merkeb , pi. mardkib ; steamer, 
wdbur; swamp, ghadtr. 

Bridge, jisr; castle, kasr; cavern, meghdra, pi. rnughr- desert, 
berriye, bddiye; district, native country, bildd; earth, ard; fortress, 
kal'a; hill, tell, pi. tulul; market, suk, pi. aswdk; meadow, merj ; 
mountain, jebel, pi. jibdl; plain, watd, sahl; road, tarlk, pi. turuk; 
high-road, tarik es-sultdni ; ruin, khirbeh ; school, fcitttafe (reading- 
school), medreseh, pi. maddris (higher school); street, zekdk, sikkeh; 
town, medineh, pi. mwdwri; way, der&, pi. durub; village, beled, 
karya, kefr (Aramaic); wood, hesh. 

Ass, humdr, pi. hamtr; bear, d?6, dab b ; bee, naWeft; bird, ter, 
pi. tii/ur (or asfur, pi. asdfir); bug, 6afc; camel, jemel, pi. ;'imdj; 
fern, raafteft, pi. nitfc; camel for riding, dhelul; chicken, feruj ; 
cock, cJJfe; dog, fceifr, pi. kildb ; dove, ftamcim; duck, 6at; eagle 
(vulture), m'sr ; fish, semek ; fleas, bardghtt ; fly, dubbdn ; foal, muftr ; 
gazelle, p/uzzaj; horses, khtl\ lamb, kharuf; leech, r a£fea, pi. 'aldik; 
lizard, dabb; louse, kaml; mare, faras; pig (or wild boar) , khanzir; 
porcupine , kunfud ; scorpion , 'akrab , pi. 'akarib ; snake, hayyeh ; 
stallion, husdn; stork, leklek. 

On Arrival. For how much will you take me to land (to the 
ship)? Bikem tdkhudni lil-bdrr (lil-merkeb)? 

For Ave francs. Bikhdms frankdt. 

Too much; 1 will give you one. Kefir; ba'tik wdhid. 

You must take me alone, or I will give you nothing. Tdkh dni 
ivdhdi, willa md ba'tik she. 

There are three of us. Nahn teldteh. 

For four piastres each. Kul wdhid bi arba' kurush. 

Take this trunk (these trunks) down to the boat. Nezzil has- 
sandxik (has-sanadik) lil-merkeb. 

At the Custom-House (Oiimruk). Open the trunk. Iftah es- 


I have nothing in them. Ma 'dndi she. (Gratuity, bakhshish.') 
Give me your passport. Hat et-tezkereh (passaport). 
I have no passport. Ma fi tezkereh 'dndi. 

I am under the protection of the English (American) consul- 
Ana taht el-kunsul el-Jnglizi (el-Amerikani). 

At a Cafe. Boy, bring nie a cup of coffee. Yd weled, jib finjdn 
kahweh (kahweh besukkar , with sugar ; mingher sukkar , or murra, 
without sugar,!. 

Bring me a chair, some water. Jib kHrsi, moyeh. 

Bring me a nargileh. Jib nargileh (or nefes~). 

A clean new tube. Marbish nadif, jedid. 

Bring me a piece of red-hot charcoal. Jib basset ndr. 

Change the pipe (i. e. bring a fresh-filled bowl). Gheyyir en- 

At the Bath (fil-hammdm). Bring the pattens. Jib el-'ab'db 
(kabkab). — Take me in. Waddini lajuwwa. — Leave me for a little. 
Khallini shwdyyeh. — I do not perspire yet. Lissa mdni 'ar'dn 
('arkdn). — Rub me well. Keyyisni melih. — You need not rub me. 
Mush lazim ettekyis. — Wash me with soap. Qhdssilni bisdbun. — 
That will do ; enough. Bikeffi ; bes. — Bring me cold water. Jib 
moyeh bdrideh. — Bring some more. Jib kemdn. — We will go out. 
Bedna nitla' bdrra. — Bring a sheet (sheets). Jib futa (fuwatj. 
Bring me water, coffee, a nargileh. Jib moyeh, kahweh, nargileh.' — 
Where are my clothes? Wen hudumi? — Bring my shoes. Jib el- 
jezmeh. — Where is the bath-attendant, the coffee-seller? Wen el- 
mukiyyis, el kahweji") — Here is your fee. Khud bakhshishak. 

At the Barber's ('andel-muzzeyyin). Cut my hair with scissors. 
'Vss sha'r rdsi bilma'dss. (The Mohammedans have their heads 
shaved, an operation which is not only disfiguring to the patient, but 
often causes an unpleasant eruption.) — Dry, without soap. 'Alen- 
nashif. — Shave me well. Ihla' da'ni melih. — Shall I wash your 
head? Eghassil rdsak'f — No, it is not necessary. La, mush lazim. 
(Yes : e na'am.^j 

When the barber has finished , he holds a mirror before his 
customer and says : Xd'iman (may it be pleasant to you) ; to which 
the customer replies : Allah yin'im 'alek' (God make it pleasant 
to thee). 

Washing. Take the clothes to be washed. Wdddi elhudum 

lilghasil. (The articles should be counted in presence of the 

washerman). — How much does the washing cost? (K)addish 
temen elghasill 


With a Muleteer (mukdri). Have you horses? 'Andak khWi 

— I have no beasts. Mdfish dawdbb 'andi. — What do you ask for 
a horse per day? Kaddesh tdkhud kira kul yom 'did ddbbehl Thirty 
piastres. Teldtin 'irsh. — That won't do; we will give you fifteen. 
Ma bisir; na'tik khamstd'sh. — We want two horses and two mules. 
Bednd husdnen ubaghlen. — For how much will you take me there? 
Bikem tdkhudni laMnikl — A journey of three days. Sefer teldtt- 
iydm. — We will try the animals. Menjerrib eddawwdbb. — Mount. 
Irkab. — This one does not go well; bring another. Jidda ma 
biyimshi; jib wdhid gheru. — Give me earnest - money. A'tini 

On the Journey. When will you start? Ernteh tesdferul — 
We shall start to-morrow at sunrise. Menrld (bednd) nesdfir btikra, 
ma'ash-shems; an hour before sunrise, sd'a abl esh-shems ; two hours 
after sunrise, sd'aten ba'd esh-shems. 

Do not come too late. La teteh'&wwa' . — Is everything ready? 
Kill she hddirl — Have you bought wine? Ishtaret nebid? — No, 
not yet. Ld, lissd. — Pack, load. Sheyyilu. 

How many hours is it from ... to ... ? Kem sd'a min . . . 
ila . . . ? (As, however, few of the natives appear to know what an 
hour is , their answers are seldom to be relied on.) — Seven hours 
and a half. Seb'a sa'dt units. 

Hold the stirrup. Irnsik er-rekab. — I will mount. Beddi irkab 
(pi. bednd nerkab). — Will it rain to-day? Rdih yimtur el-yoml 

— Wait a little. Istenna shwdyyeh. 

What is the name of this village , mountain , valley , tree, 
spring? Shu ism hal-beled, jebel, wddy, (has) sajara, haVainl 

We will rest, breakfast. Beddendnisterih,neteghddda. — Isthere 
good water there (onthe route)? Flmoyehtayyibeh (fidderb)? — Where 
is the spring? Wen el-'ain? — We will dismount. Bidna ninzil. 

— Bring the dinner. Jib el-dkel. — Remain at a little distance. 
Khallikum ba'id 'anni. — Take away the dinner. SMI el-dkel. 

Come. Ta'dl. — Go away. Ruh. — Where are you going? 
Wen rdihl — Whence do you come? Min wen jail — The time 
has passed ; it is late. Fat el wa't. 

Shall we go straight on? Menruh dughri"! — Straight on. Dughri 
dughri. — Is a guide necessary? Yilzemna delill ■ — You have lost 
your way. Ghaldttu (tihtu) 'an edderb. — Are there Beduins 
(robbers) on the route? Fih bedwin (hardmiyeh) fid-derb"! — No, it 
is quite safe. Ld, kixllu anitrt. 

Stand still, or I will fire. Wakkif willa ekallwisak. — Fear me. 
Khaf minni. — What shall I do? ShU besatiwi? 

A gift, sir ! Bakhshish , yd khowdja \ — I have nothing for 
you ; begone. Mdfish ; ruh ! 

Where does this road lead to? Hadderb tuwdddi ila wlnl — 
Where does this Toad come from? Hadderb tiji minen? 

Palestine. 8 


I have become very tired. 'Ana ti'ibt ketir. — I have headache. 
Rasi byuja'ni. 

We will dismount early in order that we may rest. Nesta'jil 
bedna ninzil bakir minshdn nesterlh. — Evening has come on. Sdr 
mdghreb. — When shall we reach our quarters? Emteh nusil lil- 
menzW! — In a short time. Ba'd sd'a. — Where is the place to 
dismount, the monastery? Wen el-konak, ed-der? 

Open the door. Iftah el-bdb. — Shut the door. Sekkir el-bdb. — 
Clean the room and sprinkle it. Kennis li el-oda urishha. 

We will eat. Bedna ndkul. — Spread the table. Butt es-si'ifra. 
■ — Bring a bottle of wine. Jib 'aninet nebtd. — What is there to 
eat? Shu fih lildkel'} — Cook me a fowl. Itbukh li jdjeh.- — Give me 
water to drink. As'lni. — Bring me a clean napkin. Jib futanadifeh. 

Prepare the bed. Bdddir el-ferdsh. — Wake me early to-morrow. 
'Ayyimni bukra bakir. 

I will take a walk in the open air. Beshimm el-hdwa. — We 
shall soon be back. Nirja' 'awwdm. — Where is the post-office? 
Wen bit el-bosta? — Are there no letters for me? Mdfi makdtib 

At a Shop. What do you want? What do you seek? Shu 
beddak (Egypt, 'dwez ej? 

Have you a keffiyeh, a fez? 'Andak keffiyeh, tarbusht — What 
does it cost? 'Addesh yiswa (or simply bikem)'} — A hundred and 
twenty piastres. Miyeh u'ashrin 'irsh. 

That is dear, very dear. Bdda ghdli, ghdli ketir. — Cheap, sir! 
Bakhis yd sidi\ — I will give you seventy piastres. Ba'tik seba'in 
'irsh. — As you please. 'Ala klfak (or simply fee/afc). — No, it 
won't do. La, ma yesir. 

Will you buy it for a hundred piastres? Tishterihd bimit 'irsh 1 ! 
— No; I have but one speech, the word of a Frank. La. 'audi 
kaldm wdhid, kilmeh frenjiyeh. 

'Alii, min shdnak ( it is little, but for your sake) is the expression 
used by the seller when he has decided to accept the price named 
by the buyer. Or he sometimes says : Khiidu baldsh (take it for 

Yield a little. Zid shwoyyeh. — Give me the money. Hat el- 
fulus. — Change me a gold piece. Sdrrif li lira. — For how much 
will you take this gold piece? Bikem tdkhud el-lira? — It does not 
matter. Ma bisdil. 

Salutations and Phrases. May your day be happy. Nehdrak 
sa'id. — Your day be blessed. Nehdrak mubdrek. — Good morning. 
Sabdhkum bil-kher , or el-kher. — Answer: God grant thee a good 
morning. Allah yesabbihkum (yesabbihak) bil-kher. 

Good evening. Mesdkum bil-kher, or el-kher. — Answer: God 
grant thee a good evening. Allah yemessikum (yemessik) bil-kher, or 


messdkum^ Allah bil-kher. — May your night be happy, blessed. 
LUetak (leletkum) sa'ideh, mubdrekeh. Answer, the same. 

On visiting or meeting a person, the first question after the 
salutations is : Kef hdlak (hdlkum) , or kef kefak (Egyp. ze zeyak)? 
How is your health? The usual answer is: El-hdmdu lilldh, tayyib. 
Well , thanks be to God. — The Beduins and peasants sometimes 
ask the same question a dozen times. 

After a person has drunk, it is usual for his friends to raise their 
hands towards their heads and say : Hantyan yd sldi. May it agree 
with you, sir. — Answer: Allah yehannik (yehannikum). God grant 
that it may agree with thee also. 

On handing anything to a person: Dunak, or khud, take it. 
Answer: Kdttar Allah kherak. God increase your goods. — Reply: 
Vkherak. And thy goods also. (This form of expressing thanks 
will not often be heard by the ordinary traveller, as the natives are 
too apt to regard gifts presented to them by Europeans as their right.) 

On leaving: Auda'ndkum; goodbye. Or khdterak, khdtirkum; 
farewell. To which the host replies: Ft amdn Allah; under God's 

On the route: Ahlan wasahlan, or marhabd, welcome. Answer: 
marhabten, twice welcome. 

Come to eat; partake. Tafdddal, pi. tafdddalu. 

Take care. Khalli bdlak, or simply bdlak. 

To make way for a rider: Take care of your back. Ddhrak! 
Ddhrak ydkhowdja! Ddhrak yd bint! — according to the rank and 
sex of the person addressed. — In Egypt, and particularly in the 
narrow streets of Cairo, these warnings are very frequent and 
precise. Thus: Take care of your foot : riglak; ofyourface, wiishshak; 
of your right hand, yeminak; of your left hand, shemdlak. Also : 
ud, take care, etc. 

I am under your protection (aBeduin expression). Ana dakhtlak. 

— My house belongs to you. Beti betak (my house is thy house). 

— Be so good. I'mil el-ma'ruf. — I beg. Ddkhlak. 

Mdshdllah (expression of surprise). Literally 'what God wills' 
('happens', understood). — Inshdllah; as God pleases. Wallah, or 
walluhi; by God. Bihaydt rdsak; by thy head. Istdghfir Allah; 
God forbid. 

VII. History of Art in Syria. 

The natural situation of Syria is such as to render it unsuitable 
to form the nucleus of a great empire ; and hence it is that it has 
never possessed, except perhaps at the beginning of the Christian 
era, any characteristic form of art peculiar to itself alone. There 
are, however, scattered throughout the country vestiges of art 
workmanship belonging to schools and ages so widely different as 
are probably not to be found side by side in any other country in 
the world. The chief impediment to the native development of the 



arts of sculpture and painting has ever been the peculiar aversion 
entertained by the Semitic race for images of all kinds, as well as 
its own remarkable deficiency in power of conception. 

a. Caverns. The mountains of Syria abound in caverns, and 
there is ample evidence to show that the aboriginal inhabitants of 
the country were troglodytes, or dwellers in caves. The first and 
most natural effort of art would be directed towards the extension 
of natural caverns, and the next to forming new excavations in the 
rocks. Remains of such dwellings are still to be found in the Hauran, 
and the caverns in the region of Bet Jibrin belong to the same class. 
As civilisation advanced, the caves ceased to be inhabited except 
as places of refuge in time of war (Judges vi. 2). It continued 
customary, however, to excavate the rocks in order to form recep- 
tacles for the dead ; an early example of this being Abraham's 
purchase of the cave of Machpelah (Gen. xxiii. 9). In a land so 
deficient in springs as Palestine it was also necessary to dig cisterns 
and line them with masonry, or to hew them out of the solid rock. 
These cisterns were often extended so as to form large reservoirs. 
Many of them are upwards of 100 feet in depth, and their mouths 
are closed with large stones. These subterranean cavities were often 
used as prisons, a familiar example of which is afforded by the 
history of Joseph and his brethren ; and the Hebrew word for 'pit' 
therefore frequently means prison (Zech. ix. 11). Springs were con- 
ducted to the villages by means of aqueducts constructed in a 
variety of ways, either on arches, or along the hill-sides ; and the 
water of these springs, as well as rain-water, was often collected 
in tanks. These receptacles, which the character of the country 
Tendered necessary , were used at a very remote period (Deut. vi. 
11), and the oil and wine-presses which occur so frequently in 
Syria are probably also very ancient. These last consist of circular 
holes in the rocks , about 3 — 4 ft. deep and 3^ ft. in diameter, 
with a hole at the bottom through which the wine or oil flowed into 
a vat. These wine-presses are often found in the neighbourhood of 
rock-tombs. All these excavations must have required considerable 
experience in the use of the chisel , although the rock is not parti- 
cularly hard. The whole country is full of ancient rock-tombs, but 
it is very difficult to ascertain the periods to which they respectively 
belong. A favourite practice was to excavate these chambers in the 
face of a precipitous rock, with their entrances sometimes at an ap- 
parently inaccessible height from the ground. Where no such 
slopes were available, a shaft was sunk in the rock and the tomb 
excavated in the side of the shaft, in which a staircase descended. 
The tomb-chambers are quadrangular in shape, and a series of 
them sometimes extend into the rock for a considerable distance. 

Tobler has conveniently classed these tombs as follows : — (1). 
Sunken Tombs, hollowed in the rock like modem graves, and then 
closed with a slab of stone. — (2). Shaft Tombs, consisting of 


openings 5 — 6 ft. long and H ft. square, usually hewn horizon- 
tally in the rook, and often provided with a gutter in the floor, into 

which the hody was pushed, probably with its feet foremost. 

(3). Shelf Tombs, or those containing shelves or benches for the re- 
ception of the dead, about 2 ft. from the ground, and generally 
with vaulted roofs. — (4). Niche Tombs, hewn laterally in the face 
of the rock about 2£ ft. from the ground, of the length of the body, 
and about i\ ft. square. 

The Tomb Chambers are of three kinds : — (1). Those which are 
open, sunk 3 ft. or moTe below the level of the ground, and closed 
with blocks of stone. — (2). Those with a bench or shelf running 
round their walls , and above it sometimes a number of shafts 
excavated lengthwise , closed with slabs. The entrance to the 
chamber was closed with a slab or small portal of stone, an ap- 
purtenance now rarely extant. — (3). The third kind is that which 
has a portal, having a lintel or pediment, leading into a vestibule, 
whence small doors open into various chambers shaped like No. 2. 
The architectural decorations consist chiefly of wreaths of flowers, 
and the Egyptian hollow-moulded cornice frequently recurs. — Many- 
tombs of this last description betray Graeco-Roman influence, 
especially those in which Ionic and Corinthian capitals have been 
employed. Egyptian influence is also apparent in the case of the 
pyramids which sometimes surmount monumental tombs. — The 
rock-tombs of the Phcenicians differ in construction from those 
above described (comp. p. 434). 

Before its interment the body was usually more or less em- 
balmed. The practice of embalming the bodies of their dead was 
borrowed by the HebTews and Phoenicians from the Egyptians, from 
whom was also derived the custom of using sarcophagi, or stone 
coffins, which were frequently employed by the wealthier members 
of the community. The sarcophagi were probably developed from 
the painted wooden coffins of the Egyptians, which were suitable 
enough for the Egyptian climate, but for which it was necessary in 
the damper air of Syria to substitute receptacles of stone. These 
were frequently arranged in pairs, covered by a single lid. Many 
of the old Syrian sarcophagi are now seen in use as fountain- 

The custom of engraving inscriptions on stone was much less 
common among the ancient Hebrews and Phcenicians, owing to 
their want of taste for history, than among the Assyrians and 
Egyptians, and afterwards among the Greeks and Romans ; and it 
is this which renders it so difficult for us to determine the age of 
their rock-tombs and architectural remains. A distinctive peculiarity 
of the Syrian, and particularly of the Phoenician architecture con- 
sisted in the fact, that, instead of the column, as in Greece, the 
fundamental source of their style was the sculptured rock, of which 
the separate piers afterwards used were merely an imitation. Hence 


it is that the supports of these buildings are so massive in size, 
and that, quite contrary to the principles of classical architecture, 
the plan of the structure is entirely subservient to them. 

b. Jewish and Phcenician Architecture. The Jews and Phoeni- 
cians borrowed their types from Assyrian and Egyptian sources. In 
the Holy Land the great central shrine of Jerusalem absorbed the 
whole of the architectural energy of the people, and appeared, like 
the temple of Melkart in the dominions of Tyre, to suffice for the 
requirements of the whole country. It is uncertain whether any 
fragments of the oldest Temple are still extant. The vast blocks of 
stone which have been found in the Haram of the present day 
appear to answer the description of the foundations of the Temple 
in 1 Kings v. 17. The walls are built in a uniform style from their 
lowest foundations, and are unquestionably very ancient, as proved 
by the Phoenician letters discovered on them by Captain Warren. 
The custom of hewing stones of the required form in the quarry itself 
(1 Kings vi. 7) is traceable in buildings both at Jerusalem and 
Ba'albek. At what periods and by what means these gigantic blocks 
were conveyed to their destinations we are now unable to ascertain. 
Stones with drafted margins are found in the oldest Syrian edifices 
and in those of subsequent periods down to mediaeval Arabian 
times, though it is possible that the later Arabs made use of old 
materials for their new structures. The drafting is formed by 
slightly sinking the face of the stone round its outer margin to a 
width of 4 — 18 inches, thus giving the wall a kind of fluted ap- 
pearance. The surface of the blocks was either left rough ('rusti- 
cated'), or slightly hewn, or completely planed. The stones, though 
fitted together without mortaT, are jointed with marvellous accuracy. 

c. Greek and Roman Architecture. It is probable that Greek 
influence had begun to make itself felt in Syria, or at least in Phoe- 
nicia, even before the time of Alexander. It has frequently been 
asserted that a number of Ionic forms and the art of overlaying cer- 
tain parts of buildings with metal were imported by the Greeks from 
the nearer regions of the East. This may have been the case; but 
it is certain that the Orientals, and particularly the Phoenicians, 
received in return from Greece the fully elaborated forms of Greek 
sculpture, although the hard limestone used in Syria was inferior 
to the Greek marble as a material for Corinthian capitals and figures. 
Numerous though the monuments of the period of the Diadochi 
must have been, hardly one of them is now extant in Syria, but 
those of the Roman regime are still abundant. Wherever the 
Romans went , they carried their art with them , and to them 
the only richly decorated dwelling-houses now preserved in Syria 
owe their origin. They extended their military roads even to the 
most remote districts, and the milestones of some of them are still 
in existence. It was with a view to ingratiate himself with the 


Romans that Herod caused sumptuous edifices in the Roman style 
to he erected in several of the towns of Palestine, and even of Syria, 
although theatres, statues, and even the Roman eagles were an 
ahomination to the Jews. After the destruction of Jerusalem the 
Roman colonisation was actively extended, and new towns sprang 
up under the auspices of the governors, or at the expense of the em- 
perors, particularly of Trajan. The characteristic feature of these 
towns was that they were intersected by a colonnade leading from a 
triple gate. At the peint where the colonnade was crossed by another 
of smaller size there appears to have been a 'tetrapylon'. On each 
side of the chief colonnade lay the temples , baths , theatres , and 
naumachiae. The best preserved examples of these Roman structures 
are in the country to the east of Jordan, which, since the conquest 
of the country by the Muslims, has been almost exclusively occu- 
pied by dwellers in tents, to whom the use of building materials is 
unknown. Those Telics which have been preserved date from the 
later Roman period, that is from the 2nd century downwards, when 
a falling off from the severe and dignified taste of the classical 
period is manifested in superabundant decoration, in the adornment 
of niches surmounted by broken pediments, and in the absence of 
harmony of design. Palmyra, Ba'albek, and Jerash afford examples 
of this style, and likewise Petra, where the tombs, excavated in the 
native fashion, are externally adorned with huge facades chiselled 
in the rock in a style somewhat resembling the later rococo period, 
especially where the cornices have been constructed in curves. 
The numerous small temples (perhaps tombs), relics of which are 
scattered throughout Lebanon, date from the same period, though 
all turned towards the east in the Greek fashion, and are generally 
'in antis', with Ionic capitals; the stylobate has a cornice running 
round it , and the cella is entered from its raised west end by a 
door leading through the stylobate. — A peculiar style of archi- 
tecture is seen in the Synagogues erected in Galilee, six in number, 
dating from A.D. 150 — 200. They are quadrangular in form, 
and the interior is divided into five aisles by means of four rows of 
massive columns. These columns bore an architrave of stone, the 
roof was of wood, and the ornamentation, especially that of the 
cornices, was extremely rich. The two last internal supports of 
these synagogues towards the norih end always consist of double 

d. Christian Architecture. Although for the first two cen- 
turies of the Christian era Christian architects continued to use 
ancient heathen foTms, yet their mode of adapting them to their 
requirements was essentially new, and a number of well-preserved 
examples of this style are still extant both in the Hauran and 
N. Syria. To Count de Vogue (French ambassador at Vienna) 
is due the great merit of having directed attention to these 
monuments, but there is still unfortunately no letter- press to 


accompany the admirable drawings of his 'Syrie Centrale, Archi- 
tecture civile et religieuse du I — VII siecle' (Paris, 1865 et seq.). 

Towards the close of the third century it became customary to 
employ vaulted domes to cover large spaces, and the important 
invention of uniting the dome with the quadrangular substructions 
by means of 'pendentives' or brackets was next adopted. At the 
same time simple basilicas supported by rectangular piers , and 
afterwards by columns, were also frequently erected.. — The northern 
group of the buildings of that period, between Hama and Aleppo, 
is still more interesting. Columnar basilicas and dome-coveTed 
structures occur here also , but basilicas borne by piers are rare. 
The facade consists of an open colonnade ; the apse is generally 
round internally and quadrangular externally ; and numerous 
windows, and as a rule side-doors also, are inserted in the aisles 
and upper part of the nave. The capitals of the columns sometimes 
approach the acanthus type, but are occasionally in the shape of a 
calyx which has been developed by the native architects after a 
fashion of their own. The apses, as well as the windows and portals, 
are adorned with decorated string-courses terminating in knots 
resembling volutes. The ornamentation of the friezes consists of 
foliage, fruit, grapes, and the acanthus ; but vases, peacocks, and 
other objects also occur, while crosses are invariably introduced. 

e. Basilicas. In the chief towns of Palestine, and particularly 
in places of religious resort, the Greek emperors after the time of 
Constantine the Great erected a number of spacious basilicas re- 
sembling in style those in other parts of the Roman empire. In 
these buildings the nave is more lofty than the aisles. The ancient 
Christian basilica of Bethlehem has been preserved , but of the 
original church of the Holy Sepulchre few relics now exist. The 
Aksa affords an example of an ancient basilica which the Arabs 
have restored in the original style and converted into a mosque. 
The Arabs not only availed themselves of ancient columns for build- 
ing purposes, often associating them most incongruously, but they 
also at first employed Greek architects and builders : hence the 
strong resemblance of their edifices to those of the Christians. It 
is now believed that the rotunda of the church of the Sepulchre 
served as the model for that of the mosque of r Omar (es-Sakhra) ; 
but the dome, which had already long been familiar to the Syrians, 
had meanwhile been frequently employed in the West also. Like 
the Byzantines, the Arabs were in the habit of covering their walls 
and domes with mosaic. The mosque of the 'Omayyades at Damas- 
cus shows how closely the Arabian architects adhered to their 
foreign models. Adjoining the large court paved with flags, which 
was necessary for the purpose of the Mohammedan ritual, rises a 
large open colonnade with a ceiling, as in the case of the basilica, 
the site of which is occupied by the mosque ; and near the Kibla 
(p. 34) was constructed a spacious dome. 


^ f. Arabian Style. "While the Arabs in their architectural works 
chiefly followed the style which already existed in Syria, they 
nevertheless developed various forms peculiar to themselves. At a 
later period taste degenerated. They began capriciously to give their 
domes a pointed, bulbous form, and to cover their vaulting inter- 
nally with a superficial structure of miniature arcading, reminding 
the spectator of a honeycomb. This is the so-called 'stalactite 
vaulting', in which the impression of solidity properly conveyed 
by a vaulted structure is entirely neutralised. The Arabs also 
frequently stilted the sides of the round arch above the capitals of 
the supporting pillars, and at an early period (as early as the 9th 
cent, in Egypt) they also began to use the pointed arch and the 
horse-shoe arch, the latter being exclusively an invention of their 
own. The great fault of Arabian architecture is its want of strict 
organic coherence ; instead of having Tegard to the general effect 
of their buildings, or the purposes they were meant to serve, the 
minds of the architects were entirely devoted to ornamentation and 
other details ; and to this want of uniformity and organic significance 
is due the unsatisfactory impression produced by these edifices, 
notwithstanding all their showy wealth of arabesques. One often 
observes, for example, ancient columns with beautiful capitals 
placed immediately beside modern Arabian columns or clumsy 
piers. The coloured arabesques, the idea of which was probably 
borrowed from woven tapestries, are often very cleverly designed, 
but they soon weary the eye of the beholder. 

Syria cannot boast of many original buildings in the Arabian 
style, the reason being that the Arabs here found abundance of 
ancient edifices which they could either dismantle for the sake of 
the materials , or easily adapt for their own purposes. Taking 
advantage of the wonderfully substantial foundations of antiquity, 
and using either ancient materials or inferior ones of their own, they 
erected on these foundations their town-walls, their towers, and 
their castles, all of which speedily again fell to decay. They sup- 
posed that additional strength was imparted to their walls by 
building fragments of columns into them ; and they accordingly 
not only inserted such fragments in their walls in symmetrical order, 
but often endeavoured to produce a similar appearance artificially. 
This was also done by the Crusaders. Thus in the vicinity of ancient 
harbour-fortifications in particular, one often observes numerous 
scattered portions of columns, most of which were once incorporated 
with the badly built walls of which no other trace is now left. 
Similar blocks are also frequently seen on the clay-roofs of modern 
Syrian houses, where they are used as rollers to consolidate the 
clay after rainy weather. 

g. Frank Churches. In the case of many of the mediaval 
castles of Syria it is difficult to determine whether they were erected 
by the Saracens or by the Crusaders. The churches erected by 


Europeans on the soil of the Holy Land, however, are easily distin- 
guishable from the Arabian buildings. According to De Vogue" ('Les 
Eglises de la Terre Sainte'. Paris, 1860) these churches are of two 
classes. The first embraces all the churches built by the Franks 
between 1099 and 1187. These are all in one style. They possess 
a nave and aisles of equal length, a transept, and three apses ad- 
joining each other. The vaulting is smooth and without a trace of 
groining, and rests on simply constructed piers. Above the inter- 
section of the nave and the transept rises a dome, springing from 
pendentives. The rest of the building is covered with a flat roof. 
On the outside of the walls there are imperfectly developed flying 
buttresses, and in every case the aTches are of a pointed character. 
■ — The second class "of these churches embraces those of the 13th 
century. They are all situated on the sea-coast, and they closely 
resemble French churches of the same period, but have flat roofs. 
— The pointed arch which prevails in these buildings is not the 
early Muslim arch, but that which was afterwards perfected by 
western architects, so that this European architecture may properly 
be termed an early development of the pointed style on Arabian soil. 

h. Antiquities. Lastly we must notice some of the ancient 
relics which are still to be found in Syria, and at the same time 
caution the inexperienced traveller against purchasing any of the 
imitations which are now largely manufactured in that country and 
in Egypt. First must be mentioned the coins of many different 
periods. Old Hebrew coins are particularly valuable ; there are also 
Phoenician coins and gems , Graeco-Roman coins of various towns, 
and Arabian coins of very various periods. The tombs often contain 
tear-vases, small statues and reliefs, and (on the Phoenician coast) 
scarabaei, etc. In the case of such antiquities being offered for sale, 
enquiry should always be made as to the place where they were 
found, and unless this can be ascertained with certainty, they pos- 
sess no scientific value. All stones bearing inscriptions are valuable, 
especially when freshly discovered, and such relics are still fre- 
quently turned up by the plough. Inscriptions are found in Syria 
bearing the following characters : — (1) Phoenician, ancient Hebrew, 
and Samaritan; (2) Aramaic (or 'Nabatsan' ; the Nabataeans were 
Arabs who wrote Aramaic), in theHauran and atPalmyra; (3) Greek 
(very numerous) ; (4) Arabic, which in the earlier periods (Curie) 
more nearly approach the Aramaic character, but in later times often 
become very involved ; (5) Mediaeval Frank writing. 

With regard to the method of obtaining impressions of in- 
scriptions, see p. 25. 

IX. Works descriptive of Jerusalem and Palestine. 

The Bible supplies us with the best and most accurate infor- 
mation regarding Palestine, extending back to a very remote period, 


and should be carefully consulted by the traveller at every place of 
importance as he proceeds on his journey. The Handbook contains 
references to many texts, but it has seldom been thought necessary 
to make quotations. 

The oldest record of a pilgrimage handed down to us is that of 
the otherwise unknown 'Pilgrim of Bordeaux 1 , dating from 333. 
A very important work on the sacred places of Palestine is the 
treatise of Eusebius, Bishop of Csesarea, 'De Locis Hebraicis', dating 
from 339, which was afterwards translated into Latin and anno- 
tated by St. Jerome (390). From St. Jerome's pen we also possess a 
description of the pilgrimage of Paula, a noble Roman lady. In the 
second half of the 7th cent, the French bishop Arculf travelled in 
Palestine, and from his description a remarkable record was written 
by Adamnanus in Scotland. About the middle of the 8th cent, 
another account was written by Willibald , an Englishman , who 
was bishop of Eichstadt in Bavaria, and another in 870 by the 
Frankish monk Bernhard. Of the period of the first Crusade we 
possess a record by the monk Fulcher of Chartres, a retainer of Ro- 
bert of Normandy ; and shortly afterwards appeared the quaint 
description of the pilgrimage of the merchant Saewulf. Another 
interesting description of a journey to Palestine was written by Ben- 
jamin of Tudela, a Jewish rabbi and merchant from Navarre (1160 
— 73). Next in order of time follow a description of the sacred 
places by Count Burchardus , dating from the second half of the 
13th cent., and the travels of the English knight John Maundeville 
and of Ludolf de Suchem (from Sudheim near Paderborn) of the 
second quarter of the 14th century. To this period belongs the 
work of Isaac Chelo (1334), which contains numerous topographic 
notes of great value, and forms one of the series of Jewish itineraries 
published by Carnot. Important works of the close of the 14th 
cent, are the travels of the monkish preacher Felix Fabri of Zurich 
('reading-master' at Ulm), and of Bernhard von Breydenbach, dean 
of the cathedral of Mayence. From the beginning of the 16th cent, 
dates the chief 'pilgrimage book' of the Italians, by an unknown 
author, and in 1575 a journey to the Holy Land was described by 
the worthy Bauwolf, a doctor of Augsburg. Early in the 17th 
cent, was written the' famous account of the travels of the Roman 
Pietro della Valle and. the still more valuable work of Francesco 
Quaresmio , a Minorite monk of Lodi. In 1660 , when the knight 
Laurens d'Arvieux travelled in Palestine by ordeT of Louis XIV. , 
a spirit of criticism and scepticism was at length awakened. A work 
of this period which deserves mention is the description of the 
Holy Land by Henry Maundrell, chaplain of the English factory at 
Aleppo in 1697. Instead of the exclusively religious objects for 
which Palestine had hitherto been visited , many travellers now 
entertained a desire to explore the country scientifically, and fore- 
most among these were the distinguished Richard Pococke, Bishop 


of Meath (173S), and Frederick Hasselquist (1751), a medical man 
and naturalist. In 1767 the learned Giovanni Mariti, oancelliere 
of the Tuscan consulate , paved the way foi a more philosophical 
study of the country , but it has been reserved to the savants of 
the present century to lay the foundation of a really scientific 
treatment of the subject. Thus at the beginning of the century the 
Holy Land was explored by Vlrich Jasper Seetzen and Johann 
Ludwig Burckhardt, both men of distinguished scientific attain- 
ments. The ' Bemerkungen iiber die Beduinen and Wahabi' 
(Weimar, 1831) by the latter are still worthy of perusal. One of 
the most eminent of German explorers was Dr. Titus Tobler, who 
in his 'Vier Wanderungen' and other writings has contributed 
greatly to our acquaintance with Palestine, and Jerusalem in par- 
ticular. His two books on the topography of Jerusalem and its 
environs (Berlin. 1853) also exhibit a most intimate acquaintance 
with the writings of all the earlier pilgrims. His other leading 
works are 'Die Siloaquelle und der Oelberg' (St. Gallen, 1852), 
'Denkblatter aus Jerusalem' (St. Gallen, 1853), and 'DritteWande- 
rung' (Gotha, 1859). A very important work is that part (vol. viii.) 
of Karl Ritter's 'Erdkunde von Asien', which relates to Palestine 
and Jerusalem. The Prussian consuls Schultz and Rosen (Wetzstein) 
have thrown considerable light on a numbeT of places in the Holy 
Land. Furrer's 'Wanderungen durch Palaestina' (Zurich, 1865) and 
Sepp's 'Pilgerbuch' ("2nd ed., Schaffhausen , 1873) also contain 
much interesting information. Van de Velde, a famous Dutch 
traveller, was the author of a large map of Palestine (Gotha, 1866; 
with 'Memoir to accompany the Map', 1868), which is still the 
best procurable. Among French travellers , Lamartine hardly 
deserves the reputation he enjoys, but much interesting matter is 
contained in the works of the Academician De Saulcy ('Voyage au- 
tour de la Mer Morte', Paris, 1853, a magnificent work ; 'Voyage en 
Terre Sainte', 2 vols., Paris, 1865). Foremost among French writers 
on the art-history of Syria, ranks Count Melchior de Vogue ('Les 
Eglises de la Terre Sainte'; Paris, 1860 et seq. ; 'Syrie Centrale, 
Architecture civile et religieuse du I — VII. siecle'; Paris 1865 et 
seq.), who is now editing the magnificent woTk of the Due de Luy- 
nes : 'Voyage d'Exploration a la Mer Morte, a Petra , et sur la rive 
gauche du Jourdain' (Paris). Guerin's 'Description geographique, 
historique, et arche'ologique de la Palestine' (Paris, 1869) contains 
a good account of Judsea and Samaria, with the exception however 
of Jerusalem. 

Among the numerous English and American works on Palestine 
we must first mention Robinsons 'Biblical Researches in the Holy 
Land' (Boston and London, 2nd ed. 1854), 'Later Biblical Researches' 
(London, 1856), and 'Physical Geography of the Holy Land' (Lon- 
don, 1865). Another important work is Tristram's 'Land of Israel' 
(London, 1866). John Wilson's 'Lands of the Bible' (2 vols., Dub- 


lin, 1847), Thomson's 'The Land and the Book' (New York, 1863), 
and Miss Rogers' 'Domestic Life in Palestine' (London, 1862) treat 
principally of the customs of the inhabitants. Macgregor's 'Rob Roy 
on the Jordan' is a charming book, without scientific pretension (4th 
ed., 1874). Interesting details regarding Jerusalem are contained 
in Barclay's 'City of the Great King' (London, 1857) and in George 
Williams' 'Holy City' (2nd ed., London, 1849). Of a more learned 
and speculative character are Thrupp's 'Ancient Jerusalem' (Cam- 
bridge , 1855) and Fergusson's 'Essay on the Ancient Topography 
of Jerusalem' (London, 1847) and 'The Holy Sepulchre and the 
Temple of Jerusalem' (London , 1865). Important -historical and 
scientific works are Besant and Palmer's 'Jerusalem, the City of 
Herod and Saladin' (London, 1871), and Tristram's 'Natural History 
of the Bible' (3rd ed., London, 1873). Porter's 'Five Years in Da- 
mascus', Tristram's 'Land of Moab', Palmer's 'Desert of the Exo- 
dus', and Stanley's 'Sinai and Palestine' also afford a valuable fund 
of information. Smith's 'Dictionary of the Bible', which treats 
chiefly of ancient Palestine, is useful as a book of reference. 

Lastly we must mention the valuable services rendered to 
science by the society of the 'Palestine Exploration Fund', whose 
labours have extended over nearly ten years, but which unfortunately 
has not received pecuniary support commensurate with the im- 
portance of its objects. (Subscriptions are received by the Secre- 
tary, Walter Besant, Esq., 9 Pall Mall East, London.) The object 
of the society is the 'accurate and systematic exploration of the topo- 
graphy, geology, natural history, and ethnology of the Holy Land, 
particularly with a view to the interpretation of the Bible'. The 
society publishes ' Quarterly Statements', sent gratis to every 
subscriber, the substance of which down to the end of 1872 is 
comprised in two very interesting works. The larger of these is the 
'Recovery of Jerusalem' by Major Wilson and Capt. Warren, edited 
by W. Morrison (London, 1871), and the smaller, which is to a 
great extent abridged from the other, 'Our Work in Palestine' 
(London, 1873). — The Society first sent out Major Wilson, R.E., 
and Captain Anderson, R.E., to report on the best method of pro- 
ceeding. These officers made a reconnaissance in Galilee and along 
the watershed to Nabulus ; they took a great number of photographs 
and discovered several of the Galilean synagogues. The Fund next 
turned its attention to the archaeology of Jerusalem. In 1867 Capt. 
Warren, R.E., was sent out. His work was continued till 1870, 
and consisted mainly in making excavations. He, however, also 
made reconnaissances in Philistia, the Jordan Valley, and Moab. 
The results of the Jerusalem work are extremely valuable to 
scholars , especially in fixing the character and dimensions of the 
great Temple platform and the original rock surface of the Temple 

In 1871 the Society sent out Professor Palmer, accompanied 


by Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake. These gentlemen made an adventurous 
journey through the Negeb and an expedition into Moah. 

In 1872 the most important undertaking of the Fund was 
started, being the topographical survey of Western Palestine to the 
scale of 1-inch to the mile. The party was commanded by Captain 
Stewart, R.E., and included Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake. Captain Stewart 
fell ill at the commencement of the work and was succeeded by 
Lieut. Conder, R.E., who is still in command. At the present 
date the survey of the whole country from Beersheba to Safed in 
Galilee, 4600 sq. miles in area, is complete, while 1400 sq. miles 
remain to be surveyed in upper Galilee. Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake died 
at his work 'from fever in June 1874. On 11th July, 1875, the 
survey party was attacked by a fanatical armed mob at Safed. 
Lieut. Conder was wounded, as well as Lieut. Kitchener, R.E., the 
second in command, and nearly every other member of the party. 
In consequence of this attack , and of the spread of cholera, the 
party was withdrawn for the winter. It is hoped that the survey 
will be completed in 1876, and published about a year later. 

This work will probably prove the most important yet done in 
Palestine. The Biblical discoveries have been numerous and 
important ; the number of sites explored and names collected is six 
or seven times greater than that on any published map ; careful 
observations of natural history, geology, architecture, etc., have been 
made, and large scale plans of important towns, ruins, or buildings, 
have been drawn. Between 30 and 40 new churches habe been 
found in various parts of Palestine, and some 200 of the rock-cut 
tombs have been planned. 

The map will be published in ten large sheets, each accompanied 
by a memoir with plans and lists of names in English and Arabic. 
An endeavour will be made to give a description of every ruined 
site in the whole country from Dan to Beersheba. Numerous 
photographs have also been taken by the party, which are now 
being published. 

In 1874 the Fund also sent out M. Clermont-Ganneau to Je- 
rusalem. His work was principally epigraphic , and his most 
valuable discovery was that of a fine Hebrew inscription defining 
the limits of the city of Gezer, which he had already identified from 
independent considerations. 

There is also an American society , instituted for similar pur- 
poses, whose labours are chiefly confined to the country east of the 

1. Yafa. 

Arrival. A blue range of hills in the distance (the mountains of Ju- 
daea), a yellow beach, and lastly the appearance of the town of Yafa ris- 
ing on a hill like a fortified place, proclaim to the steamboat traveller 
that he is approaching the most interesting country in the world, — the 
'Holy Land'. To the N. of the town are seen orchards and palm trees, 
•while the gay flags of the different consulates wave their welcome to the 
arriving pilgrims. 

Before landing, the traveller should provide himself with a supply of 
half-francs and sous, that he may be able to pay the boatmen without 
requiring change. Egyptian money will not be taken (comp. p. 7). 

As Yafa possesses no harbour for larger vessels, steamers are obliged 
to anchor in the roads about i M. from land. When the weather is 
stormy they do not touch here, and in this case the traveller is com- 
pelled to proceed to Haifa, the next station, or better still to Beirut, or 
if he comes from the north, to Port Said, where the debarcation is also 
frequently attended with difficulty. The sea at Y'afa is rarely quite calm. 

The debarcation at Yafa, as everywhere else in the East, is invariably 
conducted with the least possible order and the greatest possible noise. 
The traveller should not be in too great a hurry to engage one of the 
clamorous boatmen who crowd around him on the deck. The best plan 
is to make up a party of three or four before arriving, and to engage a boat 
for them, and at the same time to protest against any attempt at over- 
loading. Care should also be taken that the luggage is placed in the 
proper boat, and that none of it falls overboard owing to the con- 
fusion and rocking of the boats. The hotel-keeper at Y'afa generally sends 
a commissionaire on board the vessel to receive the travellers intending 
to put up at his house, in which case that official had better be requested 
to pay all the necessary fees. Those who have made their plans before- 
hand will do well to send previously by post a notice to the landlord 
(see below) of their intended arrival. Dragomans also board the vessel 
in swarms, but their services for the trip to Jerusalem are quite un- 
necessary. When the sea is not unusually rough, a fee of 5 fr. for 3 — 4 
persons with luggage is ample, or 1 fr. for each person when a seat is 
taken in a larger boat. The boatmen are never content with their fees, 
and on the passage they frequently endeavour to alarm their passengers 
as to the dangers of the landing with a view to extort an additional 
gratuity. No attention, however, should be paid to their noisy repre- 
sentations and violent gestures. 'Mush lazim? means 'it is unnecessary'; 
'mush 'dwezak\ 'I do not care for yon'; 'islcuf, 'be quiet'; •)•»/!, rUh' or 
'■imsht 'begone' (a word which may be accompanied by a significant motion 
with one's stick) ; 'yallah, yallah\ 'forwards', 'onwards'; 'fees, fees' 'enough'. 
'Going to Yafa', according to an old Low German proverb, is equivalent 
to the undertaking of a journey from which it is impossible to return. 
The dangers to be encountered in mediaeval times were of course far more 
serious than those of the present day, but the landing is still frequently 
attended with difficulty. The harbour of Yafa is a small basin formed by 
natural rocks partly under water, on which the remains of an ancient, 
port are said to be still traceable. The entrance from the K. is broad, 
but endangered by sandbanks, while that from the N.N.W. is very 
narrow. The boatmen generally do their utmost to propel their craft into 
smooth water, with the help of a favouring wave, through the narrow 

128 Route 1. YAFA. Consulates. 

entrance. The traveller is at length carried ashore by the men, as there 
is no good pier or jetty for landing (fee 2—3 sous for each person), and 
proceeds to the custom-house at the S. angle of the harbour, where his 
luggage is examined (eomp. p. 9). 

Accommodation. *Jeresalem Hotel (PI. 14, one of the first houses in 
the German-American colony, \ 31. from the town; landlord Hr. Har- 
degg), with beds for 30 — 40 persons ; pension 10 fr. ; wine extra. Hotel 
of the Twelve Tribes (native landlord, agent for Messrs. Cook & Son, 
the well-known travelling agents), on the way to the colony. 

The Latin Monastery (PI. 7) also affords tolerable accommodation; 
rooms small, but clean; cuisine Italian; wine indifferent. Turning to the 
left from the douane and following the quay, we observe after 3 min. a 
door on the right over which is the inscription Hospitium Latinum. There 
are three monks in the monastery who are generally Italians. The dra- 
goman is civil and obliging, and his fee is proportioned to the services 
rendered. The monastery stands high on the slope of the hill, and pos- 
sesses beautiful terraces affording an extensive view over the sea and the 

If the steamboat arrives at Yafa early in the morning, most travellers 
start for Ramleh the same day (comp. p. 3); but half-a-day may be ad- 
vantageously spent in the environs of Yafa, and an opportunity is more- 
over thus afforded to the traveller of testing the horse, and particularly 
the saddle, on which he is to ride to Jerusalem. 

Consulates. The office of American vice-consul is discharged by Hr. 
Hardegg, the landlord of the Jerusalem Hotel ; British vice-consul, M. Am- 
salek; German, M. Simeon Murad, an Armenian, who possesses a beautiful 
garden ; French, M. Philibert. There are also Austrian and Spanish vice- 
consulates. If the traveller wishes to be conducted to any of the consulates, 
he may apply to the first boy he meets in the street, simply pronouncing 
the name of the consulate (e. g. 'Konsulato el-Inglizi, el-Amerikdni) coupled 
with the talismanic word 'bakhshish 1 . A fee of h — 1 piastre will generally 
suffice for this service. 

Steamboat Office. Skirting the quay towards the N., we first reach 
the Russian (PI. 3), and, a little farther on, the Austrian office (PI. 1), at 
which last French letters are received and delivered. — Steamboat 
services, see Introd., p. 10. 

Post and Telegraph Office, to be united, and shortly opened near the 
steam-mill. A Turkish courier conveys letters daily to and from Jersalem. 

Omnibus (p. 132) and other carriages to Jerusalem (35 — 40 fr.) from 
the German Colony. 

Horses, generally very docile, to be found at the hotel, and also be- 
tween the colony and the town (comp. p. 131). Charges according to the 
demand; to Jerusalem, whether in one or two days, 10 — 15 fr., baggage- 
horse 9 — 10 fr. ; for excursions in the environs 1 fr. per hour. These 
charges include the use of a European saddle. 

Cook^s Tourist Office on the ground-floor of the Hotel of the Twelve 
Tribes (see above). — Articles de Voyage at FriedeVs (p. 131). Good tailors, 
shoemakers, and other workmen at the German Colony (p. 131), near 
the Jerusalem Hotel, where enquiry may be made. 

History. Yafa was anciently a Phoenician colony in the land of the 
Philistines. The meaning of the ancient name Japha is doubtful; but 
the Hebrews translated it 'the beautiful'. Japho, or Joppa, is the place 
mentioned in 2 Chron. ii. 16, to which Hiram, King of Tyre, undertook 
to send Solomon wood from Lebanon 'in flotes' for the building of the 
Temple. Tradition, however, carries us much farther back than even the 
period of Solomon. According to a very ancient myth, Andromeda, the 
daughter of Cepheus and Joppa (daughter of ^Eolus), is said to have been 
chained to the rocks here in order that she might be devoured by a huge 
sea-monster, but was released by Perseus. The prophet Jonah, too, is 
said to have just quitted Joppa when he was swallowed by the whale, a 
popular story which recurs among other nations as well as the Israe- 
lites. Throughout the Roman period, and even down to the end of the 
16th cent., the place was shown on the rocks of the harbour where An- 



1. Route. 129 

dromeda was bound, or at least chains and iron rings were preserved as a 
memento of the myth. So, too, the huge bones of some marine monster 
were long an object of curiosity here. In the inscription relating to the 
victorious campaign of Sennacherib the town is called Ja-ap-pu, and its 
situation is correctly described. Yafa was definitively brought under the 
Jewish yoke by the Maccabees, after which it fell successively under the 
Greek and Roman sway, and received the name of Joppa. Christianity 
was introduced here at an early period (Acts ix. 36, etc.). Before the 
Jewish war Joppa was captured and destroyed by the Roman general 
Cestius; it was then rebuilt, but was soon again destroyed by Vespasian 
as being a haunt of pirates. At that period another seaport flourished to 
the S. of Yafa, near Yabne (Jamnia, p. 317). Several bishops of Joppa 
are mentioned as having attended various church synods. The bish- 
opric was restored by the Crusaders, and the town raised to the rank 
of a county. In 1128 the district of Joppa came into the possession of 
the knights of St. John. Owing to its exposed situation, the town was 
subjected to many sad vicissitudes during the Crusades. It was captured 

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2 0//ice of the Austrian Lloyd. 2. Office of the Menageries Marltimes. 

3. Russian Steamboat Office. 4. Custom House. 5. Lighthouse. 6. Ser&i. 

7. Latin Monaster!/. 8. Greek Monastery. 9. Quarantine. 10. Mosque. 

11. New Gate. 13. Jerusalem Gate. 13. Bazaar. 14. Jerusalem Hotel. 

Palestine. 9 

130 Route 1. YAFA. Latin Hospice. 

and destroyed by Saladin in 1187, and by Safaddin in 1191, recaptured by 
Richard Coeur de Lion, but finally taken in 1196 by Melik el- r Adil. 
Owing to these disasters it was almost entirely depopulated, and in the 
loth cent, had almost ceased to exist. Towards the end of the 17th cent, 
the importance of Yafa began to revive, and from that period dates the 
construction of the quay. Towards the end of the 18th cent, we find the 
town surrounded by walls, which enabled the inhabitants to resist the 
attacks of the French army under Kleber in 1799 for a few days until 
the place was taken by storm. It was then fortified by the English, and 
afterwards extended by the Turks. 

The population of Yafa has increased greatly within the last quarter 
of a century. A Turkish calendar enumerates 865 Muslim, 135 Greek, 
70 Greek Catholic, 50 Latin, 6 Maronite, and 5 Armenian families, which 
would give a population of about 8000 souls. The town trades with Egypt, 
Syria, and Constantinople. Soap, sesame, wheat, and oranges are the 
chief exports, and the silk-culture has of late been introduced in the 
plain of Sharon. One of the chief resources of the inhabitants, how- 
ever, is the annual passage of numerous pilgrims through the town; it 
was this that enabled it so often to recover from its disasters, and this is 
the chief cause of its rapid increase in size. 

The town of Yafa, or Jaffa, lies on the sea-coast at the foot of 
a rock 116 ft. in height. The houses are built of tuffstone. The 
streets are generally very narrow and dusty, and after the slightest 
fall of rain exceedingly dirty. The quay, which is very badly paved, 
becomes a pond of mud after rain, and woe to the foot-passenger 
who when picking his way along it encounters a troop of beasts of 
burden I Yafa is the residence of a Turkish Kaimmakam , who is 
subordinate to the Pasha of Jerusalem. 

There are few sights at Yafa. The Greek Monastery (PI. 8), 
which is also on the quay, but nearer the landing-place than the 
Latin, accommodates numerous visitors of the Greek confession at 
the time of the pilgrimages. The Latin Hospice (PI. 7) was 
founded in 1654, from which period dates the tradition that it 
occupies the site of the house of Simon the tanner (Acts ix. 43) ; 
but several other spots in the town claim the same distinction. 
The Muslims, who repeat the tradition, point out the site of Simon's 
house in an insignificant mosque near the fanar, or lighthouse on 
the S. side of the town, where, however, the view is the sole attraction 
(fee 1 piastre). The tradition as to the House of Tabitha (Acts ix. 36) 
is of much more ancient origin, and the church of St. Peter stood in 
the 8th cent, on its supposed site to the S. of the town. Since the 
17th cent, the Greeks have pointed out some old walls to the E. of 
the town as remains of the house of Tabitha. The tradition that St. 
Peter once fished here has proceeded from a confusion of ideas. 

On the S. side of the town is the large Quarantine (PI. 9), built 
by Mohammed 'Ali in 1835, but now in a dilapidated condition. 
The Cemeteries are outside the town. To the S. of the quarantine 
are several primitive tanneries and the small wely (comp. p. 35) 
of the Shekh Ibrahim. The town-walls are also falling to decay. 
In 1869 a 'new gate' (PI. 11) was made towards the S.E., and used 
for a time as the point of departure foT Jerusalem, but has recently 
been pulled down with the adjacent part of the town-wall. 



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Temple Colony. YAFA. 1. Route. 131 

The interior of the town is uninteresting. In the Armenian 
Monastery, situated to the N. of the Latin, tradition points out the 
room in which Napoleon caused plague patients to be poisoned ; but 
in this credulous land of traditions it is very difficult to ascertain 
the truth of even so recent a circumstance. The small Bazaar is 
reached by following the quay to the N. end, and then turning a 
little to the right. To the left in the small open space is Friedel's 
shop (p. 128). Farther on, avoiding the small cul de sac to the left, 
we enter the Arabian bazaar, which usually presents a motley 
throng of purchasers, among whom the traveller will have the first 
opportunity of observing the pure Semitic type of the natives of this 
district. At the bend of the gateway there is a much frequented 
well with an Arabic inscription. 

Outside the gate the road divides. The broad road immediately 
to the r. leads straight to Ramleh (Route 2). Here are the stables of 
the muleteers ; horses are tried here ; caravans arrive and depart ; and 
a number of Arabian cafe's have congregated here in consequence. If 
we follow the broad road to the left of the gate, we pass coffee and 
orange stalls, where large heaps of the beautiful fruit are seen in 
spring (about eight for a piastre). The sandy road next passes the 
Muslim Cemetery, situated between the road and the sea. We now soon 
reach orchards with luxuriant vegetation , where travellers some- 
times camp in the open air. A road to the left leads hence to the 
squalid hovels of an Egyptian Colony. Our road next passes Cook's 
Office (p. 128 ; opposite, to the 1., a large new khan with shops), and 
crossing a ditch, which in winter sometimes contains water, leads 
between hedges to the German- American Colony, a settlement of a 
very different character. Hardly a trace now exists of the American 
colony of about forty families who established themselves here in 
1866. The present colony, founded in 1868 by the Wurtemberg sect 
of the 'German Temple', appears to thrive, and produces a very 
pleasing impression in contrast to the squalor of the town. The 
distinctive doctrine of the sect, which is founded on their interpre- 
tation of some of the prophecies, is that Christians are under an 
obligation to settle in Palestine. This colony numbers about 250 
souls. It consists of a group of houses around the hotel and two rows 
of houses called Sarona, 2 M. to the N. E. of the town (see Map). 
Leaving the first settlement to the right, our way next leads between 
hedges, through orange-gardens, and over sand to Sarona. The land 
here is remarkably fertile. About 1| — 2 ft. beneath the sand there 
is excellent soil, and water is to be found everywhere at a moderate 
depth. Vines, though half buried in sand, thrive admirably. Sesame 
and wheat are the chief crops. — A beautiful ride of 2 — 3 hrs. 
may be taken by following the road past the 'Temple Colony' as 
far as the Nahr el-'Aujeh and returning by the coast (see Map). 
Before the Egyptian Colony is Teached, a fine view of the town of 
Yafa is obtained. 


132 Route 1. YAFA. 

The plain of Sharon, which extends along the sea-board between 
Joppa and Csesarea (to the N., p. 351), was famed in ancient times 
for its luxuriant fertility and its pastures (Isaiah lxv. 10). The 
greater part of the plain is covered with sand, but it contains water in 
abundance. The soil yields the richest crops after rain, and in places 
where it is irrigated by means of water-wheels. 

2. From Yafa to Jerusalem. 

Distances. From Yafa to Ramleh by the direct route 3A hrs. (by 
Lydda 4 hrs.); thence to Jerusalem about 8 hrs., or 11^—12 hrs. in all. 
An Omnibus from Yafa to Jerusalem has recently been started by the 
German Colony (p. 131); two vehicles run daily each way (fare 10 fr.). 
A similar conveyance plied in 1868, but had to be discontinued on account 
of the bad state of the road. In case the same fate should attend the 
present undertaking, the traveller will find the following data useful. For 
riders the route is somewhat too long for a single day ; at the same time it 
should be remembered that those who are out of practice will find the 
second day's ride more fatiguing than the first. If the journey is to be 
made in one day it is advisable to start early, as riding in the narrow, 
crowded, and ill-paved streets of Jerusalem after dark is very unpleasant. 
Quarters for the night are to be had at Eamleh (p. 133), and also if ne- 
cessary at the house of a Jew at Bab el-Wady (p. 138). 

The direct route from Yafa to Jerusalem has been traversed by Jew- 
ish and Christian pilgrims from a very early period. A railway, 
which had long been projected, appeared during the first half of 1873 
about to be actually constructed, as a directorate was then formed 'at 
Constantinople and the route was surveyed and marked out by engineers. 
For two years, however, nothing was done, but the project has been re- 
vived by a French company, and a firman authorising the construction 
was issued in Sept., 1875. The site of the projected railway-station is 
also indicated in our plan of Yafa. The telegraph wires follow the route, 
along which there are eighteen watchmen's houses at interval* of 1J — 2 M. 
(erected since 1860). No danger of any kind need be apprehended. 

The services of a dragoman for the journey from Yafa to Jerusalem 
are quite unnecessary, as the route cannot be mistaken. Those who wish 
to make sure of having their luggage at Jerusalem on their arrival have 
no alternative but to accommodate their pace to that of the baggage- 
mules, unless the latter are despatched at a much earlier hour than that 
at which the travellers themselves start. 

a. From Yafa to Ramleh. 

1. Direct Route from Yafa to Ramleh (3\ hrs. J. 

The road to Jerusalem crosses the market-place (p. 131), which 
lies outside the town, and then turns to the left. It is flanked with 
lofty cactus-hedges, behind which are extensive orchards. Water- 
•wheels are seen in operation in every direction. After 10 min. we 
reach a handsome Sebil or fountain, founded by Abu Nebut, a 
formeT pasha, who is buried here, and, 5 min. farther, the pleasant 
Biara or country-estate of M. Philibert , the French vice-consul. 
The road is shaded with sycamores and cypresses. After 7 min. 
more the orchards are left behind, and we enter the plain of Sharon 
(see above), on the E. confines of which the blue mountains of Judaea 
become more and more conspicuous. The road traverses fields and 

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RAMLEH. 2. Route. 133 

pastures in succession. On a slight eminence to the right of the 
road is a farm where young Jews are taught agriculture. 

After a ride of -| hr. from Yafa, a watch-tower is seen rising 
°n the right ; ^ hr. later we reach the small Arabian village of 
Yazur. The road passes the village, ascending a little, and then 
descends to a Wely beyond it. This tomb with its numerous 
domes (comp. p. 35) is called Imam 'Ali, and adjoining it there is 
a well of excellent water ('4in Dilb~). The road to Lydda (p. 135) 
diverges here to the left. We follow the braader track. Beyond the 
fields to the right rise several barren sand-hills. After ^ hr. a 
watch-tower is seen on the hill to the right, whence a view of the 
mountains is obtained. To the left we soon pereeive the villages of 
Sakya and BetDejan (p. 135). In 10 min. moTe we reach plantations, 
chiefly of olives, which continue for some distance. After 25 min. 
the road ascends a little, and in 5 min. more we pass a lonely spot 
called the 'MaktaleK', or place of slaying, which is said once to have 
been a haunt of robbers. We next (10 min.) pass another watchman's 
house, whence the tower of Ramleh becomes visible. Farther on 
(i hr.) the village of Serfend peeps from amidst cactus-hedges 
on a hill to the right. Beyond the next watch-house on the left 
(■| hT.), we obtain a view of the orchards of Ramleh, which we 
reach in 25 min. more. At the entrance to the town we keep to the 
right ; the road to the left leads to the tower. 

Ramleh. Bohnenberger's Inn (to the right of the road landlord a 
member of the 'Temple' community of Yafa) accommodates 10 — 15 persons ; 
supper, bed, and breakfast 6 fr. , whole day 8 fr.; beer and wine. — 
The Latin Monastery, where travellers are also lodged, situated at the first 
bend of the road to the right before the town is reached, is an extensive 
pile of buildings, entered by a low doorway. One of its two garden-courts 
contains a remarkably large vine. The trellised vines are also handsome. Fine 
view from the roof. The monastery, with its extensive stabling, is well 
fitted up for the reception of visitors, and is managed by eight Francis- 
cans (comp. p. 88), but the rooms are somewhat close. The cistern here 
is the best at Ramleh. — The Greeks have a roomy and tolerably comfor- 
table hospice in the town, and the Russians another. 

History. Ramleh cannot be identified with any ancient Jewish place. 
The tradition that it occupies the site of the Arimathea of the New 
Testament is a fabrication of the 13th cent., although the monks maintain 
that the Latin church stands on the site of the house of Nicodemus or 
Joseph of Arimathea. We are informed by Arabic authors that the town 
was founded in 716 by the 'Omayyad khalif Suleiman, the son of 'Abd el- 
Melik. The truth of this statement is confirmed by the facts that the 
name of the town is of purely Arabic origin (ramleh signifying 'sand'), 
that it is mentioned by none of the early Christian pilgrims, and that 
we find the name 'Ramula' applied to the place for the first time in the 
year 870. The founder of the town and his successors provided it with 
conduits and reservoirs. The place soon became prosperous, and was perhaps 
even larger than Jerusalem. At one time it was walled, and had four 
large and eight smaller gates. Christians lived at Ramleh and had churches 
here before the time of the Crusades. In 1099 the Crusaders arriving 
from Lvdda spent three days here, and a bishopric of Lydda and Ramleh 
was then founded. In 1177 the town was much damaged by a fire. 
Durine the wars between the Franks and Saladin, Ramleh was captured 
twice bv the Saracens. After 1266, when it was wrested from the Franks 
bv Bibars it was exclusively occupied by Muslims, but continued to enjoy 

134 Route 2. EAMLEH. From Yafa 

a share of its former prosperity down to the close of the 15th cent., after 
which it fell entirely to decay. Napoleon once had his headquarters at 
Ramleh, and occupied a room in the Latin monastery which is still shown. 

Ramleh contains 3000 inhabitants, less than a third of whom are 
Christians, chiefly of the Greek faith. The orchards around the town 
are luxuriant. Olives, sycamores, and carob-trees abound; there are 
also a few palm-trees, but they do not bear fruit. The fields yield 
rich crops, and are enclosed by impenetrable cactus-hedges in which 
numerous wild pigeons build their nests. The climate is mild, 
pleasanter than that of Jerusalem, and healthier than that of Yafa. 

The dilapidated building a little to the E. of Bohnenberger's 
Inn is called the Serai, or government-office. Turning to the right 
from the Jerusalem road, a little beyond this point, we reach (on 
the E. side of the town) a long, spacious building which is now the 
Chief Mosque (Jami' el-Keblr). Unbelievers are not always per- 
mitted to visit it, but the effect of the all-powerful bakhshish may 
be tried (5 piastres ; shoes must be taken off in the interior). On 
the "W. side is a small minaret which was probably once a Christian 
bell-tower. The pointed windows indicate that the building dates 
from the period of the crusades. The old church was of moderate 
extent, consisting of a nave only, but it has been divided into a nave 
and aisles by two rows of columns running from "W. to E. The inte- 
rior is now whitewashed In form it resembles the Church of the 
Sepulchre at Jerusalem. The principal entrance was on the W. side. 

Passing a large house occupied by officials, we reach the Ba- 
zaar, which we traverse from E. to W. The streets are very dirty 
after rain. Quitting the town, which is now unwalled, we perceive 
before us to the S.W. the famous — 

* Tower of Ramleh, at the entrance to which we arrive after a walk 
of 8 min. between huge cactus-hedges and across an old cemetery. 
This remarkable monument bears the name of Jami' el-Abyad, or 
the white mosque, and was probably once enclosed within the walls 
of the town. The mosque which once stood here was probably also 
built by the founder of the town. It was of vast extent, and its 
quadrangular outer walls, about 600 paces in circumference, are 
still traceable. The building was restored in the time of Saladin 
(1190), and Sultan Bibars also erected a dome and a minaret here. 
The present tower is a minaret of the period of the Mameluke prince, 
Nasir Abul-Fath Mohammed ibn Kalaun (1318), according to the 
Arabic inscription over the door. A later Mohammedan tradition is 
to the effect that forty companions of the prophet, or, if the Christian 
version is to be believed, forty Christian martyrs, repose in the sub- 
terranean vaults of the mosque. The entrance to the vaults is now 
about 40 paces to the S.E. of the portal of the tower, but there are 
various other openings which show that the whole of the ground here 
was undermined with similar chambers. The remains above ground, 
around the tower , resemble the ruins of a large khan rather than 
those of a mosque. On each side of the great quadrangle formed by 

to Jerusalem. RAMLEH. 2. Route. 135 

the building there were ten Tecesses, and the gateway by which we now 
enter the court formed the chief entrance and was beautifully deco- 
Tated. In the centre of the court are remains of a fountain. In the 17th 
«ent. a hospital or lunatic asylum (muristan) was established here. 

In spite of the circumstantial character of the tradition and the 
Arabic inscription, some authorities regard the tower as a work of 
the Crusaders. The pointed doorway and the elegant little windows 
of the five stories, especially on the S. side, are remarkably inter- 
esting. At the four comers of the tower are slender flying buttresses. 
The top is reached by 120 steps in the interior ; they are somewhat 
worn, but sufficiently well lighted. The upper part of the tower (ad- 
ded in 1652) tapers, and we here enter a kind of gallery. The ascent 
is recommended for the sake of the admirable *view from the top. 

In the foreground towards the S. is a large olive-plantation ; towards 
the E. are the tombs and the small town of Ramleh, which presents an 
imposing appearance from this point. Farther distant, towards the N. 
and S., stretches a beautiful fertile plain ; in the distance to the W. is 
the silvery band of the Mediterranean; to the E. the blue, but barren 
mountains of Judsea, to which distance lends enchantment. The most 
conspicuous of the neighbouring towns and villages is Lydda, the white 
houses of which glisten quite near us to the N.E. (p. 136); to the right 
of it is the large village of Bet Nebala, and adjoining it, to the left 
beyond Lydda, is Der Tarif. Towards the E. lies Jimzu, to the right of 
which are Yalo, Kubab', and Latrun. In the extreme distance, to the 
E.S.E., the mountain Neby Samwil (p. 143) near Jerusalem is said also 
to be visible. — The view is finest by evening-light, when the mountains 
are gilded by the setting sun. 

About 7 min. to the N.W. of Eamleh is situated the so-called Cistern 
of St. Helena, consisting of six vaults, each 30 paces long, and borne by 
eleven pillars. The descent is made by a staircase at the N.E. corner of 
one of the vaults which has fallen in. There are also holes at the top 
through which a glimpse of the cistern is obtainable. Its construction 
is most probably to be attributed to the founder of Ramleh, as it is 
recorded that the inhabitants of the town were well supplied with water 
from the first. It may here be remarked once for all that almost every 
important structure in Syria of which the founder is unknown is popu- 
larly ascribed to King Solomon or to the Empress Helena. The cistern 
is not mentioned by any of the pilgrimage writers before the year 1566. 

2. From Ydfa to Ramleh by Lydda (4 hrsj. 

This route is 4 hr. longerthan the former (p. 132) ; but as Lydda is inter- 
esting it should be visited either in going to or coming from Jerusalem. 
As far as the well near Yazur (1 hr. from Yafa ; see p. 133) this 
route is the same as the preceding ; at this point the road to Lydda 
diverges to the left. After 20 min. we observe the village of Sdkya 
• (which means 'aqueduct') to the left, and 25 min. farther the track 
leads to the left, past the small -village of Bet Dejan. This name 
carries us back to hoar antiquity. Dejan is theArabic form of 'Dagon', 
the national deity of the Philistines (comp. p. 312); but Bet Dejan, 
the 'house of Dagon', is not mentioned by any author before the 
Christian period. Passing between luxuriantly fertile fields, we 
next reach (^ hr.) the village of Safiriyeh, supposed to be 
the ancient Sariphaea which was an episcopal see in 536. A path 

136Bout«2. LYDDA. From Ydfa 

leads hence to Ramleh, the tower of which (p. 134) we soon perceive 
to the right. Several villages lie in the plain to the N. : 'Ana r 
which is probably to be identified with the ancient Benjamite town 
of Ono (1 Chron. viii. 12; Nehem. xi. 35), Yeh&diyeh, and farther 
E., Kefr Jenis and El-Keniseh (church); then on the spurs of the 
hills towards the N., Et-Tireh, Dlr Tarif, and Bet Neb&la. After 
45 min. we come to cactus-hedges, which in 20 min. more lead to 
an olive-grove (avoid path to the left). We then pass tombstones, 
and in 5 min. reach the village of Ludd, or Lydda. 

History. The ancient Ldd, which is mentioned in conjunction with Ono ia 
the passages just quoted, as well as elsewhere, was occupied by the Ben- 
jamites after the captivity. It was also the place where St. Peter healed the 
paralytic man (Acts ix. 32 — 35). It was burned by Cestius Gallus in the 
time of Nero, but soon re-appears as the capital of a district of Judaea. 
It was afterwards famed for its learned rabbinical school. Under the 
Roman dominion it was called Diospolis, retaining, however, its old name 
at the same time, as we learn from the list of its bishops. In 445 an. 
ecclesiastical council was held at Lydda, at which the heretic Pelagius 
defended himself. Lydda lost its importance after the foundation of Eamleh, 
but the Crusaders again erected a bishopric there. In 1191 Lydda was 
entirely destroyed by Saladin. In 1271, after its re-erection, it was sacked 
by the Mongols, and since that period it has never recovered its former 
importance , although situated on the principal caravan route between 
Egypt and Syria. 

The only attraction at Lydda is the Church of St. George, on 
the S. side of the village. Lydda is mentioned at a very early period 
in connection with St. George. According to a well authenticated 
oral tradition, Mohammed declared that at the Last Day Christ would 
slay Antichrist at the gate of Lydda. This is doubtless a distorted 
version of the story of St. George and the dragon. Over the tomb of 
St. George at Lydda a church stood at a very early period. The 
Crusaders are said to have found a 'magnificent monument' here, 
though the church had been destroyed. A church is again spoken of 
here in the middle of the 14th cent. , but was in ruins at the begin- 
ning of the 15th. Two centuries later another church is said to have 
been erected at Lydda by a king of England. The existing church is 
now in possession of the Greeks, who restored it a few years ago. It 
is a spacious edifice, closely resembling that of Sebastiyhe (Samaria, 
p. 340), possessing a nave, aisles lower than the nave, and three 
apses. Of the older church , which was probably built about the 
middle of the 12th cent. , the apses and a few arches and pilasters 
on the W. side are still extant. The square buttresses of the nave are 
adorned with small columns. The ceiling has been restored with 
little taste, while the modern pilasters are distinguishable from 
the ancient at a glance. Below the altar is the crypt, which has: 
also been restored, and which certainly existed at a very early 
period, as it is said to have contained the Tomb of St. George. In 
the 15th cent, the building was converted into a mosque. The 
church is now shown by the sacristan of the Greek monastery , the 
handsome rooms of which are occupied by one monk only. The 
traveller may rest and obtain refreshments here (fee 1 fr.). 

to Jerusalem. GEZER. 2. Route. 1 37 

Beyond the church and the gate of the mosque the first road to 
the left leads to Ramleh. At first it is narrow, ill-paved, and dirty, 
hut we soon reach an open sandy path, passing some tomhs (left). 
After a few minutes our path is joined hy one from the right. The 
land is beautifully planted with olive and fig-trees and a few date- 
palms. On a height we observe the village of Jimzu (p. 141), to 
the S. of which is 'Enndbeh (see below). To the r. after 14 min. is 
a wely , called Shekh 'Abder-Rahmdn, and to the left a venerable olive- 
tree. After 18 min. more the road leads between cactus-hedges, and 
a few minutes later we observe a small dilapidated mosque to the 
right, immediately beyond which the main road to Ramleh is reached, 
about 70 paces to the E. of Bohnenberger's Inn (p. 133). These roads 
cannot be mistaken, as the ancient minarets of Lydda and Ramleh 
afford excellent landmarks. 

b. From Ramleh to Jerusalem. 
1. Direct Route (8 hrs. ; comp. p. 141). 

The direction of this route is towards the S.E. After 7 min. a 
burial-ground lies to the right, which extends for a considerable 
distance to the S.E. To the W. of it is a level threshing-ground, 
which is also very suitable for encamping. Near it, in the direction 
of the village, is a large pond {Birket el-JamUs, or 'buffalo well'), 
which rarely dries up. After 5 min. a path diverges to the left. We 
next cross (10 min.) a r bridge over the Wddy er-Ramleh, or valley of 
Ramleh, through which a brook flows in spring. In the fields to the left 
(10 min.) is a small watchman's house. The land is richly cultivated, 
but the plantations of trees soon disappear, and a view of the long 
mountain-ranges is obtained. The next watchman's house (^ hr.) 
lies on the left. On the right beyond the wady, or bed of the brook, 
is the hamlet of Berrtyet er-Ramleh, or 'outwork of Ramleh'. Every 
village possesses its heaps of dried dung used as fuel. On the hill to 
the N.E. lies the village of 'Enndbeh. On an isolated hill to the right, 
towards the S., rises the wely of Abu Shusheh ; to the left is the in- 
significant ruin of Kefr Tab, the ancient Kafartoba mentioned in 
the history of the Jewish war , with the wely of Shekh Suleimdn. 

Near Abu Shusheh the ruins of Gezer, now Tell el-Jezer, have recently 
been discovered. Gezer was a royal Canaanitish city on the frontier of 
the tribe of Ephraim (Judges i. 29), but was afterwards captured by Pharaoh 
and presented by him to Solomon, his son-in-law, as his daughter's dowry 
(1 Kings ix. 16). The place was also of some importance in the time of 
the Maccabees. The ruins are extensive, and there are rock-tombs and 
basalt quarries in the environs. 

The road now becomes rough and stony. After 50 min. it leads 
to the right of a slight eminence, on which lies the Muslim village 
of El-Kubdb (generally pronounced Lobdb), the Kobeh of the Talmud. 
Ramleh and the beautiful plain still remain in sight. In a valley 
20 min. to the S. of Kubab is a good and copious spring. After 
5 min. a watchman's house is situated to the r. ; we next descend 

138 Route 2. LATRUN. From Yafa 

into a dale with abridge (8min.) and pass another watchman's 
house to the light (10 min.), beyond which (9 min.) we again ascend 
over a spur of the hill on which Latrun is situated. At the foot of 
the latter is a small spring, recently re-opened, to the S. of the 
path. To the E. are the -villages of 'Amwas and Bet Nuba (p. 141). 
The route now ascends steeply. On the right, after 10 min., is a 
watchman's house, with the half-ruined village of Latrdn. This 
name was supposed in the middle ages to be derived from the Latin 
'latro', and it is possible that this district, situated as it is so near 
the mountains , may have been infested by robbeTS. Hence arose 
the mediaeval legend that this was the native place of the penitent 
thief ('boni latronis', who is said to have been called Dismas), or 
of both thieves. The ruins probably belong to the ancient fortress 
of Nicopolis (see below), and the partly preserved walls date from 
several different periods. The choir of a church is also said to be 

About 7 min. further, to the left of the road, a visit may also 
easily be paid to the village of 'Amwas, another well-situated place, 
which however must not be confounded with the Emmaus of the 
New Testament (p. 141). This 'Emmaus' is mentioned as early as 
the time of the Maccabees (e. g. 1 Mace. iii. 40). In the 3rd cent, 
after Christ it received the name of Nicopolis, in commemoration of 
the victories of Titus, and during the Christian period it was an 
episcopal see. In the early days of El-Islam several fierce skirmishes, 
in which some of Mohammed's adherents fell, took place here. A 
little to the S. of the village is a famous spring to which sanatory 
properties were once attributed. The only antiquities worthy of 
mention are the remains of a church about 3 min. to the S. of the 
village, consisting of a shell-shaped apse and a round-arched vault. 
Tobler infers from the large drafted stones that the church was built 
in the 4th cent, after Christ. 

Beyond Latrun, we descend in 10 min. into the Wady el-Khalil, 
which runs towards the S.W. After 8 min. a watch-tower rises on 
the left, and after 16 min. more another. A well here, on the right, 
is called Bit EyyAb (Job's well). On a height to the left, at some 
distance, rises the dilapidated house of Dtr Eyyub (Job's monastery). 
A little farther on we cross a bridge, and in 16 min. from the well 
we reach the narrow entrance to the Wady 'Ali, on the left of which 
is a watch-house and on the right the 'Restaurant des Moines de 
JudeV (refreshments, and bed if necessary ; Jewish host). This spot 
is called Bab el- Wady, or gate of the valley. 

The road, which was formerly miserably bad, now enters the 
"Wady 'Ali and leads in \ hr. to the ruins of a mosque situated 
at a spot called i Ma'sara\ the narrowest part of the valley. After 
6 min. we observe olive-trees at the bottom of the valley, and in 
■J hr. more, after the ravine is quitted, we come to a line group 
of terebinths and fruit-trees, called the 'Trees of the Imam 'Ali', 

to Jerusalem. ABTJ GOSH. 2. Route. 139 

with an adjoining spring. This is a pleasant resting-place, but the 
water is said to be sometimes bad. The hills are overgrown with 
underwood ; among the wild olives the carob-tree is frequently ob- 
served. The route leads to the N. for 6 min., and then turns to the 
E., constantly ascending, until it reaches (20 min.) a plateau with 
numerous olive-trees (a good camping-ground, with water in the 
vicinity), where the traveller is frequently assailed by beggaT-chil- 
dren from the neighbouring village of Saris (on the right). The path 
then winds up the side of another valley, ascending the hill on 
which lie the ruins of the village of ancient Sdrts. At the top is 
discovered a beautiful view of the plain, the sand-hills of the coast, 
and the sea beyond. After 12 min. we perceive below us the village 
of -Sofia (p. 140) to the S.E., while to the S. opens the bleak Wady 
Saris. None of these valleys, though so deeply hollowed out, con- 
tain water except after heavy rain. In 12 min. more we come to the 
Md'tal 'Ali Mehsin, i.e. the place where 'Ali Mehsin was slain, marked 
by a heap of stones on the left. After 11 min. the top of a hill is 
reached where we take leave of our view towards the "W. On the 
opposite hill lies the ruin of Kastal (p. 140). To the right, a little 
below us, on the N. side of the hill, lies the village of Abu Gdsh, 
so named about the year 1813 after a powerful village shekh of that 
name. For many years this chief with his six brothers and eighty- 
five descendants was the terroT of the whole district, and particularly 
of passing pilgrims. During the Egyptian dominion in Syria (p. 71) 
the power of these marauders was crushed, but the muleteers still 
tremble as they pass the 'castles' of this formidable family. The 
village was formerly called Karyet el-'Enab, or the town of grapes, 
a name which occurs for the first time in the 15th century. Robin- 
son, however, has identified the place with Kirjath-Jearim (forest- 
town), which again is identical with Baalah, or Kirjath-Baal (Josh. 
xv. 9, etc.). It originally belonged to Gibeon (Josh. ix. 17), but 
was awarded to the tribe of Judah (Josh. xv. 60). It was afterwards 
celebrated as the place where the Ark of the Covenant was for a long 
period deposited (1. Sam. vii. 1 ; 2. Sam. vi. 2). 

The Church, which stands conspicuously between the road and the 
village, at present in possession of the Latins, is the most interesting of 
the antiquities here. The entrance through an opening half blocked with 
stones , which was once the chief portal, is somewhat difficult of access. 
The ornamentation is remarkable for the small spiral enrichments which 
also occur in Arabian structures, whose architects borrowed them from 
Christian monuments of the 6th — 7th century. The building is well pre- 
served. It runs W. and E., and consists of nave and aisles terminating 
in three apses. The apses, however, are externally concealed by masonry. 
The nave is loftier and wider than the aisles, and is supported by three 
pilasters on each side ; its arches rest on pillars of peculiar form, which, 
according to De Vogue", betray Arabian influence. The arches and the win- 
dows above them, as well as the windows of the aisles, have a slightly 
pointed character. The whole building is on the same level, and there 
is no transept. Under the whole length of the church runs a crypt, which 
is now partly filled up. The entrance to it is by a small door in the S. 
wall. The walls of the church, particularly those of the apse, and those 
of the crypt likewise, were adorned with frescoes in the Byzantine style, 

140 Route 2. KULONIYEH. From Yafa 

and partly covered with mosaics, of which distinct traces still exist. The 
interior of the church, which seems to have been often used as a stable, 
is 32 paces long and 20 paces wide. — The church is mentioned for the 
first time in 1519 under the name of the church of St. Jeremiah, and the 
name of that prophet is also applied to the spring below the church. The 
name, however, has been used in consequence of a mistaken identification 
of the village of Karyet el-'Enab with Anathoth, the birthplace of the 
prophet (p. 321).— At the S.E. corner of the church are several palms in 
a small garden, through which the excellent spring of the village flows. 
In an open space to the N. of the church, near the path, is the monument 
of the Shekh Abu Gdsh (p. 139), with a sebil (p. 33). 

Proceeding farther on, we observe on a hill to the right (S.) the 
village of Soba, which was once supposed to be the ancient Modin, 
the native place of the Maccabaean family (1 Mace. ii. 1, 15, 70), 
especially as a pilgrim found ancient monuments here in 1598, and 
these were still spoken of as late as Tobler's time. This conjecture, 
howeveT, was proved erroneous by the discovery of the ancient Modin 
in El-Medtyeh, to the N.E. of Lydda. After 27 min. the road crosses 
a bridge to the right , beyond which to the r. is an Arabian cafe 
and neaT it a spring called 'Ain Dilb. On the hill to the left lies 
the village of Bet Nakub . To the right of the next bridge (5 min.) 
are the ruins of Ekbala (once perhaps a monastery), with a spring. 
The route ascends the S. side of a round hill, on which there are a 
few ruins , and where the house of Obed-edom , the Gittite , into 
which the Ark of the Covenant was carried, was perhaps situated 
(2 Sam. vi. 10, 11). In 18 min. more we attain the top of the hill 
on which the village of Kastal lies above us to the right. The name 
is doubtless of Roman origin, being derived from castellum. From 
this point Neby Samwil is visible towards the N., and, \ hr. farther, 
the village of 'Ain Karim in the distance towards the S. (p. 276). 
The Wddy Kuloniyeh into which we now descend (comp. p. 277) 
contains beautiful olive-groves. On the left, 20 min. farther, is a 
pleasant little cafe. On the hill to the left lies the village of Kulo- 
niysh, a name derived by Sepp from 'colonia' and supposed by him 
to be identical with the Emmaus of the New Testament. That place, 
however, must have lain farther from Jerusalem (p. 141). The floor 
of the valley, which the road crosses by means of a bridge, presents 
a green and refreshing appearance. It was here, according to the 
legend, that David fought with Goliath. The road now ascends a long 
hill in windings, which the old path avoids. To the right after ^hT. 
is a watch-house, and on the hill to the left the village of Bet lksa. 
In a small valley nearer the road, also to the left, lies the village 
of Lifta, with a large spring and the stones of some very ancient 
buildings at the E. entrance to the village. This place corresponds 
with the ancient Nephtoah on the confines of Judah (Josh. xv. 9). 
The road traverses a stony region of increasing dreariness. On the 
left (12 min.) is the wely of Shekh Bedder, and farther on M. Schnel- 
ler's orphanage (p. 236) on the left and the Greek Monastery of the 
Cross (p. 274) on the right. On the left Q hr.) is another watch- 
tower, and we no v." reach the top of the hill whence we at length 

to Jerusalem. BET NUBA. 2. Route. 141 

descry indications )f the proximity of Jerusalem. We first perceive 
the extensive pile of buildings belonging to the Russians, with its 
church of five domes, beyond which are the chapels on the Mt. of 
Olives. The domes of the mosque of 'Omar, the church of the Se- 
pulchre, etc. , are also visible, but theHoly City itself is still hidden. 
A little farther on, however, the walls come in view, and in 20 
min. more we reach the Yafa Gate (p. 144). 

Other Routes. 2. From Ramleh to Jerusalem by Kefr Tab and Bet 
Nuba (8J hrs.). Opposite to El-Berriyeh (p. 137), where the main route 
from Yafa turns more to the S.E., we turn to the left, and proceed for 
10 min. towards the N.E. till we reach the interesting remains of a 
Roman road leading towards Lydda. Following this road, and leaving Bet 
'Enndbeh (p. 137) on the hill to the left, we reach Kefr Tdb (comp. p. 137) 
in 35 min., whence we descend into the Wddy el-'Ain. El-Kubdb (p. 137) 
lies to the right. After 25 min. we see the villages of Dhul'BH (or Silbif) 
and Der Nakhleh (i. e. Michael) on a hill to the right, with a spring and olive- 
presses in the rock near them. In 55 min. we arrive at the large village 
of Bet Nuba, which has been identified without sufficient grounds with 
the ancient Ndb (1 Sam. xxi. 1 ; xxii. 9). The place, however, is ancient, 
and Richard Coeur de Lion encamped here in 1192. To the right, in a 
beautiful valley , lies the village of Ydlo, which is doubtless the ancient 
Ajalon, where the miracle of the sun standing still (Josh. x. 13) took 
place. On the left lies the village of Lekkiyeh (see below). — Leaving Bet 
Nuba, we reach the ruined village of Suw&n on the right in 18 minutes. 
The 'Castellum Arnoldi' of the Crusaders has been sought for in this 
neighbourhood, but hitherto without success. The ascent becomes steeper, 
and the path bad. In 35 min. we reach the ruin of El-Burej (i. e. small 
castle), in 25 min. that of El-Muska, and in 40 min. more El-KubCbeh (see 
below). Thence to Neby Samwil and Jerusalem (2J hrs.), see below. 

3. From Lydda to Jerusalem by Jimzu and El-Kubebeh (8 hrs.). On 
the E. side of the village of Ludd there is a meadow with a well, an 
admirable camping-ground. Our route leads hence to the N.E., leading 
for 10 min. through olive-groves and between cactus-hedges. The brook 
on the right still contains a little water in spring. On the hills before 
us lies Jimzu. After 23 min. we leave to the left a path leading thither, 
and a gradual ascent now begins. A little farther on we pass an old 
building with a reservoir on the left. After 13 min. we see the village 
of Jimzu above us to the right, peeping from the midst of cactus-hedges 
and other vegetation. This was the Gimzo of the Old Testament 
(2 Chron. xxviii. 18). Beyond the village the path again divides. That 
to the left leads farther into the mountains. We proceed towards the 
Tight, and in } hr. reach a height on » hich there is a cavern containing 
a little water to the right. Above the path, 10 min. farther, on the left, 
is the wely of Bet Jinneh. After 3 min. we cross another path , and now 
enter the hill-country through a green dale. On the hill to the right 
(17 min.) stands the village of Berfllya. To the right (5 min.), in the 
■distance, is the ruin of Silbit (see above) ; then to the left the village of 
Bet 'Ur (p. 142). After J hr., a wely to the right; 5 min., the village of 
Bir el-Ma'in; 10 min., cross-road. Towards the S. (right) are seen the 
villages of Bet Nuba and Yalo (see above), and, after 10 min., the village 
of El-Burj in the distance to the left. In 20 min. more the bed of a 
brook is reached , beyond which a path to the left is avoided. The 
mountains become bleaker. At (20 min.) the village of Bet Lekkiyeh there 
are remains of apparently ancient buildings. The path ascends. Below 
us, to the left, lies the large Wddy Suleimdn. To the left, after J hr., 
is a small ruin. In 35 min. more we pass through the large village of 
BU 'Endn and again ascend. After J hr. a path to the left is to be avoided. 
Beautiful retrospect of the plain. In 17 min. more we reach El-Kubebeh. 

An early tradition ideutinces Kubebeh with the Emmaut of the New 
Testament, and this view is borne out by recent measurements of its 
distance from Jerusalem (according to Schick, 62J stadia from Jerusalem, 

142 Route 2. BET'UR. From Yafa 

each stadium being 606J Engl. ft.). See remarks as to Kuloniyeh, p. 140. 
The village contains many ruins, and the situation is beautiful. The 
monastery and church of Latin monks has been established here since 
1862. Intending visitors must be provided with a letter of introduction 
from Yafa, but there is not much to see. Some of the walls are ancient, 
and antiquities have been turned up by the spade. The church is said 
to cover the spot where Christ broke bread with the two disciples (fee 
1 — 2 fr. for the church or the poor). 

The Wady Suleiman, by which also a road leads to Jerusalem, always 
lies on our right ; before us rise Neby Samwil and some of the distant 
mountains of the valley of the Jordan. At a fig-tree (13 min.) our path 
is joined by another from the left, and next reaches (7 min.) the village 
of Biddu. On the hill to the S. lies Bet Surik. Biddu is surrounded by 
heaps of stones and is destitute of trees. This scene is a foretaste of the 
stony wilderness of the ancient Judah. We skirt the side of the valley 
to the left, and in 35 min. reach the N. side of Neby Samwil (p. 143), 
where our path continues on the height. The summit may be attained 
hence after a very slight farther ascent. 

4. From Ltdda to Jerusalem by Bet 'Ur and El-Jib (8| hrs.). Route 
to Jimzu, see above. Beyond this village our path turns to the left and 
ascends in 2 hrs. 10 min. to the village of Umm Rdsh. We now descend, 
passing a spring on the road-side after 10 min., and obtaining a view of 
the village of Saffa at some distance to the left. The well-trodden path 
leads in 50 min. more to the village of Bet 'Ur et-Tahta, lying on a low 
hill, nearly at the foot of the mountains. Crossing a valley by a stony 
path, we now begin a rugged ascent, sometimes crossing smooth slabs of 
rock. The path is hewn in the rock at places , and constructed in steps. 
It leads between two valleys. In 25 min. it passes some old substructions 
with large stones, and in 35 min. more reaches BU'Ur el-Fdka, admirably 
situated on the top of a mountain spur between the two valleys. This 
was an important place from a very early period. The 'lower 1 and the 
'upper' Bet 'Ur occupy the site of the Beth-Horons of antiquity. It was 
here that Joshua defeated the Canaanites (Josh. x. 10), and the Nether 
Beth-Horon was fortified by Solomon (1 Kings ix. 17). A much frequented 
route appears in ancient times to have led from Jerusalem to the sea- 
coast past these villages. The view hence is very interesting, especially 
from the roof of the shekh's house. Lydda, Ilamleh, and in clear weather 
Yafa too, are visible. To the E. of the mouth of the Wady Suleiman 
extends the fertile plain of Merj ibn 'Omer, stretching towards Eamleh. To 
the W.S.W. lies Yalo , to the r. of it Bet Nuba, and beyond it El-Kubab. 
Towards the N.W. the lofty Der Kaddis , farther N. Der Abu Mesh'al, 
to the N. Ras Kerker, and to the right of it Bet Ellu and Der Ebziyeh. 

The route now becomes very rough, leading through wild and rocky 
mountains , a wilderness which should not be traversed without a good 
guide. There are still, however, some traces of ancient cultivated terraces 
and a road, and ruined khans. To the?'right (S.) lies the village of Et- 
Tirch, surrounded by vegetation. In 1 hr. 40 min. after leaving Bet 'Ur 
we reach the top of the pass , whence we see El-Jib and Neby Samwil 
before us. The route now crosses a fertile, low-lying tract, and in 28 
min. reaches the isolated hill on which El-Jib is situated. This small village 
is built among old ruins. A large building seems to have been a castle. 
On the E. slope of the hills, about 100 paces from the village, there is a 
large reservoir with a spring, and a second farther down, which is perhaps 
the pool mentioned in 2 Sam. ii. 13. To the S. the view embraces Neby 
Samwil and the village of Biddu; to the N. E. Jedireh and Kalandia, 
(p. 325), and to the right of these the hill of Ramallah; below us, to the 
E., Bir Nebala. There is no doubt that El- Jib is the ancient Gibeon, 
(Greek Gabaon). Gibeon appears to have been the chief of a confederacy 
of towns ; but when the Israelites approached, the inhabitants saved 
themselves by a stratagem (Josh, ix, x.). Gibeon was afterwards a 
town of the Levites, and for a time contained the Ark of the Covenant 
(1 Chron. xvi. 39). The place is also mentioned in the history of the 
kings, and Solomon once sacrificed here (1 Kings, iii.). 

to Jerusalem. NEBY SAMWIL. 2. Route. 143 

The route now leads to the S. through cultivated land and orchards 
towards the summit of Neby Samwil, which rears itself high above the 
plain. A shorter route to Jerusalem leads to the E. round the hill, while 
we climb its N.W. slope by a steep and stony path leading to the top, 
on the highest W. point of which we reach the famous shrine, J hr. 
from El-Jib. It lies 3006 ft. above the sea-level, and is the highest 
mountain near Jerusalem. We now stand on a most venerable spot, where 
rose the ancient watch-tower of Mizpeh (the 'sentinel'), the famous city of 
Benjamin. Here, in the very centre of the tribes of Israel, were held the 
national assemblies of the period of the Judges (Judges xx. 1, and 1 Sam. 
x. 17). King Asa of Judah caused the place to be fortified for 
protection against Israel (1 Kings, xv. 22). Tradition points out Neby 
Samwil as the birthplace, residence, and burial-place of the prophet 
Samuel, although without sufficient foundation. It is recorded, however, 
that the Emperor Justinian (d. 565) caused a well to be dug in the 
monastery of St. Samuel, which probably occupied this site. The Cru- 
saders regarded the place as the ancient Shiloh, and built a church here 
over 'Samuel's Tomb', and in the 16th cent, a handsome and much 
frequented pilgrimage-shrine stood here. The present mosque (entered 
from the court), to which admission is easily obtained, is somewhat di- 
lapidated , but the substructions , which probably date from the Frank 
period, are beautifully jointed. The apse is raised. In the N.W. corner 
there is an entrance to an adjoining building with two wide pointed 
windows, one of which is built up. The tomb is on the W. side of the 
church and is shown reluctantly, though regarded as sacred by Jews, 
Muslims, and Christians alike. The traveller loses nothing if he fails to 
see it, as the sarcophagus and the winding-sheet are certainly modern. 
He should not, however, fail to ascend to the minaret for the sake of the 
magnificent view thence. To the right, to the N. of El-Jib, rises the 
hill of Ramallah (p. 325); in front of it, below, lies the village of Bir 
Nebala; to the E., Bet Hanina, and farther E. the hill of Tuleil el-Ful 
(p. 325). Beyond these , in the distance , rise the blue mountains of the 
valley of the Jordan; to the S.E. are Jerusalem and the Mt. of Olives; 
adjoining these, on the hill to the S., is Mar Elyas; above it rises the 
round summit of the Frank Mountain (p. 256) , and farther distant is 
Bethlehem. The village of Bet Iksa (p. 140), lies quite near us to the 
S. ; to the S.S.W. is Lifta, and to the W.N.W. Biddu. In clear weather 
Ramleh, Yafa and the sea are visible in the distance to the W. 

The village possesses few inhabited houses, but its walls partly hewn 
in the rock, and the fine large blocks of building stone outside the 
mosque on the N.E. side, show traces of great antiquity. Immediately 
below the village are two reservoirs hewn in the rock (respectively 1 and 
5 min. from the road), evidently very ancient. The spring which supplies 
them is more to the N. The path descending from Neby Samwil into the 
valley, an ancient Roman road, as is still obvious at places, crosses (20 min.) 
a watercourse, over which a bridge once led. On a hill to the right lies 
the extensive ruin of /ads, dating from the Crusaders 1 period, which in 
the middle ages was supposed to have been the chateau of Joseph of 
Arimathsea. Near it are the ruins of a small village. After ] hr. a road 
remains to the left. The path now descends into the (10 min.) Wddy Ha- 
nina, a valley deriving its name from a village on the spur rising between 
the two valleys which unite here. Avoiding a path to the left, and cross- 
ing the principal valley, we follow the course of the brook in the side- 
valley for 13 min. (the path to the left leads to the village of Bet Hanina). 
A steep ascent now begins. To the left of the path, 8 min. farther, are 
the so-called Tombs of the Judges (p. 238). After } hr. our route is joined 
by a path from the right, which leads direct to El-Kubebeh by Bet Iksa 
(p. 140). Traces of rock-tombs still continue, and Jerusalem now becomes 
visible. After j hr. our route leads to the right (to the left a new colony 
of German Jews). In 4 min. we pass the Arabian Protestant church, and 
in 5 min. more reach the Yafa Gate. 


3. Jerusalem. 

Arrival. All municipal taxes throughout the Turkish empire having 
been abolished in 18T4, there is now no examination of luggage at the 
gates of the city. All the gates of Jerusalem are closed shortly after 
sunset, with the exception of the Yafa Gate. If, as usually happens, a 
wicket only is left open here, riding through it is hardly safe. 

Hotels. Mediterranean Hotel (PI. a), near the Yafa Gate, to the 
left, by the descent to the Street of the Christians (landlord Moses Horn- 
stein). Damascus Hotel (PI. b; landlord Aaron Hornstein, brother of 
Moses). The usual charge is 10 s. per day, even during temporary 
absences, such as the excursion of three days to the Dead Sea. Dejeuner 
at 12, dinner at 6.30; Jerusalem wine 1 — 2 fr. ; good French red wines 
4 fr. per bottle. Food generally good; rooms small, but sufficiently large 
for ordinary travellers who are seldom in-doors. 

The Casa Nova of the Franciscans (PI. c) also affords accommodation, 
but is chiefly patronised by Soman Catholics. It is situated in the 
second street to the left after entering the Yafa Gate , and is indicated 
by an inscription. The hospice, which is quite separate from the 
monastery, was greatly enlarged in 1873. The whole arrangements are 
simple, but the dining-rooms are very handsome. The beds are good and 
clean. It is usual to give 5 fr. per day or upwards. Poor visitors are 
entertained for a fortnight gratis , but in a simpler manner than those 
who pay. The monks are chiefly Italians. — The Austrian Hospice (PI. e), 
near the Damascus Gate, likewise makes no charge, but 5 fr. per day is 
usually paid. — The Prussian Hospice of St. John (PI. d) charges 5 fr. 
per day for its guests of the upper classes ; fare simple, but sufficient ; 
3 — 4 rooms only for travellers. — In the height of summer many of the 
inhabitants camp outside the gates for the sake of the purer air, but the 
traveller should not attempt this in spring, as the weather is then often 
bitterly cold, unless he is compelled to do so from want of accommodation 
within the city. 

Restaurants. The hotels constitute the only restaurants at Jerusalem ; 
travellers camping in the environs may dine at the tables d'hote. Lend- 
holdt, in the lower part of the town, and Shrafft , near the Casa Nova, 
keep beer and coffee shops. 

Wine. "Duisberg A Co. (formerly Spittler) , at the Yafa Gate, sell all 
kinds of wine, English and Vienna beer, etc.; Bergheim, Christian Street, 
sells wine, English beer, etc.; Bayer (in the Hospice of St. John, see 
above) and Kirchner keep Jerusalem wine at 1 fr. per bottle. In the 
Jews' Street, the S. prolongation of the long bazaar (p. 212), are numerous 
taverns. The wine, chiefly from Cyprus (Commendariyeh) is sold by 
weight (bottles 20 c. each). 

Arabian Cafes abound, but are not frequented by travellers. One of 
the best is mentioned at p. 211. 

Honey, see Introduction, p. 6. 

Bankers. The agents of the Banque Oltomane , which is in correspon- 
dence with the principal banks of most other countries, are Frutiger <k Co. 
at the Yafa Gate (also formerly Spittler), entrance in a lane at the back 
of Duisberg's shop ; Bergheim , the wine-merchant, is also a respectable 
banker. Valero, in the David Street, is a good Jewish house. 

Small change, with which the traveller should always be well sup- 
plied, may be obtained at the bazaar, but as reckoning in piastres is 
puzzling at first, he should be on his guard against imposition. 

Consulates. Permission to visit the mosques can only be obtained 
through one of the consulates. In case of any difficulty the traveller 
should apply at the office of his consulate, where he will always receive 
the best advice and information (comp. p. 9). 

American (PI. 14), Dr. de Hess; Austrian (PI. 19), Count Caboga de 
Cerva; British (PI. 16), Noel Temple Moore, Esq.; French (PI. 17), M. Pa- 
trimonio; German (PI. 15), Baron v. Munchhausen; Italian (PI. 18(, Cav. 
de liege di Donato; Russian (PI. 20), M. Kojewnikow. 

Flan, of Jerusalem. 

F.2.3. * CD 



1 .Jksa-Jfosaue 

2 .S*.Anne, Clacrch of 

3 . Arabian, Trot. Church 
Bazaars : 

K Suk el-Attarm 

5. " el-Xhawajdt 

6. " el-lahhamnv 

7. ■ es-Sabaahin I et-Xhezur J 

8. " esh- Shawahvn, . 

9. - es-Sem'ani {Klian/ ez-ZetJ 
10 .Barracks tCavalry/ 

11. » (Infantry) 

12 . Shankeh-f Salaams Hospice* 

13. Canaculum- 
Com til ales -. 

14*. American, 
1 5 . German, 
lQ. British 

17 . French, 

18. Italian. 

19 . Austrian, l on. the Yafa. Roaa- 

20. Russian, 
21. Band's Tomb 
11 . German- Church, i 

23. Hospice rin-buildiiig 

24*. •' School dh Parsonage) 

25 . English Church, 

26. Bishop's Residence 

27. Hospital . 

28. " Parsonage 
29 School 
29? » Boys'* Girls' School 

30 . .Dome of 0«e Jtocfc l%uhbet es -SaJchrd- > 

31 . Chapel of the Scourging 

32 . GMtk'. of Goliath tiasr JaMd, > 

33 . <7nov& of «*« Sepulchre, 
34* . Hanunam, eV-Batrdk f Patj-uirch's Fond > 
35. » •■ esh-Shifd, I PoolofBethasdii 

Saran G-ates '. 

36. .Mi el-Asbdt 

37 . ■ BtUu 

38 . el-Atem, 

39 . . el- Ghawdninich 
to . cj- .Serai' 

41 . enrUdsir 

42 . el-Madid 

43. el-Battdnzn, 

44. " el-Matara- 

45 . " er- Suseleh 

46 . " elrjfagharibeh 
47 .Hospital., Greek . . 

48. » JUn%schUd,'s 

49. Sf James, fltorcA, of ( (?W < 
50. Dom« of Ole Ouuir 

51 . Watting Place of the .Terrs 
Monasteries : 

52 . Abyssinian, . 

53. Jrm^juOTi' f Great J. 

54. jFwnne^v" Jo* ez-Zetuni 
( Souse of Annas I . 

55. Monastery of Mt Zion 
I Souse of Caiaphas >. 

Monasteries : 

50 . Armenian, Catholic 
St. Greek i6reat> 


C.5.* D. 




s. 2, 




. D 

58. I yew J 

59. ■• of AbraJuaw D. 

60 . S? Basil 
HI. ' Caralombos 

62. " Demetrius 

63. " J? George (I) 
64. CO/ 

65. " Gethsemahe 

66. " Sf John, Euthymius 

67. ■' S* John, the. Baptist 

68. S*GU?UI7-Die 

69. ■ StMichael 

70. ■■ S*JficAaZoot 

71. " Panagia, 

72. " Panagia, Melaena, 

73. ■ • S? Theodore 

7t. ■• Catholic ( Xelchizes i 

75 . .Swterj of St Joseph, 

76 . Coptic C A? George ) 
11. Latin S? Sabnttor 

78 . ■• 5? XenrJ 

79. Muslim- Dervishes 

80. Juuuatnych-Dcrrishes E 

81. Syrian, 

82 . Sisters of Zion- 

83 . H-Jfil^niotfp*, Kian. I formerly SlMary 

Magdalen. > 
M.Mehkemeh ( Souse of .huLgmenb ) 
Mosques : 

8 5 . Jdnu,' et- 'Omari 
80 . Mesjid- el- Burdnd- 

87 . " el-Majahidm- 

88 . " clrMaghdj'ibell, 
**9 .PtariwchatB , Armenian 
Ilil , ft-edt 

»t. , Zoaii, B 

92 . Post Office. French 
:»3. , Austrian.' 

>)4. • , Tto*ish, 

95. 5crai, tfW (State Prison,/ 

96. .Present ( Pasha's Residence ■' 



< .3. 




E 3. 

Hotels and Hospices : 

a . Mediterranean, Hotel H.i. 

. Damascus Motel D.E.3. 
c . Casa- fibra, of the Franciscans C.3. 
A.. Hospice of SfJohn, I Prussian, ■ E . 3 . 

e. , Austrian- E.2. 

f. " , Jewish ( Montefiore, - A. 6. 
^. " , German, Jewish E.6. 
a. " , Spanish, Jewish E.(i. 
i. " .Armenian, B.5. 
k . Coptic Sluin D. t-. 

Bauters '. 

1 . Frutiger St C? ( 3anque Ottvnuate C.4. 
m.Bergheim' D.4. 
n.Va/ero . D.4-. 
S . Synagogues ' tn-T-n-s ' fcxc'?- D.E.5.6. 

Bmgramd 4 printed Vf Dfogikex * Debet. Leipxig. 

JERUSALEM. 3. Route. 145 

Post Office. Austrian, PI. 93; French, PI. 92. Letters may be ad- 
dressed 'poste restante', but it is safer to have them addressed to the 

Books, Photographs. Shapira, Christian Street, is the best shop-, 
then Bergheim, in the same street. Photographs of every part of Palestine, 
medium size 18 fr. per dozen. They should be bought unmounted, and 
rolled on a round piece of wood to facilitate transport. 

Other favourite souvenirs are rosaries of olive - stones, crosses and 
other ornaments in mother-of-pearl (chiefly manufactured at Bethlehem), 
vases and other objects in black 'stinkstone' from the Dead Sea, 
and roses of Jericho (p. 284). A large choice of these articles is to be 
found in the space in front of the church of the Sepulchre ; or some of 
the dealers may be requested to bring their wares to the traveller's 
apartments. As a rule one-half or a third only of the price demanded 
should be offered. A staple product of Jerusalem is carved work in olive- 
wood, of which the best specimens may be purchased at Vester's (Via 
Dolorosa, above the Prussian Hospice), at the House of Industry (Bayer), 
and at Faig*s (rosary 1 fr., ruler 1, letter-weight 1 — 2, stamp-box 2J, 
cigar-ease 5, glove-box 10 fr., etc.; many of these articles bear the name 
'Jerusalem' in Hebrew letters). 

Physicians: Dr. Chaplin, physician of the English Jewish mission; 
Dr. Sandreczki , a skilful operator, physician of the German institutions ; 
Dr. Schwarz (Austrian), of the Rothschild Hospital; Dr. Mazaraki, of the 
Greek Hospital. — Chemists : Damiani, Via Dolorosa, and others at all 
the numerous hospitals. 

Tailors: Eppinger, and Silberstein, both in Christian Street. Shoemaker : 
Schohn, and Schlegel, both in the same street. 

Dragomans at Jerusalem: Bernard JJilpern, Abraham Lyons, Khalil 
Dhimel (Protestants), Banna Auwad, and Joseph Karam (Latins). 

'Glorious things of thee are spoken, 
Zion ! City of our God !' 

Jerusalem (Hebr. 'vision of peace'), to most travellers, is a place 
of overwhelming interest , but at first sight many will be sadly 
disappointed in the Holy City, the venerable type of the heavenly 
Zion. It would seem at first as though little were left of the ancient 
city of Zion and Moriah , the far-famed capital of the Jewish em- 
pire ; and little of it indeed is to be discovered in the narrow , 
crooked, ill-paved, and dirty streets of the modern town. It is only 
by patiently penetrating beneath the modern crust of rubbish and. 
rottenness which shrouds the sacred places from view that the trav- 
eller will at length realise to himself a picture of the Jerusalem 
of antiquity, and this will be the more vivid in proportion to the 
amount of previously acquired historical and topographical infor- 
mation which he is able to bring to bear upon his researches. The 
longer and the oftener he sojourns in Jerusalem, the greater will be 
the interest with which its ruins will inspire him , though he will 
be obliged to confess that the degraded aspect of the modern city, 
and its material and moral decline , form but a melancholy termi- 
nation to the stupendous scenes once enacted here. The com- 
bination of wild superstition with the merest formalism which 
everywhere forces itself on our notice , and the fanaticism and 
jealous exclusiveness of the numerous religious communities of 
Jerusalem form the chief modern characteristics of the city, — the 

Palestine. 10 

146 Route 3. JERUSALEM. History. 

Holy City, once the fountain-head from which the knowledge of the 
true God was wont to be vouchsafed to mankind, and which has 
exercised the supremest influence on Teligious thought throughout 
the world. 

The traveller's stay must of course depend on his other plans, 
the arrival and departure of steamboats, etc., but six or seven days 
at least should be devoted to the principal points of interest (p. 3). 

History of Jerusalem. 

The attempt to identify Jerusalem with the ancient Salem, the 
city of Melchizedek (Gen. xiv. 18), has for several reasons been far 
from successful. When they conquered the country, the Israelites 
found the tribe of the Jebusites settled among the mountains of 
this district, Jebus, afterwards the site of Jerusalem, being their 
capital and the residence of their king. The Jebusites were indeed 
conquered, but it was long before their city, owing to its natural 
strength, fell into the power of their enemy. It is certain that in 
the time of the Judges the town was still occupied by the Jebusites 
(Judges xix. 11, 12"). Notwithstanding this, the valley of Hinnom 
was constituted the S. boundary of the tribe of Benjamin on the 
partition of the country. We are informed very briefly that this 
Jebus was at length captured by King David (2 Sam. v. 6 — 10). 
The inhabitants, trusting to the strength of their city, derided the 
Israelites, but David took the city and established himself in the 
'stronghold of Zion'. 

What then was the precise situation of this holy Mt. Zion ? In 
order to answer this question we must first examine the topo- 
graphical character of the city. (To assist our enquiry, and to show 
how widely scholars have differed on the subject, we give on p. 155 
the maps of ancient Jerusalem as laid down by six different au- 
thorities.) The city was surrounded by deep valleys, except on the 
N.W. side, where a broad hill connected it with the neighbouring 
country. Towards the E. lay the valley of the Kidron (afterwards 
called the valley of Jehoshaphat) , and on the W. and S. sides the 
valley of Hinnom. These valleys enclosed a plateau, the N. side 
of which bore the name of Bezetha, or 'place of olives' ; and olive 
groves are still to be found in that locality. On the S. half of this 
plateau lay the city of Jerusalem , which was divided into different 
quarters by natural depressions of the soil. The chief of these natural 
boundaries was a small valley coming from the N. . running at first 
S.S.E., and then due S., and separating two hills, of which that to 
the W. now rises 105 ft. above the precipitous E. hill. This valley 
was called the Tyropaon (cheese-makers' valley). 

a. 'And when they were by Jebus, the day was far spent; and the 
servant said unto his master, Come, I pray thee, and let us turn in into 
this city of the Jebusites, and lodge in it. And his master said unto him, 
We will not turn aside hither into the city of a stranger, that is not Of 
the children of Israel; we will pass over to Gibeah'. 

History. JERUSALEM. 3. Route. 147 

On the S. terrace of the E. hill, where, to the S.E. of the 
present Haram, lay the Ophel quarter, as well as on the other hill 
to the W. of the Tyropoeon, extended the ancient Jerusalem as far 
as the brink of the valley. The city-wall crossed the Tyropoeon at 
its mouth far below. On the large W. hill rose parallel streets in 
terrace-like form , running from N. to S. On the summit was a 
large plateau on which lay the Upper City. As it was accessible 
from the N. only, the walls were strongest on that side. t 

Such are the undisputed facts. The questions which now arise 
are — what were the names of these hills, and what was the site 
of the ancient buildings ? In the first place the site of the ancient 
Temple must certainly have been on the E. hill. The name of the 
hill itself, however, is not invariable. The name Moriah (2 Chron. 
iii. 1°) occurs in the Bible in one other passage only (Gen. xxii. 
2 *) , and it is very remarkable that it is not mentioned in the 
account of the building of the Temple (1 Kings, vi.). The name, 
however, appears not to have been a popular, but a sacerdotal and 
religious appellation. There are numerous passages in the Bible 
which prove that down to a late period the hill of the temple was 
included in the name of Zion (e. g. 1 Mace. iv. 37). This accounts 
for the frequent mention of the glory of Zion in the poetical books, 
for it was there that the Temple stood. On the other hand 'Zion' 
is very frequently used as synonymous with the 'city of David' 
(2 Sam. v. 7 ; 1 Kings viii. 1 e ), and is even poetically applied to 
Jerusalem itself ('daughter of Zion'). WheTe then was this city of 
David, or Zion in the narrower sense, situated? Most authorities 
place it on the W. hill. In the middle ages Zion was understood to 
be the western , and Moriah the eastern hill. 'Going up' to the 
Temple, even from the city of David (2 Sam. xxiv. 18 d ), is usually 
spoken of; but the W. hill is higher than the hill of the Temple. 
From Nehemiah xii. 37, it would appear that a solemn procession 
from the fountain of Gihon (p. 149) passed the city of David on its 
way to the E. side of the temple mount. In this case we should 
have to assume that the town of David occupied a site to the S. of 
the temple mount, but this conjecture is also open to objection. It 
is, indeed, impossible now to determine the site of the house of 
David ; but we know that Jerusalem must from the earliest period 

a. 'Then Solomon began to build the house of the Lord at Jerusalem 
in mount Moriah, where the Lord appeared unto David his father, in the 
place that David had prepared in the threshing-floor of Oman the Jebusite.' 

b. 'Take now thy son, thine only son Isaac, whom thou lovest, and 
get thee into the land of Moriah ; and offer him there for a burnt offering 
upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of.' 

c. 'Then Solomon assembled the elders of Israel , and all the heads 
of the tribes, the chief of the fathers of the children of Israel, unto king 
Solomon in Jerusalem, that they might bring up the ark of the covenant 
of the Lord out of the city of David, which is Zion. 1 

d. 'And Gad came that day to David, and said unto him, Go up, 
rear an altar unto the Lord in the threshing-floor of Araunah the Jebusite'. 


148 Route 3. JERUSALEM. History. 

have consisted of an upper and a lower city. The former lay on the 
"W. slope of the higher hill (Zion in the narrower sense]), and the 
lower town doubtless to the E of the upper. A great part of this 
ancient city lay outside (to the S. of) the present town-wall, on a 
site now unoccupied by houses. How far the city of David extended 
towards the N. is very uncertain. At theN.E. corner of the upper city, 
opposite the site of the Temple, was the Millo bastion ('filling up'). 

David, who was constantly engaged in warlike enterprises, was 
not to build the Temple ; but he solemnly conveyed the Ark of the 
Covenant to Jerusalem, his new capital. It was reserved for his son 
Solomon to beautify the city in a magnificent style, and above all 
to erect a sumptuous national sanctuary. In order, however, to 
procure a level surface for the foundation of such an edifice, it was 
necessary to lay massive substructions. Notwithstanding the various 
objections advanced by several different authorities, we may with 
sufficient confidence assume that the Temple of Solomon occupied 
the site of the upper terrace of the present day, on which the Dome 
of the Rock now stands. It is, however, by uo means certain that 
the threshing-floor of Araunah the Jebusite (p. 147) was on the 
sacred rock (p. 173) , although it was customary to choose spots 
exposed to the wind , such as this , for the purpose of winnowing 
corn. The work begun by Solomon was continued by his successors, 
who constructed a more spacious precinct around the Temple on 
ground which must have been artificially levelled for the purpose. 
(For farther details as to the history and site of the ancient Temple, 
see p. 164.) 

The next question is — where did Solomon erect his large 
Palace? The opinion of some is, that the palace stood on the W. 
hill (Zion in the narrower sense) , opposite the Temple ; others 
maintain that the palace rose to the S. of the Temple, nearly on the 
site of the present mosque of Aksa (p. 176), and extended thence 
to the E. Pharaoh's daughter would, still have to 'come up' to it 
from the city of David (1 Kings ix. 24"), especially as the most 
recent excavations have shown that the rock here, on the S. side of 
the present Haram, forms a broad plateau on the centre of the hill. 
This new palace was erected from Egyptian models , and sump- 
tuously decorated, so that even the queen of Sheba marvelled at the 
magnificence of its arrangements. 

Solomon also extended the already mentioned bastion of Millo. 
He constructed an embankment thence to the opposite hill of the 
Temple (1 Kings xi. 27), and enclosed the new city with fortifi- 
cations (on the N. side). During his reign Jerusalem first became 
the headquarters of the Israelites, and it was probably then, at a 
season of commercial prosperity, that this new city or suburb sprang 

a. 'But Pharaoh's daughter came up out of the city of David unto 
her house which Solomon had built for her: then did he build Millo. 1 

History. JERUSALEM. 3. Route. 149 

up. At that period the bazaar was already established there, and 
the various crafts possessed their distinct lanes as at the present 
day. The glory of Jerusalem as the central point of the united 
empire was, however, of brief duration, and it shortly afterwards 
became the capital of the southern kingdom of Judah only. So 
earfy as Rehoboam's reign the city was compelled to surrender to 
the Egyptian king Shishak , on which occasion the Temple and 
palace were despoiled of part of their golden ornaments. About 
one hundred years later, under king Jehoram , the Temple was 
again plundered, the victors on this occasion being southern Arabian 
and Philistine tribes (2 Chron. xxi. 17). Sixty years later Jehoash, 
the king of the northern empire, having defeated Amaziah, King of 
Judah, effected a wide breach in the wall of Jerusalem and entered 
the city in triumph. He, too, carried off all the gold which he 
found in the palaces and the Temple (2 Kings xiv. 13, 14). 
Uzziah, the son of Amaziah, during his reign of fifty-two years, 
re-established the prosperity of Jerusalem. Commerce revived, the 
city was fortified with new towers, and engines for throwing pro- 
jectiles were planted on the battlements (2 Chron. xxvi. 1 — 16). 
During this period , however, Jerusalem was visited by a great 
earthquake. On the approach of Sennacherib the fortifications were 
repaired by Hezekiah (2 Chron. xxxii. 5). 

To Hezekiah also was due the great merit of providing Jerusalem 
with water. The solid chalky limestone on which the city stands 
contains little wateT. The only spring at Jerusalem was the fountain 
of Oihon on the E. slope of the Temple hill. (Others plaee it on the 
N.W. side of the city, comp. p. 226.) By means of a shaft the 
water from this spring could be drawn up to the very top of the 
plateau. Hezekiah conducted the water of the spring in the other 
direction to the lower lying Siloam. The watercourse of Gihon was, 
however, merely one branch of a spring conducted to the city from 
the N. ; another has recently been found in the course of ex- 
cavations in the Tyropoeon. This spring being quite inadequate for 
the supply of the whole city, cisterns and reservoirs for the storage 
of rain-water were also constructed. The ponds on the W. side of 
the city were probably formed before the period of the captivity, 
as was also the large reservoir which still excites our admiration to 
the N. of the Temple plateau, and in the formation of which ad- 
vantage was taken of a small valley, whose depth was at the same 
time destined to protect the site of the Temple on the N. side. A 
besieging army outside the city-walls generally suffered severely 
from want of water, as the issues of the conduits towards the 
country could be closed, while the city always possessed water in 
abundance. The valleys of Kidron and Hinnom must have ceased 
to be watered by streams at a very early period. 

Hezekiah, who worshipped the true God, and on the whole reigned 
prosperously, was succeeded by his idolatrous son Manasseh, who is 

150 Route 3. JERUSALEM. History. 

also said to have built walls after Ms return from Babylon (2 Chron. 
xxxiii. 14). Thesewere everywh ere furnished with towers of defence, 
and Jerusalem was deemed a very strong city (Lament, iv. 12"). But 
the policy of its rulers and the unfortunate revolt against the superior 
power of the Chaldaeans involved the city in new disasters. Although 
not taken by storm, it was compelled to surrender at discretion to 
King Nebuchadnezzar. Again the Temple and the royal palace were 
pillaged , and a great number of the citizens , including King 
Jehoiachin, the nobles, and all the craftsmen, to the number of 
10,000 in all, were carried away captive to the East. Some 7000 of 
the poorest sort only remained behind. According to this account, 
therefore, the city at that period would contain about 17 — 20,000 
inhabitants. Those who were left having made a hopeless attempt 
under Zedekiah to revolt against their conquerors, Jerusalem now 
had to sustain a long and terrible siege (1 year, 5 months, and 
7 days). Pestilence and famine meanwhile ravaged the city. The 
besiegers approached with their roofed battering-rams (such, as are 
represented in the reliefs from Nineveh), but the defence was a 
desperate one, and every inch of the ground was keenly contested, 
even after Zedekiah had fled down the Tyropoeon to the valley of 
the Jordan. The Babylonians now carried off all the treasures that 
still remained, the Temple of Solomon was burned to the ground, and 
Jerusalem reduced to the abject state of humiliation so beautifully 
described by the author of the Lamentations, particularly in chap. ii. 

From this overwhelming catastrophe, however, Jerusalem was 
permitted to recover to some extent when the Jews returned from 
captivity, but it was not till the time of Nehemiah, the favoured 
cupbearer of the Persian king Artaxerxes Longimanus, that the 
city was actually rebuilt. Nehemiah Te-fortifled the city, retaining- 
the foundations of the former walls, although these now enclosed a far 
larger space than was necessary for the reduced population. Nehe- 
miah's description therefore presents to us an accurate picture of the 
ancient city, even before the captivity. 

The wall extended from the pool of Siloam up the hill towards 
the N. On the highest point of Ophel rose a bastion, which was 
also intended to protect the Horse Gate, an entrance of the Temple 
towards the E. Near the Horse Gate, and within the precincts of 
the Temple, were the dwellings of the priests. On this E. side it 
is commonly supposed that there was a second gate, called the 
Water Gate. There were also fortifications at the N. end of the 
Temple terrace, the most important being the Bira, a large bastion 
restored by Nehemiah, afterwards the site of Baris. The city was; 
farther defended on the N. side by the tower of Hananael ; there was: 
also a tower of Mea, about 50 yds. to the S. of the other, but the 

a. 'The kings of the earth , and all the inhabitants of the world, 
would not have believed that the adversary and the enemy should have 
entered into the gates of Jerusalem.' 

History. JERUSALEM. 3. Route. 151 

site of both seems to us to be far from being even approximately 
ascertained. Both ■were perhaps situated, as well as the sheep-gate, 
on the E. wall ; or Hananael might have stood on the N. side by the 
Fish Oate, in which case Mea and the sheep-gate must have been on 
the W. side of the Temple precincts. From St. John, v. 2", the 
Sheep Gate would appear to have been near the pool of Bethesda ; 
and as the pool is now believed to have been near the present 
'Ain esh-Shifa , and not at the place assigned to it by tradition, 
we must infer that the sheep-gate led from the industrial quarter of 
the Tyropoeon into the Temple precincts. 

The wall which enclosed the upper city ran towards the W., and 
had two gates : the Oate of the Centre, which led from one part of 
the city to the other; and to the extreme W. the Valley Oate, 
afterwards called Gennat , situated to the E. of the present Yafa 
Gate, where Uzziah once erected a tower of defence. In the suburb 
situated to the N. was first the Corner Oate, which was probably 
the same as the 'Old Gate\ and perhaps also the Oate of Ephraim, 
the site of which however is quite uncertain. From the upper part 
of the city a gate led W. towards the valley of Hinnom, called 
the Dung Gate, where a rock-staircase has been discovered. To the 
S. a wall ran across the Tyropoeon, at the outlet of which lay the 
Spring Gate, or the 'valley between the two walls'. The situation 
of the Potters' Gate, leading to the valley of Hinnom, is a matter of 
mere conjecture. From a very remote period the snake, orMamilla, 
pond (p. 235) lay in the upper part of the valley of Hinnom. 

The convulsions of the following centuries affected Jerusalem 
but slightly. The city opened its gates to Alexander, and after his 
death passed into the hands of the Ptolemies in the year 320. It 
was not till the time of Antiochus Epiphanes that it again became 
a theatre of bloodshed. On his return from Egypt Antiochus 
plundered the Temple. Two years afterwards he sent thither a 
chief collector of tribute, who destroyed Jerusalem, slew many of 
the inhabitants , and established himself in a stronghold in the 
centre of the city. This was the Akra, the site of which is placed 
by different authorities in very various parts of Jerusalem, by most 
in the region to the N.W. of the Temple, but by several to the S. 
of the Temple. This question can only be decided by the results of 
the requisite excavations. 

When Judas Maccabaeus had achieved his victory (comp. IntTod., 
p. 63) , he caused the ancient sacrificial rites in the Temple to be 
resumed; he purged the sacred precincts, enclosed them within a 
lofty wall with strong towers, and instituted a service of watchmen. 
Many struggles had to be undergone before this national restoration 
was consolidated. Antiochus Eupator besieged Jerusalem with 

a. 'Now there is at Jerusalem by the sheep market a pool, which is 
called in the Hebrew tongue Bethesda, having five porches.' 

152 Route 3. JERUSALEM. History. 

warlike engines, but the Jews were compelled to capitulate by 
hunger alone. Contrary to the treaty into which he had entered, he 
caused the walls of 'Zion' to be taken down ( Jona- 
than, the Maccabaean, however, caused a stronger wall than ever to 
be erected (1 Mace. x. 11). He constructed another wall between the 
Akra, which was still occupied by a Syrian garrison, and the other 
parts of the city, whereby at a later period, undeT Simon (B.C. 141), 
the citizens were enabled to reduce the garrison by famine. The 
castle was demolished, Simon took up his residence on the Baris, 
at the N.W. corner of the Temple precincts, and the town was 
refortifled. The descendants of Simon Maccabseus erected the 
spacious Asmonean palace to the "W. of Millo, whence a fine view 
of the Temple was obtained. Another siege by the Syrians had 
to be sustained in 134 by John Hyrcanus, the besiegers, as usual, 
being posted on the N. side of the city. Again Jerusalem was 
compelled to capitulate by hunger alone, but on tolerable con- 
ditions. Internal dissensions among the Maccabees at length led to 
the intervention of the Romans. Pompey besieged the city, and 
again the attacks were concentrated against the Temple precincts, 
which however were defended on the N. side by large towers and a 
deep moat. Traces of this moat have recently been discovered. 
The only level approach by which the Temple platform could 
be reached was a bridge towards the W., for on this side at that 
period lay the Tyropoeon, a valley of considerable depth. This 
bridge, which was afterwards destroyed, was probably situated near 
"Wilson's Arch (p. 185). The quarter to the N. of the Temple, as well 
as the Gate of St. Stephen, do not appear to have existed at that 
period, and this is confirmed by Capt. Warren's excavations. The 
moat on the N. side was filled up by the Romans on a Sabbath ; they 
then entered the city by the embankment they had thrown up, and, 
exasperated by the obstinate resistance they had encountered, com- 
mitted fearful ravages within the Temple precincts. In this struggle 
no fewer than 12,000 Jews are said to have perished. To the great 
sorrow of the Jews, Pompey penetrated into their inmost sanctuary, 
but he left their treasures untouched. These were carried off by 
Crassus a few years later. 

Internal discord at Jerusalem next gave rise to the intervention 
of the Parthians, B. C. 40, but in 37 Herod with the aid of the Ro- 
mans captured the city after a gallant defence. The Jews had 
obstinately defended every point to the uttermost, and so infuriated 
were the victors that they gave orders for a general massacre. The 
part which had held out longest was the Baris, at the N.W. corner 
of the Temple precincts. Herod, who now obtained the supreme 
power, embellished and fortified the city, and above all he rebuilt 
the Temple , an event to which we shall hereafter revert. He 
then refortifled the Baris also, as it commanded the Temple. This 
castle was flanked with turrets externally, and was internally very 

History. JERUSALEM. 3. Route. 153 

spacious. Herod named it Antonia, in honour of his Roman patron. 
He also built himself a palace on the N.W. side of the upper city. 
This building is said to have contained a number of halls, peristyles, 
inner courts with lavish enrichments, and richly decorated columns, 
and must have been of a very sumptuous character. On the N. side 
•of the royal palace stood three large towers of defence, named the 
Hippicus, Phasael, and Mariamne respectively. The substructions 
of the first, the so-called castle of David, near the YafaGate(p.212), 
show how massively these buildings must have been constructed. 
According to Roman custom Herod also built a theatre at Jerusalem, 
and at the same time a town-hall (nearly on the site of theMehkemeh, 
p. 185), and the Xystus , a space for gymnastic games surrounded 
by colonnades. At this period Jerusalem with its numerous palaces 
and handsome edifices, the sumptuous Temple with its colonnades, 
and the lofty city walls with their bastions, must have presented a 
very striking appearance. The wall of the old town had sixty towers, 
and that of the small suburb to the N. of it fourteen; but the 
populous city must have extended much farther to the N., and we 
must picture to ourselves in this direction numerous villas standing 
in gardens, some of which were probably very handsome buildings. 
Such was the character of the city in the time of Our Lord, but in 
the interior the streets, though paved, were somewhat narrow and 
crooked. The population must have been very crowded, especially, 
as we learn from the New Testament, on the occasion of festivals. 
The Roman governor is said on one occasion to have caused the 
paschal lambs to be counted, and to have found that they amounted 
to the vast number of 270,000, whence we may infer that the 
number of partakers was not less than 2,700,000. Although these 
figures, like many of the other statements of Josephus, are probably 
much exaggerated, they at least tend to show that the great national 
festival was attended by vast crowds. 

After the death of Christ, Agrippa I. at length erected a wall 
which enclosed the whole of the N. suburb within the precincts of 
the city. This wall, which must have been of great extent, and very 
strongly built to protect this most exposed quarter of Jerusalem, 
was composed of huge blocks of stone, and is said to have been 
defended by ninety towers. The strongest of these was the 
Psephinus tower at the N.W. angle, which was upwards of 100 ft. 
in height, and stood on the highest ground in the city (2572ft. above 
the sea-level). From fear of incurring the displeasure of the 
Emperor Claudius, Agrippa left the wall unfinished, and it was 
afterwards completed by the Jews in a less substantial style. As 
one of the chief points of controversy among the learned explorers of 
Jerusalem is the direction taken by the three walls, we may here 
give a short account of the subject. 

The first wall is that which enclosed the old part of the town. 
Beginning at the tower of Hippicus on the W. , it ran to the S. round 

154 Route 3. JERUSALEM. History. 

the pinnacle of the hill, and, enclosing Siloam, extended to the E. 
wall of the Temple precincts. Towards the N., as it approached the 
Temple, it formed the boundary of the old part of the town. Im- 
mediately to the S. of this N. wall stood the palace of Herod, the 
Xystus, and the bridge which crossed the Tyropceon to the Temple. 
In order to defend the upper part of the city, another wall ran down 
on the "W. margin of the Tyropoeon. 

On the direction assigned to the second wall, which enclosed the 
N. suburb, depends the question of the genuineness of the 'Holy 
Sepulchre'. The question is — where did this wall diverge from 
the first towards the N. ? Many investigators, following Robinson, 
place this wall in such a direction that it would have included what 
is now called the 'Holy Sepulchre', which therefore could not be 
genuine. It must, however, be admitted that the undoubtedly 
ancient reservoir called Hezekiah's Pool (p. 211) would, as was 
natural, have then been situated in the old suburb. At the union 
of the two walls was the Gennat Gate (p. 151). It is needless to 
trouble the reader with all the theories which have been propounded 
with regard to this wall. CaTeful excavations alone can lead us to 
any satisfactory conclusion , and these are at present veTy unlikely 
to be made , as the locality in question lies in the heart of the 
modern town. A number of other authorities place the wall in such 
a position that the Gennat Gate would be situated in the middle of 
the N. wall of the old part of the city ; whence the wall must have 
described a wide curve till it reached the N. wall of the Temple 
precincts, or rather the Antonia-Baris fortress. (In describing 
the Holy Sepulchre, p. 189, we shall again advert to this contro- 

With regard^ to the situation of the third wall topographers like- 
wise disagree. Some of them, including Kiepert and Fergusson, 
give it a very large circumference , so as even perhaps to have in- 
cluded the so-called royal tombs, and thus to have extended to the 
margin of the upper part of the valley of Kidron (coming from the 
W.). The whole of the N. mountain plateau, on which in point of 
fact many ruins and cisterns lie scattered , would then have been 
enclosed by Agrippa within the city. Robinson places the third 
wall about the middle of this locality , which owing to strategical 
objections appears to us an improbable position. Others suppose 
this wall to have occupied nearly the same site as the present N. 
town-wall of Jerusalem. This view appears to be confirmed by the 
statement of the distances given by Josephus (4 stadia to the royal 
tombs, 7 stadia to the Scopus), who, however, is not always 

Ever since the land had become a Roman province, a storm had 
begun to brood in the political atmosphere, for the Jews were quite 
as much swayed by national pride as the Romans. The country was 
moreover disquieted by roving maurauders (sicarii), and several 



3. Route. 155 

156 Route 3. JERUSALEM. History. 

of the Roman governors were guilty of grave acts of oppression, as for 
instance Gessius Florus , -who appropriated the treasures of the 
Temple. At this time there were two antagonistic parties at Jerusalem : 
the fanatical zealots under Eleazar who advocated a desperate revolt 
against the Romans , and a more moderate party under the high 
priest Ananias. Florus, in his undiscriminating rage, having caused 
many unoffending Jews to he put to death, a fearful insurrection 
broke out in the city. Herod Agrippa II. and his sister Berenice 
endeavoured to pacify the insurgents and to act as mediators , but 
were obliged to seek refuge in flight. The Zealots had already 
gained possession of the Temple precincts, and the castle of Antonia 
was now also occupied by them. A wild struggle ensued between the 
two Jewish parties, and the stronger faction of the Zealots succeeded 
in wresting the upper part of the city from their opponents, and 
even in capturing the castle of Herod which was garrisoned by 3000 
men. The victors treated the captive Romans and their own country- 
men with equal barbarity. Cestius Gallus, an incompetent Roman 
general , now besieged the city, but when he had almost achieved 
success he gave up the siege, and withdrew towards the N. to Gibeon. 
His camp was there attacked by the Jews, and his army dispersed. 
This victory so elated the Jews that they imagined they could now 
entirely shake off the Roman yoke. The newly constituted council 
at Jerusalem, composed of Zealots, accordingly proceeded to organise 
an insurrection throughout the whole of Palestine. The Romans, 
however, now fully alive to the seriousness of the danger, despatched 
their able general Vespasian with 60,000 men to Palestine. This 
army first quelled the insurrection in Galilee (A. D. 67). Meanwhile 
the conflicts within Jerusalem itself continued. Bands of robbers 
took possession of the Temple, and, when besieged by Ananus, sum- 
moned to their aid the Idumsans (Edomites), the ancient hereditary 
enemies of the Jews. To these auxiliaries the gates were thrown 
open, and with their aid the moderate party with Ananus its leader 
annihilated. The adherents of the party were proscribed , and no 
fewer than 12,000 persons of noble family are said to have perished 
on this occasion. The Zealots committed frightful excesses, and 
made common cause with the robbers, while the Idumseans having 
sated themselves with plunder quitted Jerusalem. 

It was not tillVespasian had conquered a great part of Palestine 
that he advanced with his army against Jerusalem ; but events at 
Rome compelled him to entrust the continuation of the campaign 
to his son Titus. When the latter approached Jerusalem there were 
no fewer than four parties within its walls. The Zealots under John 
of Giscala occupied the castle of Antonia and the court of the Gen- 
tiles, while the robber party under Simon of Gerasa held the upper 
part of the city; Eleazar's party were in possession of the inner 
Temple and the court of the Jews ; and lastly the moderate party 
was also established in the upper part of the city. Titus marched 

History, JERUSALEM. 3. Route. 157 

from Egypt with two legions (each of about 6000 men); three legions 
were already on the spot; and to these he added another legion and 
numerous auxiliaries. Thus, at the beginning of April, A. D. 70, 
six legions were assembled in the environs of Jerusalem. While 
reconnoitring the position of the place, Titus had a narrow escape of 
being cut off from his army. He then posted the main body of his 
forces to the N. and N.W. of the city, while one legion occupied 
the Mt. of Olives. The Jews attempted a sally against the latter, 
but were driven back by Titus who had hastened to its aid. In the 
course of the conflicts which still continued within the city, John 
of Giscala succeeded in driving Eleazar from the inner precincts of 
the Temple, but he was still opposed by the robber party under 
Simon. On 23rd April the besieging engines were brought up to 
the W. wall of the new town (near the present Yafa Gate). The 
Jews defended themselves bravely, but on 7th May the Romans 
effected their entrance into the new town. 

Five days afterwards Titus endeavoured to storm the second wall, 
but was repulsed; but three days later he succeeded in taking it, 
and he then caused the whole N. side of the wall to be demolished. 
He now sent Josephus , who was present in his camp , to summon 
the Jews to surrender, but in vain. A famine soon set in, and those 
of the besieged who endeavoured to escape from it, and from the 
savage barbarities of Simon, were crucified by the Romans. The 
besiegers now began to erect walls of attack, but the Jews succeeded 
in partially destroying them. Titus thereupon caused the city- 
wall, 33 stadia in length, to be surrounded by a wall of 39 stadia 
in length. Now that the city was completely surrounded, the severity 
of the famine was greatly aggravated , and the bodies of the dead 
were thrown over the walls by the besieged. Again the battering- 
rams were brought into requisition , and at length on the night of 
5th July the castle was stormed. A fierce contest took place around 
the gates of the Temple , but the Jews still retained possession of 
them. By degrees the colonnades of the Temple were burned down; 
yet every foot of the ground was desperately contested. At last, on 
10th August, a Roman soldier is said to have flung a firebrand into 
the Temple, contrary to the express commands of Titus. The 
whole building was then burned to the ground , and the soldiers 
slew all who came within their reach. A body of Zealots, however, 
contrived to force their passage to the upper part of the city. 
Negociations again took place, while the lower part of the town was 
in flames ; but still the upper part obstinately resisted, and it was 
not till 7th September that it was burned down. Jerusalem was 
now a heap of ruins ; those of the surviving citizens who had fought 
against the Romans were executed, and the rest sold as slaves. The 
number of persons, who from fanaticism and fear of the Romans had 
crowded into the city before the siege, is estimated at 600,000. 
Titus afterwards celebrated a magnificent triumph at Rome, together 

158 BouteS. JERUSALEM. History. 

with his father Vespasian , and John of Giscala was exhibited on 
the occasion. The noble triumphal arch of Titus at Rome comme- 
morates this victory , in consequence of which Jerusalem lost its 
political importance for ever. 

For half-a-century Jerusalem had ceased to exist, but at length 
in 130 the Emperor Hadrian (117 — 138), who was noted for his 
love of building, erected a town on the site of the Holy City, which 
he named Aelia Capitolina, or simply Aelia. We are informed that 
at the end of the 4th cent, a statue of Jupiter (or perhaps Venus) 
occupied the site of the Holy Sepulchre, while a temple of Jupiter, 
containing statues of Jupiter and Hadrian (?), stood on the site of 
the ancient Jewish Temple. Hadrian also rebuilt the walls, which 
followed the course of the old walls in the main, but were narrower 
towards the S., so as to exclude the greater paTt of the W. hill and 
of Ophel. Once more the fury of the Jews blazed forth under Bar 
Cochba, but after that period the history of the city was for centuries 
buried in profound obscurity , and the Jews were prohibited under 
severe penalties from setting foot within its walls. 

With the recognition of Christianity as the religion of the state 
begins a new era in the history of the city. Constantine permitted 
the Jews to return to Jerusalem , and once more they made an 
attempt to take up arms against the Romans (339). The Emperor 
Julian the Apostate favoured them in preference to the Christians, 
and even permitted them to rebuild their Temple, but they made 
a feeble attempt only to avail themselves of this permission. At a 
later period they were again excluded from the city. 

As an episcopal see, Jerusalem was subordinate to Caesarea, and 
it was only after numerous disputes that an independent patriarchate 
for Palestine was established at Jerusalem by the Council of Chal- 
cedon in 451. Pilgrimages to Jerusalem now became very frequent, 
and the Emperor Justinian is said to have erected a hospice for 
strangers, as well as several churches and ten or eleven monasteries 
in and around Jerusalem. Pope Gregory and several of the western 
states likewise erected buildings for the accommodation of pilgrims, 
and at the same time a thriving trade in Telics of every description 
began to be carried on at Jerusalem. 

Before Jerusalem passed from the hands of the Christians into 
the possession of the Muslims , it was once more captured by an 
enemy. In 614 it was taken by the Persians, and the churches 
destroyed, but it was soon afterwards restored, chiefly with the aid 
of the Egyptians. In 628 the Byzantine emperor Heraclius again 
conquered Syria. A few years later an Arabian anny under Abu 
'Ubeida marched against Jerusalem, which was garrisoned by 12,000 
Greeks. The besieged defended themselves gallantly, but r Omar 
himself came to the aid of his general and captured the city in 637. 
The inhabitants, who are said to have numbered 50,000, were 
treated with clemency, and permitted to remain in the city on 

History. JERUSALEM. 3. Route. 159 

payment of a poll-tax. The Khalif Harun er-Rashid is even said to 
have sent the keys of the Holy Sepulchre to Charlemagne. The 
Roman-German emperors sent regular contributions for the support 
of the pilgrims bound for Jerusalem, and it was only at a later 
period that the Christians began to be oppressed by the Muslims. 
The town was named by the Arabs Bet el-Makdis ('house of the 
sanctuary'), or simply El-Kuds ('the sanctuary'). 

In 969 Jerusalem fell into possession of the Egyptian Fatimites ; 
in the 2nd half of the 11th cent, it was involved in the conflicts of 
the Turcomans; and in 1077 the Kharezmians plundered the city. 
Under the Turkish rule the Christians were sorely oppressed. Money 
was extorted from the pilgrims , and savage bands of Ortokides, 
or Turkish robbers, sometimes penetrated into the churches of 
Jerusalem and maltreated the Christians during worship. Among the 
numerous pilgrims who thus suffered was the monk Peter of Amiens, 
"who on his return succeeded in bringing about the First Crusade. 
The city was in the hands of Iftikhar ed-Dauleh , a dependent of 
Egypt, when the anny of the Crusaders advanced to the walls of 
Jerusalem on 7th June, 1099. The besiegers suffered much from 
hunger and thirst, and at first could effect nothing, as they were 
without the necessary engines of attack. When these at length were 
greeted, Godfrey attacked the city, chiefly from the S. and E. ; 
Tancred assaulted it on the N. , and the Damascus Gate was opened 
-to him from within. On 15th July the Gate of Zion was also opened, 
and the Franks entered the city. They slew most of the Muslim 
and Jewish inhabitants, and converted the mosques into churches. 
We shall afterwards have occasion to speak of the churches erected 
by the Crusaders during the 88 years of their sway at Jerusalem. 

In 1187 (2nd Oct.) Saladin captured the city, treating the 
Christians, many of whom had fled to the surrounding villages, 
with great leniency. Three years later, when Jerusalem was again 
threatened by the Franks (Third Crusade), Saladin caused the 
city to be strongly fortified with walls, moats, and other defences. 
In 1219 , however, Sultan Melik el-Mu r azzam of Damascus caused 
most of these works to be demolished , as he feared that the Franks 
might again capture the city and establish themselves there per- 
manently. In 1229 Jerusalem was surrendered to the Emperor Fre- 
derick II. on condition that the walls should not be rebuilt, but this 
stipulation was disregarded by the Franks. In 1239 the city was taken 
by the Emir David of Kerak, but four years later was again given up 
to the Christians by treaty. In 1244 the Kharezmians took the place 
by storm, and it soon fell under the supremacy of the Eyyubides of 
Egypt, the successors of Saladin. Since that period Jerusalem has 
been a Muslim city. In 1517 it fell into the hands of the Osmans. 
In 1800 Napoleon planned the capture of Jerusalem, but gave up 
his intention. In 1825 the inhabitants revolted against the pasha 
on account of the severity of the taxation, and the city was in con- 

160 Route 3. JERUSALEM. Topography. 

sequence bombarded by the Turks for a time ; but a compromise of 
the disputes was effected. In 1831 Jerusalem submitted to Moham- 
med 'Ali, Pasha of Egypt, -without much resistance; in 1834 a re- 
volt of the Beduins was quelled ; and in 1840 Jerusalem again came 
into possession of the Sultan 'Abdul-Mejid. 

Topography, Population, etc. 

Jerusalem is situated on a badly watered and somewhat sterile 
plateau of limestone, which is connected towards the N. with the 
main range of the mountains of Palestine ; and it also lies on the road 
leading from N. to S. through the lofty central region of the country, 
and nearly following the watershed. The city lies in 31° 47' N. 
latitude, and 35° 15' E. longitude of Greenwich, 32 English miles 
from the sea-coast, and 14 miles from the Dead Sea. The Temple 
hill is 2441 ft., the hill to the N. of it 2527 ft., the old upper city 
2550 ft., and the N.W. angle of the present city wall 2572ft. above 
the level of the Mediterranean. The town is enclosed by a wall 
38^ ft. in height, with thirty-four towers, forming an irregular 
quadrangle of about 2£ miles in circumference. Seen from the Mt. 
of Olives and from the Scopus, Jerusalem presents a handsome ap- 
pearance. The town possesses few open spaces ; the streets are ill- 
paved and crooked, many of them being blind alleys, and are ex- 
cessively dirty after rain. Some of the bazaar streets are vaulted 
over. The chief streets also form the boundaries of the principal 
quarters of the town. The Damascus and Bazaar streets, coming from 
the N., first separate the Muslim quarter on the E. from the Christian 
quarter on the W. , while the S. prolongation of the street separates 
the Jewish quarter on the E. from the Armenian on the W. The 
main street running from the Yafa Gate to the Haram, towards the 
E., at first separates the Christian quarter (N.) from the Armenian 
(S.), and afterwards the Muslim (N.) from the Jewish (S.). 

In the wall there are seven Gates: — (1). The Yafa Qate (p. 234), 
the only one on the W. side of the town, called Bdb Khalil, or Gate 
of Hebron, by the Arabs, from the road to the left leading to Hebron. 
On theN. side: (2). The Damascus Gate (Bab el-'Amud, or Gate of 
the Columns, p. 240); (3). Herod's Gate (Bab es-Stihiri, p. 222), 
which remained closed for upwards of 25 years, but of late has been 
opened for a few months every year for the convenience of the 
'rediffs' (militia recruits) during their drill outside the town in 
this direction. On the E side: (4). St. Stephen's Gate, so called 
from the place where St. Stephen was stoned (comp. p. 207), in 
Arabic Bab Sitti Maryam, or Gate of Our Lady Mary, from the road 
leading hence to the Virgin's Tomb ; (5). The Golden Gate (p. 181) r 
which has long since been walled up. On the S. side : (6). The 
Moghrebins' Gate (Bab el-Magharibeh, or Dung Gate, p. 187); (7). 
The Gate of Zion, called Bab en-Neby Ddud, from its proximity to 
David's Tomb (p. 234) at the S.E. angle of the town. 

Climate. JERUSALEM. 3. Route. 161 

As Jerusalem possesses no springs, the inhabitants obtain their 
supply of water from cisterns, the roofs of the houses and every 
available open space being made to contribute the rain that falls 
upon them. Owing to the scarcity of wood, the houses are built 
entirely of stone. The court with its cistern forms the central point 
of each group of rooms. A genuine Jerusalem dwelling-house con- 
sists of a number of separate apartments, each with an entrance 
and a dome-shaped roof of its own. These vaulted chambers are 
pleasantly cool in summer. The rooms are of different heights, and 
very irregularly grouped. Between them run staircases and passages 
in the open air, a veTy uncomfortable arrangement in rainy weather, 
in consequence of which it has become the custom with the women 
to provide themselves with pattens. Some houses have flat roofs, 
but under these is always concealed a cupola. The cupolas do not 
spring from the tops of the walls, but a little within them, so that 
it is possible to walk round the outsides of the cupolas. The roofs 
are frequently provided with parapets of earthen pipes, constructed 
in a triangular form. Pots and troughs for flowers are built into 
the roofs and courts by the architects. In the walls of the rooms are 
niches serving as cupboards. In some of the houses there are no 
glass windows ; nor are chimneys by any means universal, the 
charcoal smoke being in their absence allowed to escape by the doors 
and windows. The rooms are usually warmed with charcoal braziers 
(marikal), a few houses only being furnished with stoves in European 
fashion. The floors are composed of very hard cement. The badness 
of the water, together with the miasma from unremoved rubbish, 
causes fever, dysentery, and other maladies in summer; but the san- 
itary arrangements are now a degree better than they formerly were. 

The Pasha of the whole of Palestine resides at Jerusalem, the 
municipal affairs of which, under his supervision, are managed by 
a kind of mayor and town council (mejlis). The council consists of 
four Muslims, three Christians, and one Jew, some of the members 
being occasionally Europeans. 

According to Dr. Barclay, whose figures are somewhat higher 
than those of other authorities, the mean temperature of Jerusalem 
in degrees of Fahrenheit from 1851 to 1855 was as follows : — 
January 49. 4°; April 61. 4°; July 79. 1°; October 74. 2°; 

February 54. 4°; May 73. 8°; August 79. 3°; November 63. 8°; 
MaTch 55. 7°; June 75. 2°; September 77. 0°; December 54. 5°. 

Snow and frost are not uncommon at Jerusalem. 

According to the usual estimate, the population numbers about 
24,000 souls (according to Lievin 20,938). Of these about 13,000 
(L. 7565) are Muslims, 7000 (L. 5373) Christians, and 4000 
(L. 8000) Jews. The Turkish statistics of 1871 give the following 
numbers of the houses or families, which would give a smaller po- 
pulation than the above: — 1025 Muslim, 630 Jewish, 299 Greek 
orthodox, 179 Latin, 175 Armenian, 44 Coptic, 18 Greek Catholic, 

Palestine. 11 

162 Route 3. JERUSALEM. Population. 

16 Protestant, and 7 Syrian, — in all 2393 families. Among the Mus- 
lim Arabs is also included a colony of Africans (Moghrebins). The dif- 
ferent nationalities are distinguished by their costume (comp. p. 89). 

The Jews (p. 89) subsist mainly on the charity of their Euro- 
pean brethren, from whom they receive their regular khaluka, or 
allowance. Many Jews travel from Europe to the Holy City in order 
to be buried there. Sir M. Monteflore, Baron Rothschild, and other 
benevolent European Jews have done much to ameliorate the con- 
dition of their poor brethren at Jerusalem by their munificent bene- 
factions. The Rothschild Hospital (PI. 48), founded in 1855, is a 
most useful institution. The institutions founded by the English 
'Society for promoting Christianity among the Jews', the much fre- 
quented hospital, which is likewise intended for Jews, the House 
of Industry for young men, founded in 1848, and a work-school for 
Jewesses are also very useful establishments. 

The Greek Church, whose patriarch resides at Jerusalem, is now 
the most powerful in the city. The Greeks possess the following 
monasteries and foundations : — Monastery of St. Helena and Con- 
stantine, 100 monks ; Monastery of Abraham, 30 monks; Monastery 
of Gethsemane for pilgrims, 30 apartments; Convent of St. Basil, 
10 deaconesses ; St. Theodore, for 200 pilgrims ; St. George, for 200 
pilgrims ; St. Michael, for 200 pilgrims ; St. Catharine, for 200 pil- 
grims ; Euthymius, 30 deaconesses; Seetnagia, 30 deaconesses ; 
Spiridon, for 100 pilgrims; Caralombos, for 500 pilgrims; John 
the Baptist, for 500 pilgrims ; Nativity of Mary, 40 deaconesses ; 
St. George (a second of that name), for 50 pilgrims ; Demetrius, for 
200 pilgrims; Nicholas (containing a printing-office), for 300 pil- 
grims ; Spirito (near the Damascus Gate), for 150 pilgrims. — They 
also possess a girls' school with two female teachers and 60 pupils, 
a boys' school with three masters and 120 pupils, a handsome new 
hospital, etc. — The Greek priests wear round black caps. 

The Old Armenian Church is well represented at Jerusalem, 
although it was not till the middle of the last century that Armenians 
began to settle here in any considerable number. The members of 
this community are said to be noted for equanimity of temper. 
Both Greeks and Armenians are better disposed towards the Pro- 
testants than towards their chief opponents, the Roman Catholics. 
The Armenian patriarch resides in the large monastery near the 
Gate of Zion (p. 213), which contains 180 monks and brethren, 
and is said to be capable of accommodating upwards of lOOOpilgrims. 
The monastery embraces a printing-office, a seminary with about 
40 pupils, a small museum, and a photographic studio. Near it is 
the Der ez-Zetun (PI. 54), or Armenian nunnery, with 30 inmates, 
which is said to occupy the site of the house of Annas, the father- 
in-law of Caiaphas. — Near the Coenaculum is situated the Arme- 
nian Monastery of Mt. Zion (p. 233), with 8 monks. — The Armenian 
monks wear pointed black hoods. 

Population. JERUSALEM. Route 3. 163 

The other Oriental churches are scantily represented. The Cop- 
tie Monastery (p. 203) is the residence of a bishop, besides which 
the Copts also have a Monastery of St. George. The Syrians of the 
Ancient Church (Jacobites) have a bishop and a few priests, and the 
Abyssinians (75 souls) a monastery (p. 203). 

The Roman Catholics, ox Latins, are said to number 1500 souls. 
None of them can now trace their descent from the Crusaders, al- 
though Frank settlers were numerous in the Middle Ages. In 1483 
the Latin Christian community consisted of but few members, and 
it was not until the comparatively recent and zealous efforts of the 
Franciscans to promulgate their faith, that it began to assume its 
present importance. In 1847 Valerga was appointed Latin patriarch, 
the office having been in abeyance since 1291, and on his death in 
1873 he was succeeded by Vincentius Bracco. The most important 
Latin institution is the Franciscan Monastery of St. Salvator (PI. 77). 
As early as the 13th century there weTe Minorites in Palestine, and 
by them the Monastery of Mt. Zion was founded in 1333. Having 
been expelled thence in 1561, they took possession of the present 
monastery. The building now contains an excellent printing-press, 
where even Arabic is printed (chiefly school-books). In the school 
attached to the monastery 170 boys are taught, the poorer being also 
boarded. The Latins also possess an Industrial School, a Hospital 
for both sexes (physician, Dr. Carpani), and two girls' schools, viz. 
that of the Sisters of Zion (p. 209), for 120 pupils, and that of the 
Sisterhood of St. Joseph (12 — 14 in number), foT 200 pupils, who 
are boarded, and some of them lodged also, in the institution. 

The Oriental churches affiliated to the Latin are those of the 
Greek Catholics (30 souls) under Father Elias, and the United Ar- 
menians (16 souls). 

The Protestant Community at Jerusalem is very small. The 
Protestant bishopric, which owes its foundation to Frederick Wil- 
liam IV. of Prussia, is supported half by Prussia and half by Eng- 
land. The first bishop was was Dr. Alexander, and the present is 
Dr. Gobat. The Episcopal Mission possesses a handsome English 
church (Christ Church) on Zion, a boys' and girls' school (PI. 29a) 
within the city for proselytes and Jewish children (50 in number), 
and a boys' school outside the town on the slope of Mt. Zion (PI. 29), 
destined chiefly for natives and Protestant Arabs (60 pupils). The 
Church Mission has an Arabic church and school to the E. of the 
Russian settlement (PI. 3). The chief German institutions are the 
Hospital of the Deaconesses of Kaiserswerth, with 43 beds (Dr. 
Sandreczki); the Talitha Kumi, or girls' orphanage (p. 236), and 
Schneller's 'Syrian' orphanage for boys (p. 236); the children's 
hospital, with 8 beds; the lepers' hospital (p. 234), and the 
Hospice of St. John (p. 144). 

As might perhaps have been expected from the religious character 
of the city, there are no places of public amusement at Jerusalem. 


164 Route 3. JERUSALEM. The Haram 

Connected with the British Consulate, however, there is a 'Literary 
and Scientific Society', with a library, of which the Prince of Wales 
is patron, and the consul president; it is open daily, 10 — 4 o'clock, 
and those who make some stay may subscribe by the month. 

The best works on Jerusalem are Barclay's 'City of the Great 
King', Besant # Palmers 'City of Herod and Saladin', Wilson §■ 
Warren's 'Recovery of Jerusalem' (edited by W. Morrison), and 
Tobler's 'Denkblatter' and works on the topography of Jerusalem 
and its environs. 

The Haram esh-Sherif. 

History. "We now stand on one of the most profoundly interest- 
ing spots in the world. The legends attaching to the 'es-sakhra' 
stone, which forms the centre of the sanctuary, extend back to the 
remotest antiquity, and we hence infer that this summit of Mt. 
Zion, or Moriah (p. 147), has been consecrated to divine worship 
from time immemorial. So faT back as the time of Abraham (Gen. 
xxii. 2) this appears to have been a place of sacrifice, and it was 
about the same spot where David eTected an altar (2 Sam. xxiv. 25 ; 
1 Chron. xxii. 1°). This was alko the site selected by Solomon for 
the erection of the Temple. For this purpose it was necessary to 
lay substructions on the slope of the hill, especially on the E. 
(valley of Jehoshaphat), S. (valley of Hinnom), and W. (valley 
of Tyropoeon) sides, in OTder to procure a level surface. The con- 
figuration of the ground renders it probable that many parts of the 
present town-walls correspond in their direction with those of the 
ancient Temple of Solomon. The site of the Temple has long been 
a matter of controversy , and there are still scholars who adduce 
numerous reasons for placing it in the S.W. angle of this area. 
Stones having been found, however, in the S.E. corner, far below 
the surface of the earth, bearing Phoenician characters, it became 
necessary to revert to the former view, in support of which it is said 
that remains of the buildings of Solomon still actually exist here. 
According to the most recent investigations there is little doubt that 
the sacred edifice must have stood in the centre of the area, on a 
second terrace, probably corresponding with the uppeT platform of 
the present day, and the rock being probably enclosed within the 
precincts. The edifice erected by Solomon consisted of the actual 
inner Temple with the 'sanctuary' and the 'holy of holies' within 
it, the latter probably to the "W. of the former, and in the form of a 
cube. The sanctuary was approached by an entrance-court, in front 
of which, in the court of the priests, and likewise on the Temple 
platform, stood the altar of burnt offerings, the 'molten sea' (a large 
basin), and the lavers. These again were approached from the great 

a. 'Then David said, This is the house of the Lord God, and this is 
the altar of the hurnt offering for Israel.' 

esh-Sherif. JERUSALEM. 3. Route. 165 

anterior court, Tound 'which the priests' chambers weTe afterwards 
built. For many years after Solomon's death the work was continued 
by his successors. "With regard to the style of the architecture, it 
resembled to some extent that of Egypt and Assyria, while the 
details were executed with the aid of Phoenician workmen. 

The second Temple, which the Jews erected under very adverse 
circumstances after their return from exile, was far inferior in mag- 
nificence to its predecessor, and no trace of it now Temains. Of the 
third Temple, however, that of Herod, much has been preserved. 
This splendour-loving prince began to rebuild the Temple in the 
year B.C. 20. The erection of this imposing edifice was still pro- 
gressing during the lifetime of Our Lord, but it was never com- 
pletely carried out in the style originally projected. "We possess an 
account of this Temple by the Jewish author Josephus, but as his 
work was written at Rome, and at a later period, his description is 
often deficient in clearness and precision. 

To this period belong in the first place the imposing substructions 
on the S. side, in which direction the Temple platform was at that 
time much extended, while the Asmoneans had enlarged it towards 
the N. The still visible enclosing walls, with their huge stones, 
which had perhaps partly belonged to the earlier edifice, were 
doubtless also the woTk of Herod. The excavations made by Captain 
Warren, the able and meritorious engineer of the Exploration Fund 
(p. 125), have proved that the enclosing walls exist in every di- 
rection far below the surface of the ground. We shall afterwards 
endeavour to describe these substructions. Around the margin of 
the grand platform ran colonnades, consisting of a double series of 
monoliths, and enclosing the whole area. The porch of Solomon, 
in which Christ once walked ( St. John x. 23), is placed by some 
authorities on the S. side, but by others with greater probability on 
the E. side. On the S. side the colonnade was quadruple, and con- 
sisted of 162 columns. On the "W. side there were four, on the S. 
side two gates, and the vestibules were approached by stairs leading 
through corridors. It is uncertain whether there was a gate on the 
E. side. The colonnades enclosed the great court of the Gentiles, 
which always presented a busy scene. A balustrade enclosed a second 
court, lying higher, where notices were placed prohibiting all but 
Israelites from entering this inner entrance-court. (A notice of this 
kind in Greek, closely corresponding with the description given by 
Josephus, was found a few years ago.) A section of the fore-court of 
the Israelites was specially set apart for the women, beyond which 
lay the court of the priests with the great sacrificial altar of unhewn 
stones. A deep, richly decorated corridor now ascended by twelve 
steps to the 'sanctuary', or 'holy place' strictly so called, which 
occupied the highest ground on the Temple area. Beyond the gate 
was the curtain or 'veil', within which stood the altar of incense, the 
table with the shew-bread, and the golden candlestick. A number 

166 Route 3. JERUSALEM. The Haram 

of apartments in three stories were situated around. In the back- 
ground of the 'holy place' a door led into the small and dark 'holy 
of holies'. — The Temple was built of magnificent materials, and 
many parts of it were lavishly decorated with plates of gold. The 
chief facade of the edifice looked towards the E., while on the N. 
side two passages led from the colonnades of the Temple to the 
castle by which the sacred edifice was protected. It was thence that 
Titus witnessed the burning of the beautiful building in the year 
A. D. 70. The colonnades had already been burned down by the 
Jews themselves, but the huge substructions of massive stone 
which supported the Temple could not be destroyed. 

On the site of the ancient Temple, Hadrian erected a large temple 
of Jupiter, containing a statue of that god and one also of himself 
(comp. p. 158). "We learn from representations of this temple on 
coins that it was adorned with twelve columns. The earliest pilgrim 
found the temple of Jupiter and the equestrian statue of the emperor 
still standing, near a 'rock pierced with holes', which last was per- 
haps the site of the altaT of burnt offering. There is a great contro- 
versy among scholars as to what buildings were afterwards erected 
on this site. We are informed by Arabian authors that f Omar 
requested the Christian patriarch to conduct him to this spot, where 
the ancient Temple of Solomon had once stood, and that he found 
it covered with heaps of rubbish which the Christians had thrown 
there in derision of the Jews. 

Down to about the year 1854, all but Muslims, with few excep- 
tions, were rigorously excluded from the whole of the Temple pre- 
cincts. In 1833 CatheTwood and Arundale, at the peril of their 
lives, undertook the first accurate measurements. Fourteen years 
later Fergusson stated his theory that the dome of the rock and the 
golden gate were remains of the buildings of Constantine, and that 
this structure stood on the traditional site of the sepulchre of Christ. 
In this view several other" scholars concurred, but it was dissented 
from by Tobler, and particularly by Count de Vogue, who has proved 
in his magnificent work 'Le Temple de Jerusalem' (Paris, 1863) 
that the dome is a structure of the Arabian period. In the interior 
of the building there is an inscription in the oldest Arabic character 
(Cufic), recording that — 'Abdallah el Imam el Ma'mun, prince of 
the faithful, erected this dome in the year 72'. But as Ma'mun was 
not born till the year 170 after the Hegira, we concur with De Vogue" 
in thinking that the woTds 'el Ma'mun', as moreover the different 
colour of this part of the inscription tends to show, were erroneously 
substituted at a later period for 'el-Melik', a splendour-loving 
khalif of the 'Omayyades, to whom Arabian historians attribute the 
erection of the building. That the style resembles the Byzantine 
need not surprise us, for the Arabs of that period did not yet under- 
stand the art of building. On the contrary it would have been 
surprising if they had not found it necessary to borrow their archi- 

David's place of Judgment 

Kubbet es-Sakh ra. 

(Dome of the Rock.) 

Mosque el-A k s a. 

esh-8herif. JERUSALEM. 3. Route. 167 

-tecture from the Greeks. It is probable, on the other hand, that 
T Abd el-Melik was moved by political considerations to erect a 
sanctuary on this spot. The 'Omayyades, who sprang from the ancient 
aristocracy of Mecca, were the first princes who thoroughly appreci- 
ated the political advantages of the new religion. Accordingly, when 
revolts broke out against the khalifs , they chose Jerusalem as the 
site of a new sanctuary which should rival that of the Ka'ba. 

Mohammed himself had evinced veneration foTthe ancient Tem- 
ple. Before he had finally broken off his relations with the Jews, he 
even commanded the faithful to turn towards Jerusalem when pray- 
ing. The Koran also mentions the Mesjid el-Aksa (i. e. the mosque 
most distant from Mecca) in a famous passage in Sureh xvii. 1 : 
'Praise be to him (God), who , in order to permit his servant to 
see some of our miracles, conveyed him on a journey by night from 
the temple el-Haram (the Ka'ba at Mecca) to the most distant temple, 
whose precincts we have blessed'. Mohammed thus professes to 
have been here in person ; to this day the Haram of Jerusalem is 
regarded by the Muslims as the holiest of all places after Mecca; 
and it is on this account that they so long refused the Christians 
access to it. The Jews, on the other hand, have never sought this 
privilege, as they dread the possibility of committing the sin of 
treading on the 'holy of holies'. 

Since the Crimean war travellers have been readily admitted to the 
Haram, except on great festivals, and no one should omit to visit it. A 
small party had better be formed for the purpose. The consulate, on 
being applied to, procures the necessary permission from the Turkish 
authorities, who provide one or more soldiers as attendants , and the 
kawass of the consulate also accompanies the party. Each person pays 
5 fr. to the kawass, that being the fee due to the custodian of the 
Haram. A boy should also be taken from the hotel to carry slippers, 
and afterwards the boots of the visitors, when these are removed (fee 
1 — 2 piastres from each person). After the visit is over, the party pays 
a fee of 3 — 4 fr. to the soldier who accompanies them, and from 3 fr. to 
$ fr. to the kawass of the consulate, according to the size of the party. 
A bright day should if possible be selected for the visit, as the interior 
of the building is somewhat dark. On certain days the Muslim women 
walk in the court of the mosque, and are apt to inconvenience visitors. 

We shall first direct our attention to the interior of the **HarAm 
esh-Sherif. The Temple platform occupies the S.E. quarter 'of the 
modern town. The Haram is entered from the town on theW. side by 
eight gates, viz. (beginning from the S.) the Bab el-Maghdribeh 
(gate of the Moghrebins), Bab es-Silseleh (chain -gate), Bab el- 
Mutawaddeh, or Afatara(gate of prayer, or of rain), Bab el-Kattanin 
(gate of the cotton-merchants), Bab el-Hadid (iron-gate), Bab en- 
Ndsir (custodian's gate), Bab es-Serdi (gate of the seraglio), near 
the old seraglio (p. 184), and lastly, towards the N., the Bab el- 
Ohawdnimeh (named after the family of Beni Ghanim). The 
Haram had better be entered by the Bab es-Silseleh, the 
principal gate (comp. p. 184). Having passed the gate, we find 
ourselves in the midst of an extensive irregular quadrangle with 
buildings scattered over it. The W. side is 536 yds., the E. side 

168 Route 3. 


The Hardm 



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eth-Shertf. JERUSALEM. 3. Route. 169 

512 yds., the N. side 348 yds., and the S. side 309 yds. in length. 
The surface is not entirely level, the N.W. corner being about 10 ft. 
higher than the N.E. and the two S. corners. The W. side of the 
quadrangle is partly flanked with houses, with open arcades below 
them, and the E. side is bounded by a wall. The two large buildings 
which chiefly arrest the attention aTe the 'dome of the rock' to the 
left, and the long Aksa Mosque to the right. 

The *Dome of the Bock, or Kubbet es-Sakhra , stands on an ir- 
regular platform 10 ft. in height, approached by three flights of steps 
from theW., two from the S., and one from the E. side. The steps 
terminate in elegant arcades (Arabic Mawazln, or scales, because the 
scales are to be suspended here at the Day of Judgment), which 
materially enhance the beauty of the exterior. These arcades 
are imitated from those of the fore-court of the Jewish Temple, 
as they form to a certain extent the entrance to the sanctuary. This 
upper platform, therefore, which is paved with fine slabs of stone, 
can only be trodden upon by shoeless feet. From this point we 
survey the whole arrangements of the Haram. Besides the larger 
buildings, a number of smaller structures are scattered over the ex- 
tensive area. The ground is irregularly planted with trees, chiefly 
cypresses, and is of a reddish brown colour, except in spring when 
it is green after rain. 

The Kubbet es-Sakhra is a large and handsome octagon. Each 
of the eight sides is 66 ft. in length and is covered externally as 
far as the pedestal with porcelain tiles , and lower down with mar- 
ble. The whole building was formerly covered with marble, the 
porcelain incrustation having been added by Soliman the Magni- 
ficent in 1561. The effect of these porcelain tiles, which are manu- 
factured in the Persian style (Kdshani), is remarkably fine , the 
subdued blue contrasting beautifully with the white, and with the 
green and white squares on the edges. Passages from the Koran, 
beautifully inscribed in interwoven characters, run round the 
building like a frieze. Each tile has been written upon and burned 
separately. In each of those sides of the octagon which are without 
doors are seven, and on each of the other sides are six windows with 
low pointed arches , the outer pair of windows being walled up in 
each case. The incrustation on the "W. side having become much 
dilapidated, it is now being taken down and is to be restored. During 
the course of this work some ancient round arches havebeen discovered . 

There can be little doubt that the entire design of the building 
is Byzantine. Sepp regards it as an ancient Christian church of 
Justinian, a second Hagia Sophia, but his reasons are not con- 
vincing. The polygonal or round form of structure appears in the 
case of S. Stefano Eotondo at Rome as eariy as the close of the 
5th cent. , but the mosque here is materially different in style. It 
required no apse, but was made to accommodate itself to the shape 
of the sacred rock at its centre, in the same way as the Church of the 

170 Route 3. 


The Hardm 

Sepulchre to the sepulchre, the difference being that this is a po- 
lygonal, while the other is a circular structure. The Church of the 
Sepulchre may nevertheless have served as a model for the mosque. 
— In all its essential features the mosque dates from the time of 
'Abd el-Melik (p. 166). The stones, as the visitor may observe on 
the W. side, are small, and jointed with no great accuracy. The 
windows were originally round-arched, but were altered to their 
present form in the 16th century. 

The Gates, which face the four cardinal points of the compass, 
are square in form, each being surmounted with a vaulted arch. In 
front of each entrance there was originally an open, vaulted porch, 
borne by four columns. Other columns were subsequently added, 
and the spaces between them built up. The S. Portal, however, 

Es-Sakhrd (the Sacred Rock). 

b. Bdb el-Jenneh (Gate of Pa- 

c. Bdb el-Gharb (W. Gate). 

d. B&b el-KMeh 
(S. Gate). 

e. Bdb es-Silseleh (David's, or 
Chain Gate). 

f. Mehkemet DdUd or Kubbet es- 
Silseleh (David's place of 
judgment, or Chain Dome). 

forms an exception , as there is here an open porch with eight co- 
lumns. The W. entrance is a modern structure of the beginning 
of the present century. The N. Portal is called Bab el-Jenneh, or 
gate of paradise; the W., Bdb el-Oharb, or W. gate; the S., Bdb 
el-Kibleh, or S. gate, and the E., Bab Daud or Bab es-Silseleh, gate 
of David, or chain gate. On the lintels of the doors are inscriptions 
of the reign of Ma'miin , dating from the year 831 , or 216 of the 
Hegira. The doors (which are usually open), dating from the time 
of Soliman (p. 169), are of wood, covered with plates of bronze 
attached by means of elegantly wrought nails, and have artistically 
executed locks. 

The Interior of the edifice is 58 yds. in diameter, and is divided 
into three concentric parts by two series of supports. The first series, 
by which the outer octagonal aisle is formed , consists of eight 
piers and sixteen columns, two columns being placed between each 

esh-Shertf. JERUSALEM. 3. Route. 171 

pair of the six-sided corner piers. The shafts of the columns are of 
marble, and differ in form, height, and colour. They have all been 
taken from older edifices, and some of them probably from the temple 
of Jupiter mentioned above. The capitals are likewise of very various 
forms , dating either from the late Romanesque or the early Byzan- 
tine period, and one of them is even said to bear a cross. Above 
the capitals are placed large cubic blocks 'which support small arches. 
These blocks are connected by so-called 'anchors', or broad wooden 
beams running beneath each pair of arches. These must have been 
placed there by the Arabs, as Byzantines even at that early period 
manufactured such beams of iron. Under the ends of the beams are 
placed foliated enrichments in bronze. While the pilasters are covered 
with slabs of marble, dating from the period of Soliman, the upper 
part of the wall is intersected by arches and adorned with mosaics, 
which with few exceptions date from the time of the foundation of 
the building. The rich and variegated designs of these mosaics are 
not easily described. They consist of fantastic lines intertwined with 
striking boldness, and frequently of garlands of flowers, and are all 
beautifully and elaborately executed. Above them is a broad blue 
band, bearing very ancient Cufic inscriptions in gold letters. They 
consist of verses of the Koran bearing reference to Christ, and seem 
to indicate that the founder was desirous of emphasising the new po- 
sition of the Muslims with regard to the Christians of that period : — 

Sureh xviii. HI : Say — Praise be to God who has had no son or com- 
panion in his government, and who requires no helper to save him from 
dishonour ; praise him. Sureh lvii. 2 : He governs heaven and earth, he 
makes alive and causes to die, for he is almighty. Sureh iv. 169: O ye 
who have received written revelations , do not be puffed up with 
your religion, but speak the truth only of God. The Messiah Jesus is 
only the son of Mary, the ambassador of God, and his Word which he 
deposited in Mary. Believe then in God and his ambassador, and do not 
maintain there are three. If you refrain from this it will he better for 
you. God is One, and far he it from him that he should have had a son. 
To him belongs all that is in heaven and earth, and he is all-sufficient 
within himself. Sureh xix. 34 et seq. . Jesus says — 'Blessings be on me 
on the day of my birth and of my death, and of my resurrection to life.' 
He is Jesus, the son of Mary, the word of truth, concerning whom some 
are in doubt. God is not so constituted that he could have a son; be that 
far from him. When he has resolved upon anything he says 'Let it be', 
and it is. God is my Lord and your Lord; pray then to him; that is 
the right way. 

Here, too, is an inscription of gTeat historical importance, which 
we have already mentioned at p. 166. 

A second kind of aisle is formed by a second row of supports, 
on which also rests the dome. These supports consist of four 
massive piers and twelve columns, the latter being placed in a 
circle. These columns are also antique ; their bases are uniformly 
Attic, and were covered with marble in the 16th century. The 
arches above them rest immediately on the capitals. The dome 
rests first on a drum , which is richly adorned with mosaics. 
These are divided by a wreath into two sections, in the upper of 

172 Route 3. JERUSALEM. The Hardm 

which aie placed -windows. The mosaics are of different periods. 
Most of them represent vases of flowers , among which are grapes 
and ears of corn on a gold ground. The Byzantine artists who 
executed them were prohibited by the laws of El-Islam from 
representing figures, but perhaps used these devices as emblems of 
the sacrament. All the mosaics are composed of small fragments of 
coloured glass, and date from the 10th and 11th centuries, when 
this art had probably entered upon a new phase in the East. 

The Dome which rises on these supports is about 97 ft. high 
and 65 ft. in diameter, and is made of wood , covered with lead on 
the outside. "Within, it is covered with tablets of wood nailed to the 
roof-tree, coloured blue, and richly adorned with painted and gilded 
stucco. According to the inscriptions, the dome was constructed in 
1022 (Hakim , p. 67) , the old dome having fallen in six years 
previously. The decorations of the interior are of the period of 
Saladin, who ordered them to be restored immediately after he had 
taken the holy city from the Franks (1189). They were restored, 
or rather the colours were revived, in 1318 and 1830. The coloured 
glass in the octagon and drum, which unfortunately admits too 
little light into the interior of the mosque, is of the 16th cent., 
and of marvellous richness. The panes are not painted, but com- 
posed entirely of separate fragments of glass , each of one colour ; 
and they are not set in lead as is the case in Europe, but in plaster, 
and are held together by small cramps of iron. These windows shed 
a solemnly dim light on the interior, and the darkness is increased 
by a covering of porcelain placed over them outside to protect them 
from rain. The lower windows bear the name of Soliman and the 
date 935 (i. e. 1528). The walls between the windows were origi- 
nally covered with mosaics , like those in the drum , but the 
Crusaders substituted paintings, of which we still possess a de- 
scription. Saladin caused the walls to be covered with marble, and 
they were restored by Soliman. 

The pavement consists of marble mosaic , which is covered in 
places with straw-mats. The Crusaders converted the dome of the 
rock into a 'Templum Domini', adorned it with figures of saints, and 
placed a large gilded cross on its summit. On the sacred rock in the 
centre stood the altar. The surface of the rock was paved with 
martle, and a number of steps hewn in the rock led up to the altar. 
Distinct traces of these are still visible, and more would be seen 
but for the large damask canopy (p. 174). The choiT was enclosed 
by two walls , part of one of which is still preserved on the S.W. 
side. A relic of the period of the Crusaders is the large wrought 
iron screen with four gates, placed between the columns of the inner 
ring, and thus enclosing the sacred Took. This screen, according to 
De Vogiie, is of French workmanship, and dates from the end of the 
12th century. Candles were once placed upon its spikes. The rock 
is now further enclosed by a coloured wooden screen. 

esh-Sherlf. JERUSALEM. 3. Route. 173 

We now proceed to inspect the Holy Rock itself. It is 57 ft. long 
and 43 ft. wide, and rises about 6^ ft. above the surrounding 
pavement. "Why, it will be asked, is this rock deemed so holy? — 
There is no express mention of it in the Old Testament , and the 
earliest reference to it is found in the Talmud, or later Jewish tra- 
ditions, many of which, however, are genuinely ancient. It is also 
mentioned in the Targums , or Jewish interpretations of the Old 
Testament. As in other sanctuaries of antiquity, such as Delphi, an 
abyss with a subterranean torrent, the waters of which were heard 
roaring far beneath the surface, was said to exist here also , but to 
have been covered with a stone. According to Jewish tradition 
Abraham andMelchizedek sacrificed here, Abraham was on the point 
of slaying Isaac here, and the rock is said to have been anointed by 
Jacob. As it was regarded as the central point of the world, the 
Ark of the Covenant is said once to have stood here , to have been 
afterwards concealed here by Jeremiah, and still to lie buried 
beneath the sacred rock. 

On this rock also was written the 'shemhamphorasK' , the great 
and unspeakable name of God. Jesus, says tradition, succeeded in 
Teadingit, and he was thus enabled to work his miracles. The quest- 
ion now arises — can we identify this ' eben shatya , or stone of foun- 
dation, with the rock now before us? — That it was so identified in 
the 3rd or 4th cent, of our era proves nothing. Sepp answers the 
question in the affirmative. DeVogiie takes a different view on topo- 
graphical grounds ; he thinks that this is not the spot where the 'holy 
of holies' stood, and that moreover the rock is too low. Others again 
have maintained that the great sacrificial altar stood here, and have 
discovered on the rock what they believe to be traces of a channel 
for carrying off the blood. This hypothesis, however , is likewise 
open to serious topographical objections. All that we know for 
certain on the subject is that the Muslims adopted and improved 
upon this tradition about the rock, as they did with so many other 
already existing Jewish traditions. According to them the stone 
hovers over the abyss without support. When we descend by eleven 
steps to the cavern beneath the rock we see supports, but the ground 
sounds hollow at several places. In this cavern the cicerone points 
out the places where David and Solomon (small altars) , Abra- 
ham (left) and Elijah (N.) were in the habit of praying. Mohammed 
has also left the impression of his head on the rocky ceiling. The 
Muslims maintain that beneath this rock is the Blr el-Arwah , or 
well of souls, where the souls of the deceased assemble to pray 
twice weekly. Some say that the rock came from paradise, and 
that it rests upon a palm watered by a river of paradise; beneath 
this palm are Asia, wife of Pharaoh, and Mary. Others main- 
tain that these are the gates of hell. At the last day the Ka'ba of 
Mecca will come to the Sakhrsi, for here will resound the blast 
of the trumpet which will announce the judgment. God's throne 

174 Route 3. JERUSALEM. The Haram 

will then be planted upon the rock. Mohammed declared that one 
prayer here was better than a thousand elsewhere. He himself prayed 
here, to the right of the holy rock, and from hence he was trans- 
lated to heaven on the back of El-Burak, his miraculous steed. It 
was in the course of his direct transit to heaven that his body pierced 
the round hole in the ceiling of the rock which we still observe. 
On this occasion, moreover, the rock opened its mouth, as it did when 
it greeted 'Omar, and it therefore has a 'tongue', over the entrance 
to the cavern. As the rock was desirous of accompanying Mohammed 
to heaven, the angel Gabriel was obliged to hold it down, and the 
traces of his hand are still shown on the W. side of the rock. To 
the S. of the gate there are several fragments of marble vaulting 
which are said to have formed the saddle of the winged steed Burak. 
— The round hole affords us a clue to the real character of the grotto, 
which is not, as Fergusson thought, the sepulchre of Christ, but most 
probably a partly artificial cistern , the nature of which might 
easily be ascertained if farther excavations were permitted here. 

A number of other marvellous stories are told by the loquacious 
cicerone. In front of the N. entrance there is let into the ground 
a slab of jasper into which Mohammed drove nineteen golden nails ; 
a nail falls out at the end of every epoch, and when all are gone the 
end of the world will arrive. One day the devil succeeded in 
destroying all but three and a half, but was fortunately detected 
and stopped by the angel Gabriel. — In the S.W. corner, under 
a small gilded tower, is shown the footprint of the prophet, which 
in the middle ages was said to be that of Christ. Hairs from Mo- 
hammed's beard are also preserved here, and on the S. side are 
shown the banners of Mohammed and 'Omar and the shield of 
Hamzeh, 'Omar's uncle. — By the prayer-niche adjoining the S. 
door are placed several Korans of great age , but the custodian is 
much displeased if they are touched by visitors. — On the S.E. 
side a staircase in the interior ascends to the roof of the pulpit, 
whence a ladder outside passes the drum and leads to the gallery 
of the dome. Between the inner and outer surface of the dome 
there is also a space of about 3 ft. in width , in which the visitor 
may ascend to the top, emerging by a small door and thence 
reaching the crescent. From the latter is suspended a crystal cande- 
labrum by a long chain, over the sacred rock, having been presented 
by the Sultana dowager , and numerous other lamps are also hung 
on ropes here besides the large coloured silk canopy (p. 172). 

We now quit the mosque by the E. door, the Bab es-Silseleh, or 
Door of the Chain, which must not be confounded with the entrance 
gate of the same name (p. 167). According to Muslim tradition, a 
chain was once stretched across this entrance by Solomon , or by 
God himself. A truthful witness could grasp it without producing 
any effect , whereas a link fell off if a perjurer attempted to do so. 
The building which rises in front of theE. portal is therefore called 

esh-Sherif. JERUSALEM. 3. Route. 175 

Mehkemet Daild, David's place of judgment, or Kubbet es-Silseleh, 
dome of the chain. The Muslims declare that this dome afforded a 
model for the dome of the rock , which however is very improbable. 
This elegant little structure resembles a modern pavilion. It consists 
of two concentric rows of columns, the outer forming a pentagon, 
the inner an endecagon. The shafts, bases, and columns, which 
differ greatly from each other, are chiefly in the Byzantine style, 
and they have all been taken from older buildings. The pavement 
consists of beautiful mosaic, and on the S. side there is a handsome 
recess for prayer. In the centre, above the roof , rises a hexagonal 
drum, over which there is a somewhat flat dome. The top is 
adorned with a crescent, and so also is that of the Sakhra. 

Proceeding towards the N. , we next come to a well. In the N. 
E. corner of the upper platform on which we are standing, arcades, 
probably of the Herodian period , were discovered a few years ago. 
This affords an additional proof that a level area was artificially 
obtained by substructions , although the rock which gradually 
culminates in the sacred rock beneath the dome is now almost 
everywhere exposed to view. These vaults, however, cannot now 
be entered. To the N. W. of the Sakhra rises the Kubbet el-Mi'rdj, 
or dome of the ascension, erected to commemorate Mohammed's 
miraculous nocturnal journey to heaven. According to the inscrip- 
tion, the structure was erected in the year 597 of the Hegira (i. e. 
1200) , seven years after Jerusalem had been recaptured by the 
Muslims. It is interesting to observe the marked Gothic character 
of the windows, with their recessed and pointed arches borne by 
columns. Farther towards the N. W. there is a very small building 
called the Kubbet el-Arwdh (dome of the spirits) , which is only 
interesting from the fact that the bare rock is visible below it. 

If we approach the central flight of steps ascending from theW., 
we observe below, between us and the houses encircling the Haram, 
an elegant fountain-structure, called the Sebil Kent Bey, which, 
according to the inscription, was erected in the year 849 of the 
Hegira (1445) by the Mameluke sultan Melik el-Ashraf Abu'n- 
Naser Kait-Bey. Above a small cube rises an octagonal drum with 
a dome of stone, the outside of which is entirely covered with 
arabesques in relief. To the left of the S. colonnade descending 
from the terrace of the Sakhra there is also an elegant Pulpit in 
marble, dating from the 16th cent., and recently restored. It is 
called the Pulpit of Borhdn ed-Din Kady. A sermon is preached 
here every Friday during the fast of the month Ramadan. The horse- 
shoe arches supporting the pulpit , and the pulpit itself with its 
slender columns , above which rise arches of trefoil form , present a 
fine example of genuine Arabian art. 

The other buildings on the terrace are unimportant , consisting 
of Koran schools, partly deserted, and dwellings. Objects of greater 
interest are the numerous cisterns with which the rock is deeply 

176 Route 3. JERUSALEM. The Hardm 

honeycombed. Towards the S."W. of the mosque in particular there are 
many such cisterns of great antiquity, some of them connected with 
each other in groups , one below the other, and others unconnected. 
These cisterns are not visible from the surface, hut the attention is 
attracted by the numerous holes through which the water is drawn. 

To return once more to the Sakhra. This magnificent building 
produced a powerful impression on the Franks of the middle ages, and 
it was popularly believed to be the veritable Temple of Solomon. 
The society of knights founded here was accordingly called the order 
of the Temple , and they adopted the dome of the sacred rock as 
part of their armorial bearings. The Templars, moreover, carried the 
plan of the building to distant parts of Europe, and London, Laon, 
Metz, and several other towns still possess churches in this style. 
The polygonal outline of this mosque is even to be seen in the 
background of Raphael's famous Sposalizio in the Brera at Milan. 

Passing the pulpit, and descending a flight of twenty-one steps 
towards the S. , we soon reach a large round basin containing a few 
fragments of columns. It was once fed by a conduit from the pools 
of Solomon, entering by the Bab es-Silseleh (p. 185). — To the E. 
of this, in front of the Aksa, there are some remarkably fine and deep 
subterranean cisterns hewn in the rocks known as the Cisterns of 
the Sea , or the King's Cisterns , which were also supplied from 
Solomon's pools. These reservoirs are mentioned both by Tacitus 
and the earliest of the pilgrims. They are upwards of 40 ft. in 
depth, and 246 yds. in circumference. In summer they contain but 
little water, and there are now very few openings communicating 
with them from the surface. A staircase hewn in the rock descends 
to these remarkably spacious vaults, which are supported by pillars 
of rock. They were probably constructed at a very early period. 
Immediately before the portal of the Aksa mosque is another 
cistern, called the Btr el-Waraka, or leaf fountain. A man of the 
tribe of Temim , a companion of 'Omar , having once let his pitcher 
fall into this cistern, descended to recover it, and discovered a 
gate which led to orchards. He there plucked a leaf, placed it 
behind his ear, and showed it to his friends after he had quitted 
the cistern. The leaf came from paradise and never faded. Other 
persons, however, who descended for the purpose of visiting the 
Elysian orchards, were unable to find them. 

During that part of Mohammed's careeT when he derived most 
of his 'revelations' from Jewish sources, he declared the Aksa, the 
most distant shrine, to be a holy place of Proto-Islam, and tradition 
makes him say that it was founded only forty years after the foun- 
dation of the Ka'ba by Abraham. Arabian authors , too , record that 
the Khalif 'Omar on descending from the site of Solomon's Temple, 
offered prayers in the neighbouring 'church of Mary'. 

The mosque *E1-Aksa is at the present day a very complex pile 
of buildings, the principal axis of which forms a right angle with 



3. Route. Ill 

the S. wall of the Temple precincts. The edifice was originally 
founded by the Emperor Justinian , who erected a basilica here in 
honour of the Virgin. Procopius , who has described the buildings 
of Justinian , states that artificial substructions were- necessary in 
this case. The nave, in particular, rests on subterranean vaults. 
The building was of so great width that it was difficult to find 
beams long enough for the roof. The ceiling was borne by two rows 
of columns, one above the other. In front of the church there were 
two porches and two hospices , disposed in the form of a semicircle 
at the entrance. 'Omar dedicated the church to the Muslim faith, 
and in accordance with the passage from the Koran already mentioned 
named it Mesjid el-Aksa. At the end of the 7th century, 'Abd el- 
Melik, the founder of the Sakhra, caused the doors of the Aksa to 
be overlaid with gold and silver plates. During the khalifate of 
Abu J a' far el-Mansur (758' — 775) the E. and W. sides were 
damaged by an earthquake, and in order to obtain money to repair 
the mosque the precious metals with which it was adorned were 
converted into coin. El-Mehdi (775 — 785), Mansur's successor, 
finding the mosque again in ruins in consequence of an earth- 
quake, caused it to be rebuilt in an altered form, its length being now 
reduced, but its width increased. In 1060 the roof fell in, but was 
speedily repaired. Such is the account given by Arabic authors, 
whence we may infer that little of the original building is now left. 

1. Porch. 

2. Pulpit. 

3. Footpri?it of Christ. 

4. Mosque of 'Omar. 

5. Tomb of the Sons of Aaron. 

6. Pointed Arcade. 

7. Pair of Columns. 

The Porch (PI. 1), in its present form, consists of seven arcades 
leading into the seven aisles of the building. It was erected by 
Melik el-Mu'azzam Tsa, a nephew of Saladin, in 1236. The central 
arcades show an attempt to imitate the Gothic style of the Franks, but 
the columns, capitals, and bases do not harmonise, as they are taken 
from ancient buildings of different styles. The porch was moreover 

Palestine. 12 

178 Route 3. JERUSALEM. The Haram 

restored at a later period, and the roof is not older than the loth 
century. The original arrangements of the interior of the mosque 
still present a striking appearance. The nave and two adjacent 
aisles, in which the plan of the old basilica is recognisable, are the 
only parts which are strictly ancient. The W. aisle was probably 
once walled up, and on the E. side lay the court of the mosque, as 
at Fostat in Egypt, and at Damascus (R. 29). The great transept 
with the dome, which perhaps belongs to the restoration of El- 
Mehdi, gave the edifice a cruciform shape. It was probably the 
same prince, who, in order to obliterate the form of the cross, added 
two lower aisles on the E. and W. sides of the mosque respectively, 
and for this purpose the lateral walls of the building had to be 
broken through. In their present form, however, these four outer 
aisles belong to a later restoration. The piers are of a simple square 
form, and the vaulting is pointed. 

The Nave and its two immediately adjoining aisles are very 
superior in style to the other aisles just mentioned, and possess far 
greater individuality and uniformity. The capitals, some of which 
still show the form of the acanthus leaf, are Byzantine, and perhaps 
date from the 7th cent. The seven arches which rise above the columns 
are wide and pointed, and therefore doubtless of later date ; and here 
again we find the wooden 'anchor', or connecting beam between the 
arches, which is peculiar to the Arabs. Above the arches is a double 
row of windows , the higher of which look into the open air , the 
lower into the aisles. The nave and central aisles, and the transept 
also, are still roofed with beams, as was the case in basilicas. The 
building is altogether 90 yds. in length and about 66 yds. in width. 

The Transept , like the rest of the edifice , is constructed of old 
materials. The antique columns are by no means uniform like those 
of the nave, but vary in material, in the form of their pedestals and 
capitals, and even in their height. According to an inscription, this 
part of the building was restored by Saladin in 583 (1187). To his 
period belong also the fine mosaics on a gold ground in the drum 
of the dome, which, according to Arabian accounts, he obtained from 
Constantinople. From the same period dates the prayer-niche on 
the S. side, flanked with its small and graceful marble columns. 
The coloured band which runs round the wall of this part of the 
mosque , about 6 ft. from the ground , consists of foliage, somewhat 
Gothic in style. The Cufic inscriptions are texts from the Koran. 

The Dome is constructed of wood, and covered with lead on the 
outside; within, it is decorated in the same style as the dome of the 
Sakhra. An inscription records the name of the Mameluke sultan 
Mohammed ibnKelaun as the restorer (or perhaps founder) of these 
decorations in 728 (1327). Some of the windows of the mosque 
are filled with stained glass of the same period (16th cent.) as that 
in the Sakhra, but inferior to it. The wretched paintings on the 
large arch of the transept were executed by an Italian during the 

esh-Shertf. JERUSALEM. 3. Route. 179 

present century. The transept is prolonged towards the "W. by a 
long double passage -with pointed vaulting (PL 6), but -with 
somewhat heavy pilasters. This part of the building was erected by 
the Knights Templar, who probably had their armoury or something 
of the kind here. The Aksa was specially allotted to the Templars, 
who called it the Porticus, Palatium, or Templum Salomonis ; and they 
resided here and in the substructions of this corner of the Haram, 
the windows of which look to the mountain slope towards the S. 

Turning again towards the E., we observe, adjoining the prayer- 
niche, a Pulpit (PL 2) beautifully carved in wood. The details of 
the decoration are admirable. The ascent to the pulpit, as well as 
the pointed structure itself, is inlaid with ivory and mother-of- 
pearl. It was executed in 564(1168) by an artist of Aleppo by 
order of Nureddin, and was placed here by Saladin on the restoration 
of the Aksa. On the stone behind this pulpit is shown the Footprint 
of Christ (PL 3), which appears to have been seen by Antonio of 
Piacenza, one of the earliest pilgrims, at or near this very spot. 
Further towards the E., we observe to the left two columns close 
together (PL 7). The cicerone declares that persons who are not born 
in lawful wedlock cannot pass between them, while others say that 
no one can enter heaven if he can not pass between them. (There is 
a similar pair of columns in the mosque of 'Amru at Old Cairo.) 
Still proceeding towards the E. we Teach a modern addition to the 
mosque on the S.E. side, a bare uninteresting building with a 
prayer-niche (PL 4), where the proper Mosque of 'Omar is said 
once to have stood, the dome of the rock having been erroneously 
called so by the Franks. A similar large addition is situated to 
the N. ; on the S. side are remains of the apse of an old Christian 
church, still traceable, but now converted into a mosque. This is 
the place of the 'Arbain' (40 witnesses) , and to the N. of it is the 
place where Zacharias is said to have been slain (Matth. xxiii. 35; 
p. 224). Before leaving the mosque the visitor should not omit 
to inspect a fine stone slab in the pavement of the nave, not far 
from the entrance. It resembles the monument of a Frankish knight, 
but the Muslims declare it to be the tomb of the Sons of Aaron 
(PL 5). — The two ancient aisles are farther remarkable for the 
shape of their roofs, which terminate externally in the form of 
arches both at the ends and sides. 

On emerging from the central portal we find a staircase on the 
right, which descends by eighteen steps to the vaults below the 
Aksa. These are formed by a double series of arches resting on piers. 
The central series lies exactly under the arcades which form the E. 
side of the nave of the basilica, which is perhaps a proof that the 
original basilica only extended thus far. The substructions in their 
present form are not ancient, but they occupy the site of the original 
Byzantine foundations; and it is probable that others of similar 
kind and greater extent might be discovered to the W. if permission 


180 Route 3. JERUSALEM. The Hardm 

to examine the ground could be obtained. Towards the S. end eight 
more steps descend to a vault, with arches resting in the centre 
against a short and thick monolithic column covered with lime , the 
capital of which, with its stiff acanthus, or rather palm leaves, is 
undoubtedly Byzantine. Near the foot of the steps a similar column 
is built into the wall, but its base is somewhat higher. To the 
N. of this there is a third column of the same kind. This vault 
was once a porch belonging to the Double Gate, now walled up, 
but was closed in and vaulted in the Byzantine manner, probably 
at the period of the erection of the church of St. Mary. The frag- 
ment of stone built into the wall upside down bears an inscription 
containing the name of the Roman emperor Antoninus. The gate, 
with its lintels and well preserved ancient columns, is constructed of 
finely hewn stones, and admirably preserved. The three gate-posts 
consist of huge stones of the ancient Jewish period. This double 
gate is supposed to be the 'Huldah Portal' of the Talmud, and we 
may therefore assume that Christ frequently entered the Temple 
from this point, particularly on the occasion of festivals. It is now a 
Muslim place of prayer, and is therefore covered with straw matting. 

We now return to the open air and put on our boots again. The 
whole of the S.E. corner of the Haram is also supported by 
artificial substructions, the sole object of which was to afford a level 
surface. The entrance to them is near a small arcade in the S.E. 
corner of the Temple precincts. Descending thirty-two steps, we 
enter a small Muslim oratory, where a shell-shaped, vaulted niche 
is pointed out as the ' Cradle of Christ', under which name it was 
also known in mediaeval times. This curious tradition seems to 
have been founded on an old custom of Hebrew women to resort 
hither to await their confinement. According to the legend, this 
was the dwelling of the aged Simeon , and the Virgin spent a few 
days here after the Presentation in the Temple. 

From this point we descend into the spacious substructions, 
which the Arabs attribute to the agency of demons, but which 
in their present form are of no great antiquity. They consist of 
semicircular vaults about 28ft. high, resting on a hundred square 
piers , chiefly composed of ancient drafted stones , and are an 
imitation (probably Arabian) of similar older substructions which 
once occupied the same spot. Tradition calls them 'Solomon s 
Stables', and there may be some foundation for the name, for, as al- 
ready mentioned, the palace of that monarchwas probably somewhere 
in this neighbourhood. Many Jews sought refuge in the subterranean 
vaults of theTemple court during their struggle against theRomans, 
and there is other evidence that artificial terraces of the kind existed 
at an early period in this corner. In the middle ages the stables 
of the Frank kings and of the Templars were here , and the rings 
to which they attached their horses still exist. About a hundred 
paces from the S.E. angle there is a small closed door in the S. wall 

esh-Sherif. JERUSALEM. 3. Route. 181 

called the 'Single Gate' (near which is the so-called 'Cradle of David'). 
To the extreme W. there is a door in the wall which affords access 
to another series of substructions, which terminate towards the S. 
in a Triple Gate, and extend to the N., over a large rocky cistern, 
beyond the Aksa mosque. (We observe here the huge roots of the 
trees which grow on the platform of the Haram above us.) Of this 
ancient Temple gate, which was built in the same style as the double 
gate already described, the foundations only are preserved. The gates 
themselves are filled up. The arches are of somewhat elliptical form. 
The whole entrance was about 50 ft. in width and 25 ft. in height. 
Fragments of columns are also observed built into the walls here 
(comp. p. 121), and an ancient column is seen in the wall about 
20 yds. to the N. of the gate. Farther on, about 132 yds. from the 
S. wall, the style in which the gallery is built begins to alter, and 
the upper part becomes more modern. We shall hereafter have 
occasion to observe the outside (see p. 187). 

We now again ascend to the plateau of the Haram, and proceed 
towards the N. — The Wall which bounds the precincts of the 
Haram on the right (E. side) is modern above the surface of the 
ground , though the substructions are of great antiquity. A little 
farther on, we find a stair ascending to the top of the wall, which 
affords an admirable view of the valley of Jehoshaphat with its 
tombs immediately below, and of the Mt. of Olives. We find here 
the stump of a column built in horizontally and protruding over the 
wall. The Muslims say (p. 213) that all men will assemble in the 
valley of Jehoshaphat when the trumpet-blast proclaims the last 
judgment. From this prostrate column a thin wire-Tope will then 
be stretched to the opposite Mt. of Olives. Christ will sit on the 
wall, and Mohammed on the mount, as judges. All men must pass 
over the intervening space on the rope. The righteous, preserved 
by their angels from falling, will cross with lightning speed, while 
the wicked will be precipitated into the abyss of hell (comp. p. 95). 
The idea of a bridge of this kind occurs in the ancient Persian 
religion, where it is called Khinwat. 

The Golden Gate, situated farther to the N. , seems always to 
have been the only entrance from the E. ; but a passage in 
Ezekiel (xliv. 1 , 2) indicates that it was kept closed from a very 
early period. In the Book of the Acts (iii. 2) mention is also made 
of a #6p« wgaCa, or Beautiful Gate, where the healing of the 
lame man took place. Although the 'Beautiful Gate' must once 
have been in the wall of the inner forecourt of the Temple, and not 
near the present Golden Gate, tradition has localised the miracle 
here, as this was probably the only gate still visible on the E. side 
of the Temple. Owing to a misunderstanding, the Greek uqccik 
('beautiful') was afterwards translated into the Latin aurea, whence 
the name 'golden gate'. The gate iu its present form dates from the 
3rd, or probably rather from the 6th century after Christ. Down to 

182 Route 3. JERUSALEM. The Haram 

810 a path ascended in steps from the valley of Kidron to the 
Temple precincts. In the outer wall on the S. there is a very small 
door which prohably afforded an entrance to foot-passengers , and 
which was connected by a passage, now buried in rubbish (the 
entrance being, however, visible), with the interior of the gateway. 
On the other hand the golden gate bears a strong resemblance to the 
double gate on the S. side (p. 180), and probably stands nearly on 
the site of the gate 'Shushan' of the ancient Temple, mentioned 
in the Talmud. It is on record that as late as the year 629 Hera- 
clius entered the Temple by this gate. The Arabs afterwards 
built it up, and there still exists a tradition that on a Friday 
some Christian conqueror will enter by this gate and take Jerusa- 
lem from the Muslims. At the time of the Crusades the gate 
used to be opened for a few hours on Palm Sunday and on the 
festival of the Raising of the Cross. On Palm Sunday the great 
procession with palm-branches entered by this gate from the Mt. 
of Olives. The patriarch rode on an ass, while the people spread 
their garments in the way, as had been done on the entry of Christ. 
The Arabs now call the whole gateway Bab ed-Daheriyeh, or eternal 
gate, the N. arch the Bab et-Tobeh, or gate of repentance, and the S. 
arch the Bab er-Rahmeh, or gate of mercy. They use the interior as 
a place of prayer. The large monolithic doorposts have been converted 
into pillars, which now rise 6 ft. above the top of the wall, and 
between the two has been placed a large pillar, the sides of which 
are adorned with small projecting columns. Above these the arched 
vaulting was then placed. The gate having been walled up, the 
central pillar is no longer visible from without. In the interior of 
the portal there is an arcade with six vaults , the depressed arches 
of which rest on one side on a frieze above the pilasters of the 
lateral walls, and on the other side on two columns in the middle. 
The inside of the W. entrance is a simple repetition of these 
arrangements of the E. gateway. The architectural details of the 
structure, which is highly ornate, point to a Byzantine origin. The 
depressed vaulting, the lowness of the cornices, the hollowed form 
of the foliage, and the flat folding of the acanthus leaves on the 
capitals are all characteristic of a late period of art; and the same 
may be said of the capitals of the central columns with their volutes 
in imitati n of the Ionic style, as capitals of this description do 
not occur b efore the 6th century. The hollows below the mouldings 
of the bases of the capitals also point to a late period. — The 
interior is lighted by openings in the domes. When we come 
to inspect the outside of the E. wall we shall have occasion to 
notice the lowness of the site of this structure (p. 188). A staircase 
ascends to the roof of the golden gate , which affords an excellent 
survey of the whole of the Temple plateau, and particularly of the 
approaches to the dome of the rock. 

Proceeding farther towards the N., we observe a modern mosque 

esh-Sherif. JERUSALEM. 3. Route. 183 

on the right. It is called the Throne of Solomon, from the legend 
that Solomon was found dead here. In order to conceal his death 
from the demons, he supported himself on his seat with his staff, 
and it was not till the worms had gnawed the staff through and caused 
the body to fall that the demons became aware that they were now 
released from the king's authority. Here, as at other pilgrimage 
shrines, we observe shreds of rags suspended from the window 
gratings, having been torn from the garments of the pilgrims and 
placed there by them in fulfilment of vows to the saint. 

We now reach the N. wall of the Haram, which contains three 
gates. The first at the E. end is the Bab cl-Asbat, or gate of the 
tribes. (The word asbdt, 'tribes', has, however, sometimes been re- 
garded as the name of some individual prophet.) The visitor should 
not omit to look out of one of the windows under the arcades of the 
N. wall, for here, far below us, lies the traditional Pool of Bethesda. 
A small valley diverged anciently from the upper part of the Tyro- 
-pceon towards the E. , and was made available for the construction 
of this reservoir. The pool, which rarely now contains water, is 
121 yds. long and 44 yds. wide. It lies 68 ft. below the level of 
the Temple plateau, and its bottom is now covered with rubbish 
to a depth of 20 ft. It was fed from the W. , and could be regulated 
and emptied by a channel in a tower at the S. E. corner. Roman 
Catholic tradition and several modern travellers regard this as the 
pool of Bethesda situated by the sheep gate. As it was erro- 
neously supposed that this gate stood on the site of the present gate 
of St. Stephen (see p. 207), early pilgrims also speak of the piscina 
probatica, or sheep pool, situated here. (As to the real Pool of 
Bethesda, see p. 184.) The pool is now called Birket Isra'il, or pool 
of Israel. Through a small opening in the wall of the Haram, Capt. 
Warren has succeeded in penetrating from the pool into vaulted 
substructions. — Skirting the N. side of the Haram precincts, we ob- 
serve places of prayer and near the platform ancient covered vaults 
on our left, and we soon reach the next gate, called the Bab Hitta, 
or Bab Hotta, following which is the Bab el-'Atem, or gate of 
darkness, also named Shertf el-Anbia (honour of the prophets), or 
Gate of Dewadar, from a school of that name situated there. This 
perhaps answers to the Todi gate of the Talmud. At the N.W. 
angle of the Temple area the ground consists of rock, in which has 
been formed a perpendicular cutting 23 ft. in depth, and above this 
rises the wall. The foundations of this wall appear to be ancient, 
and they may possibly have belonged to the fortress of Antonia. 
There are now barracks here (PI. 11), where the execrable music of 
a Turkish military band is frequently heard. At the N.W. corner 
rises the highest minaret of the Haram. 

Having examined the whole of the interior of these spacious 
precincts, we now proceed to take a Walk round the Walls, which 
will enable us better to realise the character of the substructions. 

184 Route 3. JERUSALEM. The Haram 

The great plateau we have just inspected -was originally a rocky hill, 
the sides of which were afterwards artificially raised, and the pro- 
jecting parts of which at the N. W. angle were removed. Through 
the centre of the plateau runs the natural rock, extending below the 
Aksa. The valley to the W. of it, called the Tyropceon (p. 146), 
is almost entirely filled with rubbish. 

In order that the character of the substructions may be appreciated, 
we must first say a word as to the materials of which they consist. Five 
different kinds of stones may be distinguished in the outer wall of 
the Temple, each probably belonging to a different building period : 
— (1) Drafted blocks with rough, unhewn exterior; (2) drafted 
blocks with smooth exterior; (3) large stones , smoothly hewn, but 
undrafted ; (4) smaller stones of the same character ; (5) ordinary 
masonry of irregularly shaped stones. Blocks of the first kind are 
to be found under ground in almost every part of the Temple pre- 
cincts (as proved by the excavations undertaken by the members 
of the Exploration Fund), that part of the wall which is built with 
such blocks beginning 35 — 55 ft. below the present surface of the 
ground. These blocks are hewn smooth on every side except the 
outside, and there they are drafted. They aTe jointed with mortar or 
cement, but so accurately that a knife cannot be introduced between 
them. The wall is not perpendicular, but slopes outwards towards 
its base , each block lying a little within that below it. 

We begin on the W. side, which is almost entirely enclosed by 
buildings, so that we can only follow it at some distance. On 
leaving the Haram by the third gate on the N.W. side (Bab en- 
Ndsir), where we may dismiss our attendants as being now un- 
necessary, we leave the Old Serai (at present state-prison, PI. 95) to 
the right (observing in passing how beautifully the stones here 
are jointed with lead cramps) , and the cavalry-barracks (PI. 10) 
to the left. We then turn to the left by the first street which 
leads to the S., keeping as near the wall of the Haram as possible, 
and passing on the r. the present Serai, the residence of the pasha 
(PI. 96) , and on the left a lane which leads to the Bab el-Hadid 
(p. 167) of the Haram. The next side-street to the 1. is the inter- 
esting Suk el-Kattdnin, or bazaar of the cotton-merchants, termin- 
ating towards the E. in the Bab el-Kattdnin, which is worthy of in- 
spection. We traverse the Suk el-Kattanin , and turn to the right 
(two-thirds of the way to the Temple plateau) by a by-road to the 
Hammdm esh-Shifd, or healing bath (PI. 35). This is supposed to 
be the intermittent spring which fed the Pool of Bethesda of the 
New Testament. A stair ascends 34 ft. to the mouth of the well, 
over which stands a small tower. The shaft is here about 100 ft. 
in depth (i. e. about 66 ft. below the surface of the earth). Several 
explorers have let themselves down by ropes in order to examine it. 
The shaft descends to a basin, almost entirely enclosed by masonry; 
at the S. end of its W. wall runs a channel built of masonry, 100 ft. 

esh-Sherlf. JERUSALEM. 3. Route. 185 

long, 3^ ft. high, and 3 ft. in width, nearly towards the S.W. 
The water is had , being rain-watei which has percolated through 
impure earth , but it is still extolled for its sanitary properties. 

The next gate is the Bab es-Silseleh, or Gate of the Chain (p. 167), 
situated near a pretty fountain. It stands upon a large arch of a 
bridge, discovered by Tobler, and afterwards named ' Wilson's Arch? 
after the director of the English survey. Over this and other arches 
was constructed the street leading to the upper part of the town, as 
the original floor of the valley here lies much below the present 
level of the ground. This well-preserved arch is 21 ft. in height 
and has a span of 42 ft. Below it is the so-called El-Burak Pool, 
named after the winged steed of Mohammed , which has given its 
name to the whole of this W. side of the Haram, as the prophet 
is said to have tied it up here. Leaving the gate , we turn to the 
right into the so-called 'JlfeTifeemeft' or House of Judgment (PL 84), 
an arcade with pointed vaulting, which was built in 1483, and 
contains a prayer-niche. A stone sarcophagus which formerly stood 
here and was supposed to have been brought from the tombs of the 
kings, has been taken to Paris. In the centre is a fountain which 
was formerly fed by the water-conduit of Bethlehem. A window 
looks towards the Moghrebin quarter to the S. , and there is an outlet 
to[the plateau of the Haram. Whilst making excavations under the S. 
end ofWilson's Arch, Capt. Warren discovered fragments of vaulting 
at a depth of 24 ft. and a water-course at a depth of 42 ft. (a proof 
that water still trickles through what was formerly a valley) ; and at 
length, at a depth of more than 51 ft., he found the wall of the 
Temple built into the rock. A subterranean passage ran in the same 
direction as the viaduct over the arches mentioned above, and led 
from the Temple precincts to the citadel. Capt. Warren penetrated 
into it for a distance of about 83 yds. , but could not get farther. 

We must now turn towards the W. and follow the so-called 
David Street (p. 211) until we come to a narrow lane leading to 
the left between two handsome old houses. That on the right with 
the stalactite portal was a boys' school at the period of the Cru- 
sades; that to the left, called 'Ajemiyeh, was a girls' school, but has 
been used as a boys' school since the time of Saladin. Descending 
this lane for 4 min. and keeping to the left, we reach the *Wailin{j/ 
Place of the Jews, situated beyond the miserable dwellings of the 
Moghrebins (Muslims from the N.W. of Africa). The celebrated 
wall which bears this name is 52 yds. in length and 56 ft. in height. 
The nine lowest courses of stone consist of huge blocks, none of 
which, however, are drafted. Above these are fifteen layers of smaller 
stones. Some archaeologists infer from the kind of stones which 
form the substructions here that the lower part of this W. external 
wall is very ancient, while others deny this, arguing from the imper- 
fect character of the jointing. Some of the blocks, however , are of 
vast size, one in the N. part being 16 ft, and one in the S. part 

186 Route 3. JERUSALEM. The Haram 

13 ft. in length. It is probable that the Jews as early as the middle 
ages were in the habit of repairing hither to bewail the downfall 
of Jerusalem. This spot should be visited repeatedly, especially on 
a Friday after 4 p. m., or on Jewish festivals, when a touching scene 
is presented by the figures leaning against the weatheT-beaten wall, 
kissing the stones, and weeping. The men often sit here for hours', 
reading their well-thumbed Hebrew prayer-books. Many of them 
are barefooted. The Spanish Jews, whose appearance and bearing 
are often refined and independent , present a pleasing contrast to 
their squalid brethren of Poland. 

On certain occasions, towards evening, the following litany is chanted : — 
Leader: For the palace that lies desolate: — Response: We sit in soli- 
tude and mourn. 

L. For the palace that is destroyed: — R. We sit," etc. 
L. For the walls that are overthrown: — R. We sit, etc. 
L. For our majesty that is departed: — R. We sit, etc. 
L. For our great men who lie dead: — R. We sit, etc. 
L. For the precious stones that are burned: — R. We sit, etc. 
L. For the priests who have stumbled: — R. We sit, etc. 
L. For our kings who have despised Him:—R. We sit, etc. 
Another antiphon is as follows: — 

Leader: We pray Thee, have mercy on Zion! — Response: Gather the 
children of Jerusalem. 

L. Haste, haste, Redeemer of Zion! — R. Speak to the heart of Jerusalem. 
L. May beauty and majesty surround Zion! — R. Ah! turn Thyself merci- 
fully to Jerusalem. 

L. May the kingdom soon return to Zion! — R. Comfort those who mourn 
over Jerusalem. 

L. May peace and joy abide with Zion! — R. And the branch (of Jesse) 
spring up at Jerusalem. 

These people adhere to their ancient traditions with marvellous 
tenacity, still expecting and earnestly longing for the establishment 
■of the second 'Kingdom of David'. 

To the S. of the Place of Wailing is an ancient gate, which the 
fanaticism of the Moghrebins prevents most travellers from seeing. 
In order to obtain a view of the upper part of it, consisting of a huge 
block , 7^ ft. thick and at least 18 ft. long , now situated 10 ft. 
above the ground , the visitor must negociate with the Moghrebins 
through whose hovels he must pass. The most interesting features 
of the gate , however , are not visible. The threshold lies 48 ft. 
below the present surface of the ground, and a path cut in steps has 
been discovered in the course of excavations. It is called the Gate 
•of the Prophet, or after the discoverer Barclay's Gate. This is probably 
one of the four gates on the W. side mentioned by Josephus ; an- 
other is supposed to have lain to the N. of Wilson's Arch. 

Retracing our steps from the Place of Wailing, and now 
turning to the left through the main street of the dirty Moghrebin 
quarter till the houses cease, we reach a large open space, partly 
planted with cactus hedges. To the right is a precipitous slope, 
consisting of rubbish on the S. side and rock on the N. ; to the 
left rises the Temple wall to a height of about 58 ft., which we 
now again approach not far from the S.W. angle. The colossal 

Place of Wailing of the Jews . 

Ecce-Homo Arch . 

esh-Sherlf. JERUSALEM. 3. Route. 1 87 

Mocks here, one of which is 26 ft. long and 1\ ft. high, and that at 
the corner 27^ ft. long, are very remarkable, although it is some- 
times difficult to distinguish the joints from clefts caused by disin- 
tegration. About 13 yds. from the S.W. corner we come upon the 
arch of a bridge called Robinson's Arch after the eminent explorer 
who discovered it. The arch is 50 ft. in width; it contains stones 
of 19 and 26 ft. in length, and about three different courses are 
distinguishable. The whole of the S.W. corner was built dur- 
ing the Herodian period. We have here the beginning of a viaduct 
which led from the Temple over the Tyropceon to the Xystus, occu- 
pying the site of a more ancient bridge over the valley which con- 
nected the palace of Solomon with the lower part of the upper city. 
The distance to the opposite hill is 100 yds. Excavations on the W. 
side have not yet brought to light a corresponding part of the bridge 
there. At a depth of 21 ft. Capt. Warren found, on the W. hill, rock 
and a water-course. In other shafts which he bored in the supposed 
direction of the viaduct were found remains of a colonnade(Xystus?). 
By Robinson's Arch a pillar was found at a distance of 13| yds. , 
and at a depth of 21 ft. there' was a pavement on which lay the 
vault-stones of the arch of the bridge. After penetrating the rub- 
bish to a depth of 44 ft., the explorers came upon the rock, and 
near the Temple wall they found a channel hewn in the rock from 
N. to S. Above this channel lay the arch stones of the older bridge. 
At the S.W. corner of the Temple the rock lies 57 ft. below the 
present surface of the ground. The great wall which to this day 
runs along the whole of the W. side far below the surface was once 
visible. Its only purpose was to aid in forming a level plateau for 
the Temple, and it must have resembled a gigantic pedestal. 

The S. wall of the Temple we can pursue only as far as the 
Double Gate (see below) ; its continuation we do not again see until 
we issue from the-Dim<; Gate (or Moghrebins 1 Gate, p. 160), and turn 
to the left round the modern wall. The excavations here show that 
the rock rapidly falls towards the E. from a depth of 58 ft. to 88 ft. , 
and down to the latter depth the Herodian Temple wall is still im- 
bedded in the earth. The rock then rises again towards the E. In 
other words— the Tyropceon valley runs under the S.W. angle of 
the Temple plateau, so that this part of the mosque (corresponding 
to part of the ancient Temple) stands not on the Temple hill itself, 
but on the opposite slope. 

At the bottom of this depression, which is now no longer visible, 
Capt. Warren has discovered a subterranean channel. At a depth of 
23 ft. is a stone pavement, probably of a late Roman period, and at 
a depth of 43 ft. another, perhaps of the Herodian era. A wall still 
more deeply imbedded in the earth consists of large stones with 
rough surfaces. Beyond the Double Gate, mentioned at p. 180, which 
enters from the S. directly under the Aksa, the wall is older. The 
rock ascends to the Triple Gate, where it lies but few feet below the 

188 Route 3. JERUSALEM. Wall of the Haram. 

piesent surface, beyond which it falls rapidly towards the valley of 
Kidron. Under the 'Single Gate' (p. 181), which is also walled up, 
and is of late date, an old water-conduit has been discovered. While 
the surface of the ground falls about 22 ft. from the Triple Gate to 
the S.E, corner of the wall, the original rock falls about 98 ft. 
At the bottom a pitcher has been found, and the stones bear red 
marks and incised letters. These marks appear to be Phoenician. 
Can this be a wall of early Hebrew origin? We cannot yet be cer- 
tain that it is, but the question may probably be answered in the 
affirmative. It is, however, very uncertain in what century the 
gigantic blocks which attract our attention above the surface of the 
ground in this S.E. angle were placed in their present position. 
Some of those in the uppeT courses are 16 — 22 ft. in length and 3 ft. 
in thickness. The wall is altogether 74 ft. in height.' — In the 
course of his excavations towards the S., Capt. Warren discovered a 
second wall at a great depth. 

On the E. side of the wall of the Haram lies much rubbish, and 
the rock once dipped much more rapidly to the Kidron valley than 
the present surface of the ground does. The Golden Gate (p. 181) 
stands with its outside upon the wall, but with its inside upon 
debris. The wall here extends to a depth of 28 — 38 ft. below the 
surface. Outside of the Haram wall, Capt. Warren has discovered a 
second wall, possibly an ancient city-wall, buried in the debris. The 
examination of the N.E. corner of the Haram was a most laborious 
proceeding, as the nature of the rubbish rendered it difficult to sink 
shafts. The whole of the N.E. corner of the Temple plateau, both 
within and without the enclosing wall, is filled with immense de- 
posits of debris, some of which was probably the earth removed 
in levelling the N. W. corner. The small valley used for the con- 
struction of the Birket Isra'il (p. 18S) runs (like the Tyropoeon at 
the S.W. angle) under the N. E. corner of the wall, which extends 
here, where the valley dips towards the Kidron, to a depth of 
116 ft. below the present surface. The gradient of the rock from 
the N.W. corner of the Haram to this point is therefore very rapid, 
and vast quantities of material were required to fill it up. 

Capt. Warren has also discovered the outlet of the Birket Isra'il 
under ground, and in the N.E. corner the ruins of a large tower, 
obviously ancient, near which there again appeared Phoenician marks, 
resembling those at the S. E. corner. We believe that here, on the E. 
side, if anywhere, a high antiquity, perhaps as remote as the kings of 
Judah, may fairly be claimed for the substructions of the Haram. 

The beautiful arches of the' Golden Gate should be once more 
viewed from without. Their position on the top of the accumulation 
of rubbish, as well as the details of the decorations on this side, 
point to an apparently late Byzantine period. Along the whole wall 
are placed Muslim tombstones (comp. p. 213). The best way to 
return to the town is now by the Oate of St. Stephen (p. 207). 

Ch. of the Sepulchre. JERUSALEM. 3. Route. 189 

The Church of the Sepulchre. 

We are informed by the Bible that Oolgotha lay outside the city 
(John xix. 17,20"; Hebr. xiii. 12'). This was an eminence, or 
perhaps only a small rocky protuberance, ealled on account of its 
peculiar shape 'gulgolet' (skull) in HebTew, of which Golgotha is a 
corruption. It must have been a much frequented spot, but it is still 
unknown whether the eminence was a natural or artificial one. To 
the N. and S. of the place pointed out by tradition the ground dips 
gradually. The first point of controversy among those learned in 
the topography of Jerusalem is whether the genuine Golgotha lay 
in this neighbourhood or not (comp. p. 154 c ). Several modern ex- 
plorers look for Golgotha to the N. of the town, near the grotto of 
Jeremiah (p. 239), but until farther excavations are made nothing 
certain can be known. It is, however, certain that much less 
rubbish lies to the W. of the Church of the Sepulchre than to the 
E. ; whence it would appear that the site of the present Church 
of the Sepulchre lies outside the second wall, and thus meets the 
requirements of the Bible narrative. The tradition itself is unsatis- 
factory. There is no evidence that the spot was revered, or even 
known, in the early centuries of the Christian era. Old authors do 
not agree as to the kind of building erected by Hadrian on the 
place called Golgotha, some asserting that it was a temple of 
Venus , others a temple of Jupiter. Moreover the whole story 
of the finding of the holy spot in the reign of Constantine , with 
its alleged miracles and other circumstances , affords a very 
strong probability that no tradition on the subject was then in 
existence. On the other hand it is natural , that , when Chris- 
tianity had become the Roman state religion, enquiry should 
have been made regarding the site of the sepulchre of Christ. 
Bishop Eusebius (born at Caesarea about 264), the earliest historian 
who gives us information on the subject, records that during the 
excavations in the reign of Constantine the sacred grotto of the 
Saviour, apparently hewn in the rock, or a solitary rock rising above 
the ground with a cavity in it, was discovered. Later historians 
add that Helena, Constantine's mother, prompted by a divine vision, 
undertook a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and that she there discovered 
not only the Holy Sepulchre, but also the Cross of Christ. Others 
mention a Bishop Macarius as having been concerned in this dis- 
til. 'And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place 
of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha.' — 'This title then 
read many of the Jews : for the. place where Jesus was crucified was 
nigh to the city.' 

b. 'Wherefore Jesus also, that he might sanctify the people with his 
own blood, suffered without the gate 1 . 

c. It would be quite beyond the scope of this Handbook to enquire 
minutely whether all the traditions mentioned in it have any foundation 
in faci or not. Those attaching to the Church of the Sepulchre, with its 
many chapels and nooks , are especially numerous. See the works of 
Tobler, De Vogili, and the other authorities mentioned at pp. 124, 125, 164. 

190 Route 3. JERUSALEM. Ch. of the Sepulchre. 

covery. The cross was hewn in pieces, one portion only remaining 
at Jerusalem, where it continued to he shown to pilgrims. The 
only certain historical fact is, that on the spot thus said to have 
been discovered, and on which we now stand, a sumptuously 
decorated church was erected (consecrated in 336), consisting of a 
building over the supposed Holy Sepulchre , and of the basilica 
dedicated to the sign of the Cross. The Church of the Sepulchre, 
also called the Anastasis , because Christ here rose from the dead, 
consisted of a rotunda, in the middle of which was the sepulchre 
surrounded by statues of the twelve apostles. The external form at 
least of this rotunda, which served as a model for the Sakhra 
mosque (p. 169), has been preserved. It was adjoined on the E. 
by an open space with colonnades (the extent of which cannot be 
determined), while farther to the E. stood the basilica, with courts 
on each side, three portals in front towards the E. , and a fore- 
court and propyliea with flights of steps. A few fragments of the 
columns of the propylsea are still preserved. The appearance of the 
whole, from the E., as from the Mt. of Olives for example, must 
have been very striking. 

At an early period the place of the finding of the cross was 
distinguished from Golgotha, and there are conflicting statements 
as to the distance of each from the town. In June, 614, the buildings 
were destroyed by the Persians. In 616- — 626 the church was rebuilt 
by Modestus, abbot of the monastery of Theodosius, with the aid 
of the Christians of Syria and Alexandria. It now consisted of three 
parts, the Church of the Resurrection (Anastasis), the Church of the 
Cross (Martyrion), and the Church of Calvary; but in splendour it 
was inferior to its predecessor. Khalif 'Omar (637) treated the 
Christians with leniency and allowed them to keep their churches. 
Erom a description of the Church of the Sepulchre by Arculf in 670 
it appears that an addition had been made to the holy places by the 
erection of a church of St. Mary on the S. side. In the time of Khalif 
Mamun (813 — 833) the patriarch Thomas of Jerusalem repaired 
and enlarged the dome over the Anastasis. In 936 and in 969 the 
church was partly destroyed by fire, and in 1010 the holy places 
were further damaged and desecrated by the Muslims. In 1055 
a church again arose, and in 1099 the Crusaders entered this 
church, or in particular the dome of the sepulchre, barefooted and 
with songs of praise. The existing buildings, however, appeared 
to the Crusaders much too insignificant, and they therefore erected 
a large church which embraced all the holy places and chapels. 
This was not done till they had obtained a tolerably firm footing in 
Jerusalem , that is at the beginning of the 12th cent. , as the Ro- 
manesque style of their buildings testifies. The church built by the 
Crusaders has been preserved through many centuries down to the 
present time, but is not easily recognised as a building of that period 
in consequence of the numerous additions which it has received. 

Ch. of the Sepulchre. JERUSALEM. 3. Route. 19t 

To the E. of the rotunda of the sepulchre the Crusaders erected 
a church consisting of a nave and aisles , with three apses towards 
the E. , beyond which, still farther to the E. , already stood the 
chapel of St. Helena. In 1187 the Arabs damaged these buildings. 
In 1192 the warriors of the Third Crusade were permitted to visit 
Jerusalem in sections , and the Bishop of Salisbury obtained from 
Saladin the concession that two Latin priests should be permitted 
specially to conduct the services in the Church of the Sepulchre. In 
1244 the sepulchre was destroyed by the Kharezmians, but in 1310 
a handsome church with numerous and superb altars had again 
arisen, to which in 1400 were added two domes. During the 
following centuries complaints were frequently made of the insecure 
condition of the dome of the sepulchre. At length, in 1719, it was 
restored , and a great part of the church rebuilt , notwithstanding 
much opposition on the part of the Muslims. In 1808 the church 
met with a great disaster. It was almost entirely burned down, the 
dome fell in and crushed the chapel of the sepulchre, the columns 
cracked, and the lead from the roof flowed into the interior. Little 
was saved except the E. part of the building. On this occasion the 
sarcophagi of the Frank kings of Jerusalem, including that of God- 
frey de Bouillon, which had lain under the spot where the cross is 
said to have stood, and behind the stone of anointment, disappeared- 
The Greeks now contrived to secure to themselves the principal right 
to the buildings, and they, together with the Armenians, contributed 
most largely to the erection of the new church of 1810, which wa& 
designed by a certain Komnenos Kalfa of Constantinople (p. 197). 
Many traces of the original church are, however, still distinguishable. 

The Church of the Sepulchre is generally closed from 10. 30 
a.m. to 3 p.m. , but by paying a bakhshish of 1 fr. to the Muslim 
custodian the visitor will be allowed to remain in the building after 
10.30 o'clock. As it often happens that the custodian is not to be 
found in the afternoon, a morning visit is preferable. A bright day 
should be chosen, as many parts of the building are very dark. — 
It is a humiliating fact that Muslim custodians, appointed by the 
Turkish government, sit in the vestibule for the purpose of keeping 
order , particularly during the Easter solemnities, among Christian 
pilgrims from all parts of the world ; and yet the presence of such 
a guard is absolutely necessary : so completely do jealousy and 
fanaticism usurp the place of true religion in the minds of many of 
these visitors to the Holy City. 

A large model of the Church of the Sepulchre executed by Hr. 
Schick, a German architect, which gives a comprehensive idea of 
the whole of the buildings connected with it, is to be seen at a 
bookseller's shop adjoining the residence of Bishop Gobat. (A model 
of the Ark of the Covenant is also shown here.) 

The chief facade of the church is now on the S. side , but the 
principal entrance was formerly from the E. The open space in front 

192 Route 3. 

JERUSALEM. Ch. of the Sepulchre. 

of the present portal dates from the period of the Crusades. It is 
paved with large yellowish slabs of stone , and is always occupied 
lay vendors of relics, charms, and other articles, and by beggars. 

This Quadrangle (PI. a), or fore-court, which is not quite 
level, lies 3^ steps below the street. To the right and left of the 
steps are columns built into the adjoining buildings, but that on 
the left (W.) only is well preserved, and even supports part of an 
arch closing the street leading to the W. Here probably stood a 
kind of Porch, and the conjecture is confirmed by the fact that the 
remains of bases of columns are still distinguishabla between the 
two corner columns near the ground. 

a. Quadrangle. 1. Place of Abraham's 

Sacrifice. 2. Armenian Chapel. 3. Coptic 

Chapel. 4. Chapel of St. Mary of Egypt. 

5. Chapel of St. James. 6. Chapel of 

Mary Magdalene. 7. Chapel of the Forty 

Martyrs. 8. Post of the Muslim custodians. 

9. Stone of Anointment. 10. Place from 

which the women witnessed 

the Anointment. 11. Angels' 

Chapel. 12. Chapel of the 

Sepulchre. 13. Chapel of 

the Copts. 14. Chapel of 

the Syrians. 15. Chamber 

the rock. 16. Passage 

to the Coptic Mo- 
nastery. 17. Pas- 
sage to the Cistern. 
18. Cistern. 19. An- 
techamber of next 
chapel. 20. Chapel 
of the Apparition. 
21. Latin Sacristy. 
22. Catholicon. 

23. 'Centre of the World'. 24. First seat of the Patriarch of Jerusalem. 
25. Second seat. 26. Aisle of the Church of the Crusaders. 27. Chapel 
(Prison of Christ). 28. Chapel of St. Longinus. 29. Chapel of Parting of 
the Raiment. 30. Chapel of the Derision. 31. Chapel of the Empress He- 
lena. 32. Altar of the Penitent Thief. 33. Altar 'of the Empress. 34. Seat 
of the Empress. 35. Chapel of the Finding of the Cross. 36. Chapel of the 
Raising of the Cross. 37. Hole of the Cross. 38. Chapel of the Nailing to 
the Cross. 39. Chapel of the Agony. 

Ch. of the Sepulchre. JERUSALEM. 3. Route. 193 

The quadrangle is bounded on both sides by chapels of no great 
importance. Entering by the most southern door on the right, and 
passing the kitchen and pilgrims' chambers of the Greeks, we ascend 
by eighteen steps to a small Chapel (PI. 1) at the end of a long 
passage. This chapel adjoins the chapel of the nailing to the cross 
(p. 201), situated within the Church of the Sepulchre. A round 
hollow in the centre of the pavement indicates the spot where 
Abraham was on the point of sacrificing Isaac. This tradition (p. 147) 
dates only from about the year 600, when the scene of Abraham's 
sacrifice was for the first time placed in this neighbourhood. 

We now return to the quadrangle, and enter the Armenian 
Chapel of St. James (PI. 2) and the Coptic Chapel of the Archangel 
Michael (PI. 3), both of which are dark and uninteresting. From 
the latter a corridor leads to the Abyssinian Monastery (p. 203). In 
the corner of the quadrangle towards the N. a door next leads into 
the Greek Chapel of the Egyptian Mary (PI. 4). This Mary, accor- 
ding to tradition, was driven away by some invisible power from 
the door of the Church of the Sepulchre in the year 374, but was 
succoured by the mother of Jesus whose image she had invoked. 

The three following chapels, to the W. of the quadrangle, also 
belong to the Greeks. The Chapel of St. James (PI. 5), sacred to 
the memory of the brother of Christ, is handsomely fitted up. The 
Chapel of Mary Magdalene (PI. 6) marks the spot, where, according 
to the Greek and other traditions, Christ appeared to Mary Magda- 
lene for the third time. The Chapel of the Forty Martyrs (PI. 7), 
which originally stood on the site of the monastery of the Trinity, 
was formerly the burial-place of the patriarchs of Jerusalem , and 
now forms the lowest story of the Bell Tower. The interior of this 
tower, which was originally placed adjacent to the church according 
to the Romanesque custom, is now incorporated, on different levels, 
with the old chapel of St. John and the rotunda. In its four sides 
are large Gothic window-arches, and at the angles flying buttresses. 
Above the window-arches are two tows of small Gothic double 
windows, the lower only of which is preserved. The upper part of 
the tower has been destroyed; but we know from old drawings that 
it consisted of several blind arcades, each with a central window, 
above which were pinnacles and an octagonal dome. The tower 
dates from 1160 — 1180, and must therefore have been erected by 
the Crusaders. 

The S. facade of the church can hardly be said to produce a 
pleasing effect, but its ornamentation is interesting. There are two 
portals, each with a window above it. The arches are of a depressed 
pointed character throughout, almost approaching the horse-shoe 
form. The arch over the portals is adorned with mouldings 
sculptured with the dog-tooth enrichment, which is said to be of 
late Romanesque origin. The jambs of the doorways consist of a 
series of elaborately executed waved lines. The columns adjoining 

Palesti - 13 

194 Route 3. JERUSALEM. Ch. of the Sepulchre. 

the doors, probably taken from some ancient temple, are of marble: 
their capitals are Byzantine, but finely executed, and the pedestals 
are quite in the antique style. The columns have a common con- 
necting beam , adorned with foliage and other enrichments. The 
space over the door to the left, originally covered -with mosaic , is 
adorned in the Arabian style with a geometrical design of hexa- 
gons. Below the spaces above both doors are Basreliefs of great 
merit, which De Vogue supposes to have been executed in France 
in the second half of the 12th century. 

The Basrelief over the Left Portal represents scenes from Bible his- 
tory (opera-glass necessary). In the first section to the left is the Raising 
of Lazarus in a vault : Christ with the Gospel, and Mary at his feet ; 
Lazarus rises from the tomb; in the background spectators, some of them 
holding their noses ! In the second section from the left Mary beseeches 
Jesus to come for the sake of Lazarus. In the third section begins the 
representation of Christ's entry into Jerusalem. He first sends the dis- 
ciples to fetch the ass; and two shepherds with sheep are introduced. 
The disciples bring the foal and spread out their garments ; in the 
background appears the Mt. of Olives. Then follows the Entry into Jeru- 
salem ; here unfortunately the principal figure is destroyed, with the 
exception of the head. The small figures which spread their garments in 
the way are very pleasing. A man is cutting palm-branches. A woman 
carries her child on her shoulder as they do in Egypt at the present 
day. In the foreground is a lame man with his crutch. The last section 
represents the Last Supper: John leans on Jesus' breast; Judas, on the 
outer side of the table , and separated from the other disciples, is 
receiving the sop. The execution of the whole work is remarkably life- 
like. — The Basrelief over the Right Portal is an intricate mass of foliage, 
fruit, flowers, naked figures , birds , and other objects. In the middle is 
a centaur with his bow. The animals below, which represent evil, 
conspire against goodness. The details of the allegory are too compli- 
cated to be described here. This relief is also most elaborately executed. 

The second portal is walled up. In front of it begins a staircase 
which ascends from the outside into the Chapel of Calvary (p. 201). 
The staircase leads first to a small arcade, corresponding in character 
with the facade. The projecting structure in the N.E. corneT of the 
quadrangle has also two stories , each formed by four large pointed 
arches, and has been converted into a chapel. 

We now enter the Church of the Sepulchre itself by the large 
portal. In order to find our way, we must remember that the whole 
building extends from east to west. As we enter from the S. we first 
reach an aisle of the church of the Crusaders. We first observe the 
bench [PI. 8) of the Muslim custodians, who are generally Tegaling 
themselves with coffee and pipes, and to whom, if the church happens 
to be open, no bakhshish need be paid. For many centuries, and 
down to the beginning of the 19th, a heavy tax was levied here on 
every pilgrim. Passing the guard , we reach the large 'Stone 
of Anointment' (PI. 9) , on which the body of Jesus is said to 
have lain when it was anointed by Nicodemus (St. John xix, 38 — 
40°). Before the period of the Crusades a separate 'Church of St. 

a. 'And after this Joseph of Arimathsea , being a disciple of Jesus, 
but secretly for fear of the Jews , besought Pilate that he might take 
away the body of Jesus : and Pilate gave him leave. He came therefore, 

Ch. of the Sepulchre. JERUSALEM. 3. Route. 195 

Mary' rose over the place of Anointment, but a little to the S. of 
the present spot; when, however, the Franks enclosed all the holy 
places within one building, the scene of the anointment was removed 
to somewhere about its present site. The stone has often been 
changed, and has been in possession of numerous different religious 
communities in succession. In the loth cent, it belonged to the 
Copts, in the 16th to the Georgians, from whom theLatins purchased 
permission for 5000 piastres to burn candles upon it, and after- 
wards to the Greeks. Over this stone Armenians, Latins, Greeks, 
and Copts are entitled to burn their lamps, and adjacent to it are 
candelabra of huge dimensions. The present stone, a reddish- 
yellow marble slab, 8£ ft. long and 4 ft. broad, was placed here 
in 1808. Pilgrims were formerly in the habit of measuring the 
stone with a view to have their winding-sheets made of the same 

About sixteen paces to the left of this point we reach a small, 
recently built enclosure round a stone (PI. 10) , which marks the 
spot where the women are said to have stood and witnessed the 
anointment. Beyond this, to the S., is the approach to the Arme- 
nian chapel. 

"We now proceed to the right for a few paces, and arrive at the 
Rotunda of the Sepulchre, the principal part of the building, in 
the centre of which is the Sepulchre itself. The rotunda originally 
resembled that of the Sakhra, consisting of twelve large columns, 
which were probably divided into groups of three by piers placed 
between them. Above these were a drum and a dome, the latter 
being open above. The foundation pillars of the present day belonged 
to the old structure. Around the sacred chapel ran a double colon- 
nade. The enclosing wall had three apses (towards the N., W., and 
S. respectively) with three altars, and another altar stood in front 
of the Sepulchre. The rotunda and dome were embellished with 
mosaics. Since the re-erection of the edifice in 1810 the dome has 
been supported by eighteen piers, over which run two rows of ar- 
cades, prolonged as niches higher up. Under the arcades runs a 
passage, which was once open, but is now divided into sections by 
transverse walls. The dome, which is open at the top, is 65 ft. 
in diameter. For a long time the old dome threatened to fall in, but 
an arrangement having been made between France and Russia for 
its restoration , the present structure was erected by architects of 
different nationalities, and completed in 1868. The wood necessary 
for the work was brought by sea from Marseilles, and carried by 
camels from Yafa to Jerusalem. The pillars and galleries had to be 

and took the body of Jesus. And there came also Nicodemus, which at 
the first came to Jesus by night, and brought a mixture of myrrh and 
aloes, about an hundred pound weight. Then took they the body of Jesus, 
and wound it in linen clothes with the spices, as the manner of the Jews 
is to bury/ 


1 96 Route 3. JERUSALEM. Ch. of the Sepulchre. 

strengthened in order to afford a sufficiently solid foundation for 
tlie new vaulting, which is supported by iron ribs. 

In the centre of the rotunda, beneath the dome, is the Holy 
Sepulchre, the supreme object of veneration (St. John xix. 41, 
4'2" ). In the course of Constantine's search for the Holy Sepulchre 
a cavern in a rock was discovered , and a chapel was soon erected 
over the spot. In the time of the Crusaders the sanctuary of the 
Sepulchre was of a circular form and had a small round tower. At 
that period there were already two cavities, the outer of which 
was the angels' chapel, while the inner contained the actual se- 
pulchre. The building was surrounded with slabs of marble. A 
little later we hear of a polygonal building, artificially lighted 
within. After the destruction of the place in 1555 the tomb was 
uncovered, and an inscription with the name of Helena (?), and 
a piece of wood supposed to be a fragment of the cross were found. 
The Sepulchre was then redecorated, and three holes were made in 
the top of it for the escape of the smoke of the lamps. The whole 
building was restored in 1719. In 1808 the small tower of the 
chapel was destroyed by fire, the rest of the edifice being but 
slightly injured, notwithstanding which the whole enclosure was 
rebuilt in the debased style which it exhibits at the present day. 
The chapel is sixteen-sided, being '20 ft. long and 17^ ft. wide, 
and has pilasters placed along the sides. 

In front of the low door on the E. side there is a kind of ante- 
chamber provided with stone benches and large candelabra, where 
Oriental Christians are in the habit of removing their shoes, though 
we need not follow their example. "We next enter the vestibule called 
the Angels' Chapel (PI. 11), 16 ft. long, and 10 ft. wide. Its walls are 
very thick, and incrusted with marble within and without. In the 
centre lies a stone set in marble, which is said to be that which the 
angel rolled away from the mouth of the sepulchre, and on which he 
afterwards sat. A fragment of this stone is said to be built into the 
altar on the place of the Crucifixion. As early as the 4th cent, such 
a stone is spoken of as having lain in front of the Sepulchre, but the 
stone appears to havebeen changed more than once in the course of the 
following centuries, and different fragments are sometimes mentioned. 
In this chapel burn fifteen lamps, five of which belong to the Greeks, 
five to the Latins, four to the Armenians, and one to the Copts. 

Through a still lower door we next enter the Chapel of the 
Sepulchre (PI. 12), properly so called, which is only 6| ft. long, 
6 ft. wide, and very low, holding not more than three or four persons 
at once. From the ceiling are suspended forty-three precious lamps, 
of which four belong to the Copts, while the rest are equally 

a. 'Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden; 
and in the garden a new sepulchre, wherein was never man yet laid. 
There laid they Jesus therefore because of the Jews' preparation day; 
for the sepulchre was nigh at hand.' 

Ch. of the Sepulchre. JERUSALEM. 3. Route. 197 

divided among the other three sects. In the centre of the N. wall is a 
relief in white marble, representing the Saviour rising from the 
tomb. This relief belongs to the Greeks, that on the right of it 
to the Armenians, and that on the left to the Latins. On the inside 
of the door is the inscription in Greek : 'Lord remember thy servant, 
the imperial builder, Kalfa Komnenos of Mitylene, 1810' (p. 191). 
The roof of the chapel is borne by marble columns. On the N. side, 
to the right of the entrance, is the marble tombstone. The shelf 
covered with marble is about 5 ft. long, '2 ft. wide, and 3 ft. high. 
Mass is said here daily. The split marble slab is also used as an 
altar. "We learn the character of the tomb of Christ from St. Luke 
(xxiii. 53"). Originally the sepulchral grotto is said to have been 
here, and a cavity hewn in the rock is mentioned at a later period. 
What we have to picture to ourselves is a cavity, hollowed out 
to receive the body, and arched over, of the kind with which we 
shall afterwards become acquainted. Here, however, the whole 
surface was overlaid with marble as far back as the middle ages, 
and it would require very careful examination to ascertain whether 
a rock-tomb ever really existed here. 

Immediately beyond the Sepulchre (to theW.) is a small chapel 
(PL 13) which has belonged to the Copts since the 16th century. 

We shall now make the circuit of the rotunda. Of the dark re- 
cesses around it, the first towards the S., containing an ancient apse, 
and that immediately beyond the Copts' chapel are alone interesting. 
We first enter the plain Chapel of the Syrians, or Jacobites (PL 14). 
at the back of which an old apse is seen. A door leads out of this 
chapel to the left, towards the S., through a short and narrow passage, 
and down one step into a rocky chamber (PL 15), to light which 
candles should be brought. By the walls are first observed two 
'sunken tombs' (p. 116), one of which is about 2 ft. and the other 
3| ft. long, and both 3 ft. deep, having been obviously destined for 
children. In the rock to the S. are traces of 'shaft tombs', 5| ft. 
long, 1£ ft. wide, and 2^ ft. high. Since the 16th cent, tradition 
has placed the tombs of Joseph of Arimathsea and Nicodemus here. 

In the recess (PL 16) to the N. of the Syrian chapel, which is 
sometimes entered from this recess when its own door is closed, is 
a staircase ascending to the Coptic monastery. — The last Tecess 
(PL 17) to the N. of the Sepulchre is another of the original apses 
of the rotunda. Passing through it, we come to a passage leading be- 
tween the dwellings of officials to a deep cistern (PL 18), from 
which good fresh water may be obtained by letting down the pitcher. 

Returning to the rotunda, we turn to the N. into an antechamber 
(PL 19) leading to the chapel of the resurrection. Tradition points 
this out as the spot where Jesus appeared to Mary Magdalene (John 

a. 'And he took it down, and wrapped it in linen, and laid it in a 
sepulchre that was hewn in stone, wherein never man before was laid." 

198 Route 3. JERUSALEM. Ch. of the Sepulchre. 

xx. 14, 15°). The place where Christ stood is indicated by a marble 
ring in the centre, and that where Mary stood by another near the 
N. outlet of the chamber. This sacred spot belongs to the Latins, to 
whose principal chapel, on the N. side, we now ascend by four round 
steps. This is called the Chapel of the Apparition (PI. 20), the 
legend being that Christ appeared here to his mother after the 
resurrection, and dates from the 14th century. Immediately to the 
right (E.) of the entrance is an altar within which a fragment 
of the Column of the Scourging is preserved, but it is not easy 
to see it owing to the want of light. The history of the chapel is 
more closely connected with this precious relic than with the ap- 
pearance of Christ to his mother, or with the legend that it occupies 
the site of the house of Joseph of Arimathaea. The column was for- 
merly shown in the house of Caiaphas, but was brought here at the 
time of the Crusaders. Judging from the narratives of different 
pilgrims, it must have frequently changed its size and colour, and 
a column of similar pretensions is shown at Rome also. On the N. 
side there is an entrance to the Latin Monastery. 

After quitting this chapel we have on our left the entrance to 
the Latin Sacristy (PI. 21), where we are shown the sword, spurs, 
and cross of Godfrey de Bouillon , antiquities of doubtful genuine- 
ness, which are used in the ceremony of receiving knights into the 
Order of the Sepulchre which has existed since the Crusades. The 
spurs are 8 in. long, and the sword 2 ft. 8 in. long, with a simple 
cruciform handle 5 in. long. 

In again turning to the S. we must remember that we now have 
on our left the Church of the Crusaders, which was originally 
separate from the Church of the Sepulchre. This church has a 
semicircular apse with a retro -choir towards the E. The pointed 
windows and arcades, the clustered pillars, and the groined vaulting 
bear all the characteristics of the French transition style with the 
addition of Arabian details. The building was erected by an archi- 
tect named Jourdain in 1140 — 1149, but the simple and noble foTm 
of the choir was somewhat disfigured by the restoration of 1808. 

"VVe now leave the rotunda and enter this old church. Exactly 
opposite the door to the Sepulchre rises the large Arch of the Em- 
perors, under which is the chief entrance to the church, now form- 
ing a chapel called the Catholicon (PI. 22), and belonging to the 
Greeks. It is about 39 yds. in length and of varying width, and is 
lavishly embellished with gilding and painting. According to 
tradition, this building was erected in the garden of Joseph of Ari- 
mathaea; in the middle ages it formed the choir of the canons. 

a. 'And when she had thus said, she turned herself back, and saw 
Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus. Jesus saith unto her, 
Woman, why weepest th u? whom seekest thou? She, supposing him to 
he the gardener, saith unto him, Sir, if thou have borne him hence, tell 
me where thou hast laid him, and I will take him away. 1 

Ch. of the Sepulchre. JERUSALEM. 3. Route. 199 

Between the entrance and the choir is shown the fragment of a 
column which is said to occupy the Centre of the World (PI. 23), 
a fable of very early origin. On each side of the chapel is an epis- 
copal throne. One seat for the patriarch of Jerusalem is No. 24 in 
the plan, and another, at the very hack of the choir No. 25. This 
choir with the high altar is shut off by a wall in the Greek fashion, 
and a so-called Iconoclaustrum thus formed. 

Passing this partition wall, we proceed to the left and enter the 
aisle (PI. 26) to the N. This aisle is formed towards the N. by two 
large pilasters, between which are still to be seen remains of the 
'Seven Arches of the Virgin' which formerly stood here. Since the 
time of the CrusadeTs they have been completely built into the 
pillars; but in the old building they formed one side of an open 
court, situated between the church of the sepulchre and the basilica. 
In the N.E. corner of this wall there is a dark chapel (PI. 27). On 
the right of its entrance stands an altar, where through two round 
holes the Greeks show two impressions on the stone which are 
said to be footprints of Christ. This legend was unknown before the 
end of the 15th century. The chapel behind it, which also belongs 
to the Greeks, consists of three parts. As early as the beginning of 
the 12th cent, this was shown as the Prison of Christ, where he 
was bound while his cross was being prepared. The legend has 
since then been so variously embellished .that it is now difficult to 
trace the history of its different phases. 

We return in the direction of the Catholioon, and walking round 
its choir we find in the outside wall to the left apses which belonged 
to 1 the old choir of the Franks. The first is called the Chapel of 
St. Longinus (PI. 28). Longinus, whose name is mentioned in the 
5th cent, for the first time, was the soldier who pierced Jesus' side ; 
he had been blind of one eye, but when some of the water and blood 
spirted intohis blind eye it recovered its sight. Hethereupon repented 
and became a Christian. The chapel of this saint appears not to have 
existed earlier than the end of the 16th century. It belongs to the 
Greeks. The processions of the Latins do not stop in passing it, 
and do not acknowledge its sanctity. — The next chapel, quite 
at the back of the choir, is that of the Parting of the Raiment 
(PI. 29), and belongs to the Armenians. It was shown as early as 
the 12th century. Between this chapel and the one last described is 
a closed door by which the canons are said formerly to have entered 
the church. Farther on is a staircase to the left, then the Chapel 
of the Derision, or of the Crowning with Thorns (PI. 30), belonging 
to the Greeks, and without windows. About the middle of it stands 
an altar shaped like a box, which contains the so-called Column of 
the Derision. This relic, which is first mentioned in 1384, has passed 
through many hands and frequently changed its size and colour 
since then. It is now a thick, light grey fragment of stone about 
1 ft. high. 

200 Route 3. JERUSALEM. Ch. of the Sepulchre. 

We now descend the staircase which we passed a moment 
before, and its 29 steps lead vis to a chapel 65 ft. long, 42 ft. wide, 
situated 16 ft. below the level of the Sepulchre. This is the Chapel 
of St. Helena (PI. 31), and here once stood Constantino's basilica. 
In the 7th cent, a small sanctuary in the Byzantine style was 
erected here by Modestus, and the existing substructions date from 
this period. To the E. are three apses, and in the centre four cylindrical 
columns which bear a dome. The latter has six side-windows, which 
look to the quadrangle of the Abyssinian monastery. The shafts of 
the columns are antique monoliths of reddish colour ; their thickness, 
however, as well as the disproportionate size of the cubic capitals, 
give the whole a heavy appearance. The pointed vaulting dates 
from the time of the Crusaders (12th cent.). The chapel belongs 
to the Abyssinians, by whom it is let to the Armenians. From the 
statements of mediaeval pilgrims we learn that this chapel was 
regarded as the place where the cross was found. An upper and a 
lower section are mentioned for the first time in 1400. The altar 
in the N. apse (PI. 32) is dedicated to the memory of the penitent 
thief, and that in the middle (PI. 33) to the EmpTess Helena. To 
the right of the altar is shown a seat (PI. 34) in which the empress 
is said to have sat while the cross was being sought for; this 
tradition, however, is not older than the loth century. In the 17th 
cent, the Armenian patriarch, who used to occupy this seat, com- 
plains of the way in which it was mutilated by pilgrims, and speaks 
of having been frequently obliged to renew it. Down to the time 
of Chateaubriand (1806) the old tradition was kept up that the 
columns of this chapel shed tears. 

Thirteen more steps descend still further to what is properly the 
Chapel of the Finding of the Cross (PL 35); by the last three steps 
the natural rock makes its appearance. The chapel, which is really 
a cavern in the rock, is about 24 ft. long, nearly as wide, and 16 ft. 
high, and the floor is paved with stone. On its W. and S. sides 
are stone ledges. The place to the right belongs to the Greeks, and 
there is here a marble slab in which a cross is beautifully inserted. 
On the left the Latins possess an altar, which was presented by 
Archduke Ferdinand Max of Austria. The chamber being dark, a taper 
( 1 piastre) should be brought to light it. A bronze statue of the 
Empress Helena of life-size represents her holding the cross. The 
pedestal is of the colour of the rock and rests on a foundation of 
green serpentine. On the wall at the back is a Latin inscription 
with the name of the founder. Mass was said here for the first time 
in 1857. The whole of tills chapel is comparatively modern. 

It now remains for us to visit Golgotha, or Mt. Calvary. We 
remount the stairs, turn to the left, and walk round the Greek choir 
to the S., whence a passage ascends to Golgotha. The pavement of 
these chapels lies 14| ft. above the level of the Church of the 
Sepulchre. It is, however, not yet ascertained whether this eminence 

Ch. of the Sepulchre. JERUSALEM. 3. Route. 201 

consists of natural rock; judging from the substructions, one would 
rather infer the contrary. Nor is any 'hill' mentioned here till the 
time of the pilgrim of Bordeaux, after which there is a long silence 
on the subject. The spot which was supposed to he Mt. Calvary 
(perhaps the same as that which now bears the name) was enclosed 
in Constantine's basilica; subsequently, in the 7th cent., a special 
chapel was erected over the holy spot, which, moreover, was 
afterwards alleged to be the scene of Abraham's trial of faith (comp. 
p. 193). At the time of the Crusaders the place, notwithstanding 
its height, was taken into the aisle of the church. After the fire 
of 1808 the chapels were enlarged, and the more eastern of the two 
entrances of the church, mentioned at p. 194, was filled up with a 
staircase from within. The first chapel we enter, that on the N. (PL 
36) , is separated from the second by two pillars only. It belongs 
to the Greeks, and is the Chapel of the Raising of the Cross, strictly 
so called. It is 42 ft. long and 14-£ ft. wide. In the E. apse (PI. 
37) is shown an opening faced with silver where the cross is said 
to have been inserted in the rock. The site of the crosses of the 
thieves is shown in the corners of the altar-space, each 5 ft. distant 
from the cross of Christ (doubtless much too near). They are first 
mentioned in the middle ages. Still more recent is the tradition 
that the cross of the penitent thief stood to the right (N.). About 
4^ ft. from the cross of Christ is the famous Cleft in the Rock (St. 
Matthew xxvii. 51), now covered with a brass slide, over which is a 
grating of the same metal. When the slab is pushed aside, a cleft 
of about 6 inches in depth only is seen, the character of the rock 
being not easily distinguished. A deeper chasm in rock of a dif- 
ferent colour was formerly shown. The cleft is said by some to 
reach to the centre of the earth. • — The chapel is sumptuously 
embellished with paintings and valuable mosaics. 

The adjoining chapel on the S. (PI. 38) belongs to the Latins, 
and is fitted up in a much simpler style. Christ is said to have 
been nailed to the cross here. The spot is indicated by pieces of 
marble let into the pavement, and an altar-painting represents the 
scene. To the Latins also belongs the Chapel of St. Mary, or Chapel 
of the Agony (PI. 39), situated farther S., to which another staircase 
ascends to the right, outside the portal of the church. It is only 
13 ft. long and 9^ ft. wide, but is richly decorated. The altar-piece 
represents Christ on the knees of his mother. Visitors may look 
into this chapel through a grating from Mt. Calvary. 

We again descend the stairs. Immediately beyond the chapel of the 
nailing to the cross lies the Refectory of the Greeks, and towards 
the N., under the chapel of the raising of the cross, the so-called 
Chapel of Adam. A tradition, which was doubted at an early period, 
relates that Adam was buried here , that the blood of Christ flowed 
through the cleft in the rock on to his head, and that he was thus 
restored to life. It is also maintained that it is in consequence of 

202 Route 3. JERUSALEM. Ch. of the Sepulchre. 

this tradition that a skull is usually represented below the cross. 
The Oriental church places Melchizedek's tomb here. The chapel, 
which belongs to the Greeks , is comparatively modern. To the 
right of the altar a split in the rock is shown which corresponds 
with the one in the chapel above. Before reaching the W. door 
of the chapel, we observe, on the right and left, stone ledges with 
projecting slabs covered with straw mats. When the Greeks took 
possession of these chapels in 1808, they removed the monuments 
of the Frank kings of Jerusalem which they found here, though 
uninjured by the fire. The tombs were at that period outside the 
chapel, which was now enlarged. On the l^dge to the left was 
the Tombstone of Godfrey de Bouillon ; the inscription, the import 
of which we know, was on a triangular prism which rested on four 
short columns. To the right (N.) was the similar Monument of 
Baldwin I. The Kharezmians had already dispersed the bones 
of these kings , but the vandalism of the Greeks has destroyed 
these venerable monuments and many others, solely with a view 
to prevent the Latins from claiming their sites. 

During the Festival of Easter the Church of the Sepulchre is 
crowded with pilgrims of every nationality, and there are enacted, both 
in the church and throughout the town, many disorderly scenes which 
produce a painful impression. The ecclesiastical ceremonies are very 
inferior in interest to those performed at Rome. 

In former times, particularly during the regime of the Crusaders, the 
Latins used to represent the entry of Christ riding on an ass from Beth- 
phage, hut this was afterwards done in the interior of the church only. 
Palm and olive-branches were scattered about on the occasion, and to 
this day the Latins send to Gaza for palm branches, which are con- 
secrated on Palm .Sunday and distributed among the people. On Holy 
Thursday the Latins celebrate a grand mass and walk in procession round 
the chapel of the Sepulchre, after which the 'washing of feet' takes place 
at. the door of the Sepulchre. The Greeks also perform the washing of 
feet, but their festival does not always fall on the same day as that of the 
Latins. Good Friday used to be celebrated by the Franciscans with a 
mystery play, the proceedings terminating with the nailing of a figure to a 
cross , and the Greeks still have a similar practice. One of the most 
disgraceful spectacles is the so-called miracle of the Holy Fire, in which 
the Latins participated down to the 16th cent., but which has since been 
managed by the Greeks alone. On this occasion the church is always 
crowded with spectators. The Greeks declare the miracle to date from 
the apostolic age, and it is mentioned by the monk Bernhard as early as 
the 9th century. Khalif Hakim was told that the priest used to besmear 
the wire by which the lamp was suspended over the sepulchre with 
resinous oil, and to set it on fire from the roof. Large sums are paid to 
the priests by those who are allowed to be the first to light their tapers 
at the sacred flame sent from heaven. Armenians, Copts, and Abyssinians 
also take part in the ceremony. The wild and noisy scene begins on 
Good Friday. The crowd passes the night in the church in order to 
secure places, some of them attaching themselves by cords to the sepulchre, 
while others run round it in anything but a reverential manner. On 
Easter Eve, about 2 p. m., a procession of the superior clergy moves 
round the Sepulchre, all lamps having been carefully extinguished in 
view of the crowd. The patriarch enters the chapel of the Sepulchre, 
while the priests pray and the people are in the utmost suspense. At 
length the fire which has come down from heaven gleams from the Se- 
pulchre, the priests emerge with a bundle of burning tapers, and there 

Abyssinian Monastery. JERUSALEM. 3. Route. 203 

now follows an indescribable tumult, every one endeavouring to be the 
first to get his taper lighted. Even from the gallery tapers are let down 
to be lighted, and in a few seconds the whole church is illuminated. This, 
however, never happens without fighting , and accidents generally occur 
owing to the crush. The spectators do not appear to take warning from 
the terrible catastrophe of 1834. On that occasion there were upwards 
of 6000 persons in the church, when a riot suddenly broke out. The 
Turkish guards, thinking they were attacked, used their weapons against 
the pilgrims, and in the scuffle that followed about 300 pilgrims were 
suffocated or trampled to death. — Late on Easter Eve a solemn service 
is performed; the pilgrims with torches shout Hallelujah, while the 
priests move round the Sepulchre singing hymns. 

East Side of the Church of the Sepulchre. In ordeito see the E. 
side of the chuich we follow the lane leading from the quadrangle 
of the church past the Muristdn (p. 204) to the E., and thus reach 
the Suk el-Lahhamin in the Bazaar Street (p. 211), where we 
turn to the left. Before the arcade is reached, a path ascends to the 
left(W.), on which we pass several columns, a pilaster on the S. 
side, and then four columns of grey Egyptian granite. These are the 
sole remains of the forecourt of the Basilica of Constantine (p. 190). 

Our path across the roofs of ancient vaults turns to the N. and 
leads through a passage, beyond which we descend to the ground. 
"Where the route turns to the W. a court is seen to the right, where 
the dwellings of poor Latins are situated (called Der Isaac BekK). 
Near the end of the cut de sac we reach a column (right) and 
three doors, whence we obtain a view of the church from the E. 

Through the door to the left we enter the court of the Abyssinian 
Monastery (PI. 52), in the centre of which rises a dome. Through 
this we look down into the chapel of St. Helena (p. 200). Around 
the court are several dwellings, hut most of the members of the 
Abyssinian colony live in the miserable huts in the S.E. part of 
the court. Monks, who are generally negroes, read their Ethiopian 
prayers here, and point out an olive-tree, of no great age, where 
Abraham found the goat entangled which he sacrificed instead of 
Isaac (that event having, as they say, taken place here). In the 
background a wall of the former church of Maria Latina (comp. 
p. 204) becomes visible here. The Abyssinians also show visitors 
their special chapel, which, however, is of modern origin. A passage 
leads thence to the quadrangle of the Church of the Sepulchre 
(p. 193). The good-natured Abyssinians lead a most wretched life, 
and are more worthy of a donation than many of the other claimants. 

Leaving the court of the Abyssinians we have on our left the 
second of the above mentioned doors, a large iron portal which leads 
to the much handsomer Monastery of the Copts, called Der es- 
Sultdn, or the monastery of the sultan. It is fitted up in the European 
style , and contains a number of cells for the accommodation of 
pilgrims. The church, the foundations of which are old, is so 
arranged that the small congregation is placed on each side of the 
altar, which is enclosed by a railing. In this monastery is kept the 
key of the Cistern of St. Helena, the custodian of which will be 

204 Route 3. JERUSALEM. Muristan. 

found on the left of the door in going out. Candles should be 
brought to light the cistern , as the porter of the monastery only 
keeps an insufficient supply of small tapers. A winding staircase 
of 43 steps, some of which are in a bad condition, descends to the 
cistern. To the left in descending we observe an opening in the 
rock, by which a similar staircase descends from the N. ; at the bot- 
tom there is a handsome balustrade hewn in the rock. It is difficult 
to make out the full extent of the sheet of water; its depth varies 
at different times. The whole reservoir is obviously hewn in the 
rock. Water is drawn hence for the use of the Latin poor-house, 
but its quality is not good. The cistern perhaps dates from a still 
earlier period than that of Constantine. The earliest of the pilgrims 
speaks of cisterns in this locality , probably meaning the one we 
are now visiting. (Fee for one person ■£ fr., for a party 1 fr.) 

Walks within the City. 

The Murist&n. The street running to the E. from the quadrangle 
of the Church of the Sepulchre leads after a few paces to a handsome 
portal on the right, surmounted with the Prussian eagle, which 
forms the entrance to the Muristan. The whole building covers an 
area of about 170 sq. yards, the E. half of which, unfortunately the 
less interesting, was presented by the sultan to Prussia on the oc- 
casion of the visit of the Crown-Prince of Prussia to Constantinople 
in 1869. 

History of the Place. The monastery founded by Charlemagne 
at Jerusalem is supposed to have occupied the site on which two 
centuries later the merchants of Amalfi, who enjoyed great com- 
mercial privileges in the East, erected a church and Benedictine 
monastery (104S). These were the church of Maria Latina and the 
Monasterium de Latina. Remains of the church still exist on the 
S. side of the street which we are now following. In course of time 
a convent and church for nuns were added to the monastery and 
dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene, whence the name Maria Parva, 
or St. Mary the Less. The accommodation here at length proving 
insufficient, the hospice and chapel of St. John Eleemon (the 
merciful; patriarch of Alexandria, 606 — 616) were erected to the 
W. of St. Mary the Less. At a later period John the Baptist was 
revered as the patron-saint. This hospice was dependent on the 
other, until a servant of the establishment with several other pious 
men determined to found a new branch of the order. This was the 
Order of the Hospitallers, or Knights of St. John, who at first 
devoted themselves to the care of pilgrims , but afterwards to the 
task of combating the infidels, and at length took an active part in 
politics also. They gradually came into possession of large estates. 
The chief buildings were erected under Raymond du Puy in 1130 
■ — 1140. The hospice was situated opposite the Church of the Se- 
pulchre, to the S., and was probably in the style of a khan. It was 



3. Route. 205 

a magnificent edifice, borne by 124 columns and 54 pillars. The 
hospice extended as far as the David Street, where there are still a 
number of pointed arcades of that period , once used as shops and 
warehouses. In 1187 the Knights of St. John left Jerusalem, and 

Siil* Ent n 

Remmis, fAr Acs of laterpcnM S „ m 2c,y- of <\™<-x hssestion, 

upwards of a century later they settled in Rhodes. Connected with 
the establishment of these knights at Jerusalem there was also a 
nunnery , called St. Mary the Greater , which lay to the E. of the 
hospice of St. John. The buildings which we now find here prob- 
ably date from 1130 — 1140, and belong to the former church and 
monastery of Maria Latina. The principal entrance faced the N., 
and the nunnery lay behind the church. "When Saladin captured 
Jerusalem in 1187, he lodged in the 'Hospital 1 , and the property 
of the Hospitallers was granted as an endowment (wakf) to the 
mosque of 'Omar, to which it continued to belong until recently. 
In 1216 Shihab ed-Din, nephew of Saladin, converted the hospital- 
church, which lay opposite the Church of the Sepulchre, into a 
hospital, Arab. Muristdn, a name which therefore properly applies 
to one part only of this pile of buildings. Adjacent to it the same 
prince built the mosque of Kubbet Dirka, the site of which is now 
occupied by the mosque of Sidna 'Omar. The hospice, which the 
Muslims allowed still to subsist, was capable of accommodating 

206 Route 3. JERUSALEM. Muristdn. 

upwards of a thousand persons. The management of the foundation 
was committed to the El-'Alemi family, who, as was usual in such 
cases, were prohibited from alienating the ground until it should 
become a mere wilderness. The buildings were therefore suffered 
to fall to decay. The lofty square minaret of the mosque of Sidna 
r Omar, opposite the clock-tower of the Church of the Sepulchre, 
was erected in 1417. The whole of these buildings are rapidly 
falling to ruin. Adjoining them on the E. is the small Greek 
Monastery of Gethsemane (PI. 65), where the residence of the 
grand master was formerly situated. On the W. side of the area is 
the Bath of the Patriarch (p. 211), and in the S.W. corner the 
Greek Monastery of John the Baptist (p. 211). The central remain- 
ing space belonging to Prussia is still of considerable extent. 

The remains of the building are now called Der Mar Hanna, 
or monastery of St. John. Visitors knock at the door, or, if not 
admitted , apply at the German consulate. The outside of the 
entrance-portal is worthy of inspection. It consists of a large round 
arch comprising two smaller arches. A few relics only of the latter 
are now extant. The spandril over the two arches was formerly 
adorned with a relief, the greater part of which is now gone. These 
arches rest on one side on a central pillar , and on the other on an 
entablature reaching from the small side columns of the portal. The 
larger arch above rests on a buttress adjoining the portal. The whole 
of the lower part of the portal is now incorporated with fragments 
of wall. Around the whole arch, however, runs a broad frieze 
enriched with sculptures, representing the months. January on the 
left has disappeared. Then follows 'Feb', a man pruning a tree ; 
'Ma', indistinct; 'Aprilis', a sitting figure ; 'Majus', a man kneeling 
and cultivating the ground ; (Ju)'nius', mutilated; (J u)'lius', a rea- 
per; 'Augustus', a thresher; (S)'epten'(ber), a grape gatherer; (Oc- 
tob)'er', a man with a cask, above whom there is apparently a 
scorpion ; (November), a woman standing upright, with her hand in 
her apron, probably the symbol of repose. Above, between June 
and July, is the sun (with the superscription 'sol'), represented by 
a half-figure holding a disc over its head. Adjacent is the moon 
('luna'), a female figure with a crescent. The cornice above these 
figures is adorned with medallions representing leaves, griffins, etc. 
The style of the whole reminds the spectator of the European art of 
the 12th century. — Adjoining the portal to the E. is a fine window 
in the same style, half of which is in good preservation. 

Of the Church the greater part has disappeared, with the exception 
of the foundation walls and the three apses towards the E., of which 
the S. is best preserved. It was originally a building with nave 
and aisles, with a principal apse in the centre and two smaller ones 
adjacent. The S. wall with the staircase, and the anterior structure 
with its pointed window, date from the Muslim period. The former 
refectory on the S. side of the cloisters to which the stairs ascend 

Church of St. Anne. JERUSALEM. 3. Route. 207 

has lately been fitted up as a Qerman Protestant Chapel at the ex- 
pense of the Emperor of Germany. The quadrangle enclosed by 
the buildings, with five columnar pillars on each side, contains some 
interesting fragments of fluted marble columns. Beyond this court 
is a large space, now freed from a huge mass of debris, 6ft. deep, 
which formerly covered it. The rubbish was removed to the spaca 
outside the Yafa Gate, and that plateau has thus been considerably 
enlarged. The houses now rear themselves loftily above the cleared 
space, and columns of indestructible hardness have been discovered 
here. Several very deep and finely vaulted cisterns, with arches 
48 ft. high, have also been brought to light. At several points the 
visitor can see into these, and may perhaps still be permitted by the 
custodian to explore them. On this site a parsonage , school, and 
other buildings for the benefit of the German community at Jerusa- 
lem are about to be built, and the church is to be restored in the 
original style. 

Via Dolorosa. A walk through the Via Dolorosa may be com- 
bined with a visit to the Haram, on leaving which we found our- 
selves outside the Gate of St. Stephen (p. 160). In its present form 
this gate probably dates from the time of Soliman (p. 240). It is 
called by the natives Bab Hotta, or Bab el-Asbat, and by the Christ- 
ians Bab Sitti Maryam, or Gate of Our Lady Mary (p. 213). On the 
outside, over the entrance, are two lions hewn in stone, in half- 
relief. Like most of the other gates of Jerusalem, this gate is built 
in an angle. The doors are mounted with iron. The guard of the 
gate shows a 'footprint of Christ' in the guard-room. A church 
in memory of the stoning of St. Stephen, whence the gate derives 
its name , formerly stood, not near this gate , but to the N. of the 
city, outside the Damascus Gate (p. 240). 

Within the gate a road immediately to the right leads to the 
Church of St. Anne (PL 2), which was presented by the Sultan 
'Abdul-Mejid to Napoleon III. in 1856 , after the termination of 
the Crimean war. The church , a well-preserved edifice of the 
time of the Crusaders, now restored, is under the protection of 
France ; intending visitors require permission from the French con- 
sulate. As early as the 7th cent, a church of the highly revered 
St. Anne, the mother of the Virgin, is mentioned. A nunnery after- 
wards sprang up near it, and at the time of the Crusades gained a 
high reputation in consequence of its numbering several princesses 
among its sisterhood. At that period, about the middle of the 12th 
cent., the church of St. Anne was remodelled. Saladin afterwards 
established a large and well - endowed school here , and it was 
consequently difficult for Christians to obtain access to it until the 
building was presented to the French in 1856. The Arabs still 
call it Salahlyeh, in memory of Saladin (p. 69). No material 
alterations have been made in the buildings since the time of the 
Crusaders, but the French have erected a wall as a boundary to their 

208 Route 3. JERUSALEM. Via Dolorosa. 

property. The nunnery lay to the S. of the church. The main 
entrance to the church on the W. side consists of three pointed 
portals, leading into a corresponding nave and aisles. The building 
is 40 yds. long and 20-jj yds. wide, the width of the nave being 
9 yds. The nave and aisles are formed by two rows of pillars which 
bear four pointed arches , 42 ft. in height, and pierced with small 
windows. The three arches which form the aisles are 24 ft. in 
height. The walls of the aisles are also pierced with small pointed 
windows. Above the centre of the transept rises a tapering dome, 
which was probably restored by the Arabs. The apses are externally 
polygonal, and rounded within. The principal apse has three 
windows, and each of the others one. The traces of old frescoes 
which the church once contained were obliterated on its restoration. 
A flight of 21 steps in the S.E. corner descends to a crypt, which is 
almost entirely hewn in the rock, and consists of two parts, the 
second of which resembles a cistern. This was formerly a sanctuary 
with altars, and is said by tradition to have been the dwelling of 
St. Anne and the birthplace of theVirgin. De Vogue has discovered 
traces of ancient paintings here. Before quitting the church the 
visitor should pause for a moment before a low door in the S. aisle 
in order to examine the curious corbels by which the lintel is 

We now return to the Tank Bab Sitti Maryam street, proceed 
towards the W. , and soon pass a cross-street which leads to the left 
to the Bab Hotta of the Haram (p. 183). Before reaching the 
beginning of the Via Dolorosa, we observe the small Chapel of the 
Scourging (PI. 31) to the right. Visitors knock, and are admitted by 
a Franciscan. In the course of the last few centuries the place of 
the scourging has been shown in different parts of the city, having 
been first pointed out in the so-called house of Pilate. In 1838 the 
present site was presented to the Franciscans by Ibrahim Pasha, 
and in 1839 the new chapel was erected with funds presented by 
Duke Maximilian of Bavaria. Below the altar is a hole in which 
the column of the scourging is said to have stood (p. 198). 

A few paces farther is the entrance to the barracks, and here 
begins the Via Dolorosa, or 'street of pain', the route by which 
Christ is said to have borne his cross to Golgotha. The present 
barracks (PL 11), occupying the site of the ancient castle of 
Antonia, are said to stand on the ground once occupied by the 
Prsetorium, the residence of Pilate. As early as the 4th cent, the 
supposed site of that edifice was shown somewhere near the Bab 
el-Kattanin (p. 184) ; and in the 6th cent, it was occupied by the 
basilica of St. Sophia. At the beginning of the Frank regime it 
was instinctively felt that the pratorium should be sought for on 
the W. hill, in the upper part of the town, but towards the end 
of the Crusaders' period that holy place was removed by tradition 
to the spot where it is now revered. The so-called holy steps 

Via Dolorosa. JERUSALEM. 3. Route. 209 

were on that occasion transferred to the church of S. Giovanni in 
Laterano at Rome. The Romish church, however, maintains that a 
small chapel within the Turkish barracks is the genuine first station. 
The direction of the Via Dolorosa, it need hardly be remarked, 
depends on the situation assigned to the pratoriurn. The present 
Via Dolorosa is not expressly mentioned until the 16th century. 

The traditional Street of Pain, or Way of the Cross, first follows 
the street Tarik Bab Sitti Maryam (see above) westwards. There 
are fourteen prayer stations on the route. The first is the chapel 
in the Turkish barracks already mentioned; the second, where the 
cross was laid upon Christ, is below the steps ascending to the 
barracks. We next observe a large and handsome building on the 
right, with unusually good pavement in front of it. This is the 
excellent Roman Catholic educational institution of the Sisters of 
Zion (PL 82) , erected by the respected Pere Ratisbonne, and 
supported by voluntary contributions. There are 16 sisters and about 
120 girls, from whom pretty designs in dried flowers may be purchased 
as a reminiscence. An arch, crosses the street here, called the Ecce 
Homo Arch, or Arch of Pilate, marking the spot where the Roman 
governor is said to have uttered the words: 'Behold the man!' (St. 
John , xix. 5). The arch, which has been shown since the 15th 
century, is probably a Roman triumphal arch of Hadrian's time, 
but has been frequently remodelled and restored. The Church ad- 
joining it (on the right) is partly built into the rock. The interior is 
simple ; the capitals of the columns are gilded. The vaults under the 
church are open on certain days only. Under the convent of the sisters 
of Zion have been discovered several deep rocky passages and vaults 
running in the direction of the Haram (upper pool? Isaiah vii. 3). 
Opposite the church, on the 1. side of the street, is situated a mosque. 

We may now descend the valley to the point where the road is 
joined by that from the Damascus Gate, and here we see the remain- 
ing part of the depression of what was formerly the Tyropoeon valley 
(p. 146). To the right is situated the Austrian Pilgrims' Hospice 
(p. 144). Opposite to it is a building with three walled up arches, 
called the Sultan's Bath. Near it is a broken column, forming the 
third station , near which Christ is said to have sunk under the 
weight of the cross (an event formerly assigned to a different 
place). The Via Dolorosa runs hence a little to the S. To the right, 
about halfway, before a lane diverges to the left(E.), is situated 
the traditional House of the Poor Man (Lazarus), beyond which, 
opposite the lane diverging to the left, is the fourth station, where 
Christ is said to have met his mother. At the next street the Via 
Dolorosa again turns to the W., and now joins the Tarik el-Aldm, 
or route of suffering, properly so called. At the corner to the left 
is shown the House of Dives (the rich man) , of which there is no 
mention before the loth cent., possessing a handsome stalactite-gate. 
Here is the fifth station, where Simon of Cyrene took the r.ross 

Palestine. {4 

210 Route 3. JERUSALEM. Christian Street. 

from Christ. A stone built into the next house to the left has a 
depression in it, said to have been caused by the hand of Christ. 
We now ascend the street for about 100 paces , and near an 
archway we come to the sixth station. Visitors creep through a 
narrow doorway on the left into a vault where they are shown the 
Tomb of St. Veronica, adorned with her bust carved in stone. She is 
said to have wiped off the sweat from the Saviour's brow at this spot, 
whereupon his image remained imprinted on her handkerchief. 

Before passing through the vaulting into the Suk es-Sem'ani we 
see to the left a house against which Christ is said to have leaned, 
or near which he fell a second time. The street makes two slight 
bends , and crosses the street leading N. to the Damascus Gate 
(Tarlk Bab el-'Amud). At this crossing is the seventh station, called 
the Porta Judiciaria. A neighbouring stall contains an ancient co- 
lumn, still in an upright position, over which the Franciscans have 
erected a chapel and a work-school for girls. The continuation of 
our street to the W. is called the Haret el-Kharikeh. At the corner 
of it, on the left, is the Hospice of St. John (p. 144), passing the 
entrance of which we observe about thirty paces farther a hole in 
a stone of the Greek monastery of St. Caralombos (PI. 61) to the 
left. This is the eighth station, where Christ is said to have ad- 
dressed the women who accompanied him. The Via Dolorosa ends 
here. The ninth station is in front of the Coptic monastery (p. 203), 
where Christ is said to have again sunk under the weight of the 
cross (which was really borne by Simon of Cyrene). The five last 
stations are in the Church of the Sepulchre: the tenth is by a ring 
of stone in the pavement of the Golgotha chapel of the La- 
tins (p. 201), where Christ is said to have been undressed; the ele- 
venth, where he was nailed to the cross, is in front of the altar 
(p. 201); the twelfth, that of the raising of the cross, is in the ad- 
jacent Greek chapel of that name (p. 201); the thirteenth, where he 
was taken down from the cross, is at an altar between the 11th and 
12th stations; and lastly, the fourteenth is in the Holy Sepulchre 
itself (p. 196). — The various records of pilgrimages show that the 
spots to which these traditions attach have frequently been changed. 

Christian Street, Bazaar, Citadel, etc. — Leaving the Church 
of the Sepulchre, and ascending the steps towards the W., we 
pass under a vaulting into the so-called Street of the Chris- 
tians (Haret en-Nasdra), which forms the principal bazaar street 
of Jerusalem. The shops here are somewhat more in the Euro- 
pean style than in the other streets. This is the favourite resort 
of the pilgrims. On the W. side of the street is the Greek Mon- 
astery (PI. 57), a building of considerable extent, entered 
from the Haret Der er-Rum on the N. side. It is a wealthy foun- 
dation and an interesting example of Jerusalem architecture, 
and is first mentioned in 1400 as the monastery of St. Thecla. 
Since 1845 it has been the residence of the Greek patriarch. It 

Bazaar. JERUSALEM. 3. Route. 211 

contains five churches, three of which are parochial, and is occupied 
by about 100 monks. The principal church is that of St. Thecla, 
which is unfortunately overladen with decoration. To the E. of it 
are the churches of Constantine and Helena, contiguous to the 
Church of the Sepulchre. The monastery also accommodates travel- 
lers. It is called the Great Greek monastery (der er-rum el-kebir), 
or Patriarcheion, and is famed for its valuable library and fine MSS. 

About halfway down the Christian Street there is a large Ara- 
bian cafe' on the right, whence we obtain the best survey of the so- 
called Patriarch's Pond (cup of coffee from 30 paras to 1 piastre). 
Another cafe, which we have already passed higher up the street, 
affords an inferior view. The pond is an artificial reservoir, 80 yds. 
long (N. to S.) and 48 yds. wide. The bottom, which is rocky, and 
partly covered with small stones, lies 10 ft. below the level of the 
Christian Street. On the "W. side part of the rock has been removed 
in order that a level surface might be obtained. In summer the 
reservoir is either empty, or contains a little muddy water only. It 
is supplied from the Mamillapond (p. 235), and the water is chiefly 
used for filling the 'Bath of the Patriarch' (PL 34), at the S.E. end 
of the Christian Street, whence the name, 'pool of the patriarch's 
bath' (birket hammam el-batrak). On the N. it is bounded by the 
so-called Coptic Khan (PL k) to the right, the wall at the S.E. corner 
of which contains some large blocks of stone. To the S.W. is the 
back of the Mediterranean Hotel (p. 144), the roof of which also 
commands a good view of the whole pond. This reservoir formerly 
extended farther to the N., as far as a wall which has been found 
under the Coptic khan. Its construction is ascribed to King Heze- 
kiah, after whom it is sometimes called the Pool of Hezekiah, but 
it is difficult now to ascertain whether there is any foundation for 
the tradition. Josephus calls it Amygdalon , or the 'tower-pool', 
sometimes erroneously translated 'almond-pool'. 

On reaching the S. end of the Christian Street we perceive at 
the corner of a street to the left the Oreek Monastery of St. John 
(PL 67), which sometimes accommodates as many as 500 pilgrims 
at Easter. We may now descend the Haret el-Bizdr, or '■David 
Street', to the left, which forms the corn-market, as we see by the 
large heaps of grain and baskets of seed in eveTy direction. The 
first street to the right brings us after a few paces to an arch which 
has been supposed by some to be the ancient Oate of Gennat 
(p. 151); the excavations made here, however, have led to no result. 
Proceeding in the David Street farther towards the E., a few paces 
bring us to the Principal Bazaar (on the left), consisting of three 
covered streets' which are intersected by several transverse lanes. 
The bazaar colonnades occupy the centre of the town, but are very 
inferior to those of Cairo and Damascus, and present no features 
of special interest, as Jerusalem possesses neither manufactories 
nor wholesale trade worthy of mention. There are accordingly but 


212 Route 3. JERUSALEM. Citadel. 

few large khans (or caravanserais) here; the largest is situated to the 
E. of the bazaar, but its entrance is not easily found. Those who 
wish to see the bazaar traffic may station themselves at one of the 
cafes for the purpose. 

The prolongation of the E. bazaar street leads towards the S. to 
the Jewish Quarter, a somewhat dirty street with brokers' stalls, 
shops for the sale of tin-ware manufactured by the Jews, and several 
uninviting wine-houses. Near the end of the street we turn to the 
left and reach the Synagogues (PL S), none of which are interesting. 
The Ashkenazim have a large new synagogue. The Sephardim (p. 89) 
have their separate places of worship to the right of the street. 

On the way from the Mediterranean Hotel to the Yafa Gate two 
streets diverge to the right opposite the citadel. The first of 
these leads past Spittler's shop (p. 144) to the Casa Nova (p. 144), 
on the way to which, on the left, is the Oreek Hospital (PL 47). 
The second street to the right leads to the residence and Church of 
the Latin Patriarch (PL 91). This church was erected in 1864 from 
the designs of the patriarch Valerga (p. 163) by builders from Beth- 
lehem, and is, together with the surrounding corridors, worthy of a 
visit. The patriarchate contains an extensive library. 

Opposite the Yafa Gate rises the Citadel, or 'City of David', 
consisting of an irregular group of five square towers, originally 
surrounded by a moat, part of which only is now preserved. The 
substructions of the towers consist of a thick wall rising at an angle 
of about 45° from the bottom of the moat, which last is now filled 
with rubbish. The chief tower is on the N.W. side. Up to a 
height of 39 ft., reckoning from the bottom of the moat, the 
masonry consists of large drafted blocks, with rough surfaces. The 
form of these stones, as compared with those which have been used 
about 39 ft. higher up, indicate that these foundations are ancient. 
In point of situation the building answers the description given 
us of the 'Hippicus Tower'' (p. 153) by Josephus. He also mentions 
the great size of the stones used, and we find that many of them 
are 10 ft. in length. Titus left this tower standing when he de- 
stroyed the city, but it is probably not so old as the wall of the 
Haram. When Jerusalem was taken by the Franks, this castle was 
the last place to yield. Even at that period it was called the 'City 
of David', from the tradition that that monarch once had his palace 
here. In its present form the citadel chiefly dates from the begin- 
ning of the 14th, and its restoration from the 16th century. The in- 
terior (entrance on the E. side, permission must be previously ob- 
tained) presents few objects of interest. On the battlements are a 
few old cannons. The top, however, commands an excellent survey 
of the town, and a view of the hills beyond Jordan and part of the 
Dead Sea far below. 

To the E. of the castle is Christ's Church (PL 25), belonging 
to the English Jewish mission. To the S. is an open space with 

Xh-Kirn "by H.Kiepert . 

Ent-l-rtVPii X printed by "Warier *Debea,Leip«£. 

VALLEY OF THE KIDRON. 4. Route. 21 3 

barracks, beyond which is the large garden of the Armenian Mon- 
astery (PI. 53). The monastery, situated opposite the garden, 
merits a visit. The hall of the patriarch (to the right, above the 
stair) is sumptuously furnished. The church (visitors knock at the 
central door), dedicated to St. James the Great, who is said to have 
been beheaded here by Herod , is lined with porcelain tiles , and 
contains pictures of no great value. The monks naturally dislike 
to see visitors tread on their carpets with dusty boots. The beau- 
tiful garden of the monastery is unfortunately seldom shown. 

4. Environs of Jerusalem. 

1. The Mt. of Olives. The Mt. of Olives should be visited in 
the evening, as the view is clearest towards sunset (comp. p. 219); 
but it should be borne in mind that all the town-gates except 
the Yafa Gate are closed at sunset (p. 144). 

Starting from St. Stephen's Gate (p. 207) , we perceive outside 
of it, to the right (S.), the wall of the Temple, with Muslim graves 
near it. Ascending a few paces to the left, we observe a small pond, 
31 yds. long, 25 yds. wide, and 13 ft. deep, in the corners of which 
are openings for the reception of rain-water and remains of stairs. 
At a niche in the S.W. corner the water is drawn off into a channel for 
the supply of the Bath of Our Lady Mary (Hammdm Sitti Maryam), 
whence the reservoir is called Birket Sitti Maryam. The style of 
the construction points to a comparatively modern, or perhaps me- 
diaeval origin. The pond is sometimes called Birket el-Asbdt, 
'Dragon Poof, and 'Hezekiah's Poof, names for which there is no 
authority. Opposite rises the Mt. of Olives, separated from us by 
the deep valley of the Kidron. The new, well-constructed road 
forms an angle to the N.E. ; the footpath to the right is a steep 
and stony short-cut. At the point where the routes Te-unite is a 
rock where the stoning of St. Stephen is said to have taken place 
(comp. p. 207). In 5 min. more we reach the bottom of the valley. 

The Valley of the Kidron ('black brook'), also called the Wddy 
Sitti Maryam, or valley of St. Mary, by the Christians, bounds Je- 
rusalem on the E. side. The floor of the valley deepens somewhat 
rapidly. The upper part is broad and planted with olive trees, while 
the lower part is narrower. As early as the time of Christ the Kidron 
was called the 'winter brook', and at the present day the valley 
is always dry above the springs which we are about to mention. By 
way of contrast to the mount of the Temple, this valley was regarded 
as unclean. The name of ' Valley of Jehoshaphat' is of early origin, 
having been already applied to this valley by the venerable pilgrim 
of Bordeaux. The tradition that this goTge will be the scene of the 
last judgment (see p. 181), founded on a misinterpretation of a 
passage in the book of Joel (iii. 2), is probably of pre-Christian 
origin, and has been borrowed from the Jews by Christians and 
Muslims alike. The Muslims accordingly bury their dead on the 

214 Route 4. TOMB OF THE VIRGIN. Environs 

E. side of the Haram, while the Jews have their cemetery on the 
W. side of the Mt. of Olives. At the resurrection the sides of the 
valley are expected to move farther apart in order to afford suffi- 
cient room for the great assembly. 

Captain Warren's excavations have led to most interesting results 
with regard to the valley of the Kidron. Thus, it has been ascertained 
that the E. slope of the Temple hill is very deeply covered with 
debris, and was formerly much steeper than now. The ancient bed 
of the brook lies about 10 yds. to the W. of the present floor of the 
valley, and opposite the S.E. corner of the Temple plateau is about 
38 ft. deeper than the present channel. Contrary to expectation , no 
water was found, but the soil in the ancient bed of the valley was 
moist and slightly muddy. 

At the bottom of the valley we reach the 'Upper Bridge 1 , which 
consists of a single aTch, and is situated 10 ft. above the channel 
of the stream. On the N. side of the arch are seen two subterranean 
channels descending from the hill. One of them comes from the 
court of the neighbouring chapel of St. Mary, and the other from a 
spot about 140 paces to the N. These channels are modern. 

To the left of the road, beyond the bridge, is the chapel of the 
Tomb of the Virgin, where, according to the legend, she was interred 
by the apostles, and where she lay until her 'assumption'. 

History of the Church. The story that a church was founded here by the 
Empress Helena is quite unfounded, though De Vogue makes the present 
building date from the 4th century. It is ascertained, however, that a 
church stood over the traditional tomb early in the 5th century. This 
was destroyed by the Persians , but 'Omar found that a 'church of Geth- 
semane' had again sprung up. We are informed that at a later period 
the church consisted of an upper and an underground story. The Crusaders 
found nothing but ruins here. The church was then rebuilt by Milicent 
(d. 1161), daughter of Baldwin II., and wife of Fulke of Anjou, fourth 
king of Jerusalem. At that period there was also a monastery in the 
vicinity. This church of the 12th cent, is still in tolerable preservation. 
It has frequently changed hands , but now belongs to the Greeks , the 
Latins having a slight share in the proprietorship. 

About 45 paces to the E. of the bridge three flights of steps 
descend to the space in front of the church, which is drained by a 
channel descending to the Kidron (see above ). The only part of the 
church above ground is a porch. The principal facade is on the S. 
side, which is flanked by two flying buttresses, and has a portal in 
the middle with a beautiful pointed arch, into which a wall with 
a small door has been built. The arches rest on four marble 
columns. Visitors knock at the iron door when closed. A handsome 
flight of 47 marble steps, which is more than 19 ft. broad at the top, 
descends immediately within the portal to a depth of 35 ft. below 
the space in front of the church. In descending we first observe a 
walled up door to the right. This formerly led to a cavern, supposed 
to have been the scene of Our Lord's 'bloody sweat', or perhaps to 
the tomb of Milicent, as the old descriptions appear to indicate. Then, 
about halfway down , there are two side chapels. That on the right 

of Jerusalem. TOMB OF THE VIRGIN. 

4. Route. 215 

(PI. 1) contains two altars and the tombs of Joachim and Anna, the 
parents of the Virgin. The transference of these tombs hither from 
the church of St. Anne seems to have taken place in the 15th 
cent. , but the traditions regarding them have since been frequently 

1. Tomb of Mary's Parents. 2. Joseph's Tomb. 8. Sarcophagus of Mary. 

4. Altar of the Greeks. 5. Altar of the Armenians. 6. Prayer Recess of 
the Muslims. 7. Vaults. 8. Altar of the Abyssinians. 9. Cistern. 

10. Grotto of the Agony. 

varied. The chapel to the left (PI. 2) contains an altar over the 
tomb of Joseph, the Virgin's husband. There is also another vault 
to the left of the stairs. The subterranean church is 31 yds. long 
from E. to W., and 6^ yds. wide. The E. wing, which is much 
longer than the W., has a window above. The church is lighted 
by numerous lamps. In the centre of the E. wing is the so-called 
Sarcophagus of Mary (PI. 3). Although the natural rock is exposed 
to view on the E. side of the church and on the floor, it is not 
seen in the tomb itself, which consists of a lofty sarcophagus 
in a small square chapel, resembling that in the Church of the 
Sepulchre. Here, too, a rock-tomb is said once to have existed. On 
the E. side is the altar of the Greeks (PL 4), on the N. that of the 
Armenians (or of the Jacobites, according to Lie'vin; PI. 5). To the 

5. of the tomb is a prayer recess of the Muslims (PI. 6), who for a 
time had a joint right to the sanctuary. 'Omar himself is said once 
to have prayed here, in 'Jezmariiyeh*. Opposite the stair, to the N., 
are vaults of little importance (PI. 7). The W. wing contains an 

216 Route 4. GETHSEMANE. Environs 

altar of the Abyssinians (PL 8), in front of which there is a cistern 
with good water. 

On our return to the uppei forecourt we observe to the left (E.) 
a passage (PI. c) leading to a cavern, the entrance to which is 
closed by a small door mounted with iron. A descent of six steps 
leads us into the so-called Cavern of the Agony ('Antrum Agonise', 
PI. 10), about 18 yds. long, 9| yds. broad, and 12 ft. high, and 
lighted by a small opening above. This is a genuine grotto in the 
solid rock, although whitewashed at places. The ceiling, on which, 
particularly towards the E., there are still traces of old frescoes, is 
borne partly by natural pillars, and partly by masonry. The cavern 
contains three altars belonging to different sects, and on the S. 
and W. several large benches of broad stones. The hole in the 
ceiling would appear to indicate that the grotto was originally a 
cistern or an oil-press. 

A few paces towards the S. , on the opposite side of the road 
leading to the Mt. of Olives, is situated the Garden of Gethsemane, 
a word signifying 'oil-press'. In this case the tradition tallies with 
the Bible narrative. The festive crowd assembled on the occasion 
of the Passover would be little disposed to descend the precipitous 
slopes of the valley, and the neighbourhood of the garden was 
then, as now, but little frequented. The earliest account of the 
place which we possess dates from the 4th century. At one time 
it was of greater extent and contained several churches and chapels. 
The scene of the arrest of Christ was pointed out in the middle 
ages in what is now styled the Cavern of the Sweat, and the 
traditions regarding the various sacred places here fluctuate. The 
entrance is from the side next the Mt. of Olives, towards the S.E., 
in the wall erected in 1847 by the Franciscans, to whom the garden 
belongs. A rock immediately to the E. of this door marks the spot 
where Peter , James , and John slept during the agony. Some 
ten or twelve paces to the S. of that spot, and still outside the 
garden-wall, the fragment of a column indicates the traditional place 
where Judas betrayed Jesus with a kiss , an event which was 
formerly said to have happened in the grotto. 

The present Garden of Gethsemane is in the shape of an irregular 
quadrangle, the circuit of which is about 70 paces. Visitors knock at 
the wicket, and are generally admitted and conducted round the gar- 
den by an obliging Franciscan monk. It is now enclosed by a hedge, 
as the pilgrims used to injure the olive-trees which it contains. These 
seven venerable olive-trees, with trunks burst from age and shored 
up with stones, are said to date from the time of Christ. Some of 
them are certainly of great age and size (19 ft. in circumference), 
but we have no mention of old olive-trees here before the 16th 
cent. ; it is, moreover, well authenticated that Titus and Hadrian 
cut down all the trees around Jerusalem , and that the Crusaders 
found the whole region absolutely destitute of wood. It is, however, 

of Jerusalem. MOUNT OF OLIVKS. 4. Route. 217 

possible that these old trees are remote descendants of those which 
grew here in the time of Christ. The garden also contains younger 
olive-trees and a dozen cypresses. The monk presents the visitor 
with a bouquet of roses, pinks, and other flowers as a memento of 
the place, and expects 1 fr. for the maintenance of the garden. The 
olive-oil yielded by the trees of the garden is sold at a high price, 
and the Tosaries made from the olive-stones are in great request. 
Inside the wall there is a passage, shut off from the garden, with 
fourteen oratories. The Greeks have also set up a 'garden of 
Gethsemane' of their own farther up the Mt. of Olives. 

Three roads lead hence to the Mt. of Olives, one of which starts 
from the S. E., and another from the N.E. corner of the garden we 
have just quitted. Before the latter road divides, there is situated 
on the right, about thirty paces from the garden, a light grey rock, 
which has been pointed out since the 14th cent, as the place where 
the Virgin on her assumption dropped her girdle into the hands of 
St. Thomas. The middle path, which soon diverges to the right, is 
the steepest. About halfway up, a ruin on the left has been shown 
since the 14th cent, as the spot where 'when he was come near, 
he beheld the city, and wept over it' (Luke xix. 41). This 
might well indeed have been the spot , as it commands a beautiful 
view of the city. Even the Muslims once regarded the scene of the 
Weeping of Christ as holy, and a mosque stood here in the 17th 
cent. ; but the building, which consisted of two quadrangular 
apartments, is now a deserted ruin. 

The top of the Mt. of Olives is reached from Gethsemane in 
-j^ hr. , and the mount still merits its name. The slopes are culti- 
vated, but the vegetation is not luxuriant. The principal trees are 
the olive, fig, and carob, and here and there a few apricot, almond, 
terebinth, and hawthorn trees. The paths are stony, and the 
afternoon sun very hot. 

The Mt. of Olives [Moris Oliveti, Arab. Jebel et-Tur), or Mt. of 
Light , as it is sometimes called , runs parallel with the Temple 
mount, but is somewhat higher. It consists of several different 
strata of chalky limestone, over which there are newer formations 
at places. The hill is divided into several eminences by low de- 
pressions. The highest point, to the N. , is 2723 ft. above the sea- 
level; that in the centre, 2637 ft., being 196 ft. higher than the 
Temple plateau. On this central summit, the Mt. of Olives proper, 
lies Kefr et-Tur, or the 'village of the Mt. of Olives', which is not 
visible from Jerusalem, being concealed by several higher buildings. 
It is mentioned for the first time in the 15th cent., and now con- 
sists of about a dozen poor stone cottages, whose inhabitants are 
sometimes rude and importunate. 

History of the Mt. of Olives. The tradition which makes the 
Mt. of Olives the scene of the Ascension is contradicted by the 
passage in St. Luke — 'he led them out as far as to Bethany' 

218 Route 4. 



(xxiv. 50) ; moreover the summit of the mount was at that period 
covered with buildings. As early as 315, however, the top of this 
hill was pointed out as the scene of that event, and Constantino 
erected a basilica here, but without a roof. About the year 600 many 
monasteries stood on the mount. In the 7th cent, there was a 
small round church here which had been built by Modestus 
(p. 190), but it was destroyed in the 11th century. The Crusaders 
are said to have erected 'only a small tower with columns, in the 
centre of a court paved with marble ; and the principal altar stood 
on the rock within'. In 1130 a laTge church rose on this spot, 
having in the centre a broad depression marking the scene of the 
Ascension, below which was a chapel. After the time of Saladin we 
find the chapel enclosed by an octagonal wall. In the 16th cent, 
the church was completely destroyed. In 1617 the interior of the 
chapel was restored by the Muslims in the original style, and in 
1834 — 35 the building was re-erected on the former ground-plan. 
Visitors knock at a door on the W. side, by the minaret, and are 
admitted by a Muslim. 

a. Entrance. 

b. Paved Path. 

1. Chapel of the Ascension. 

2. Prayer Recess of the Ar- 


3. Recess of the Copts. 

4. Recess of the Syrians. 

5. Reeess of the Greeks. 

6. Remains of Columns. 

7. Cisterns. 

A handsome portal admits us to a court, in the centre of which 
rises a small chapel of irregular octagonal shape. Over the corner 
pilasters once rose open pointed arches, but these are now built up. 
The capitals and bases of the columns are of white marble, and 
have probably been brought from older buildings. In the centre of 
the chapel, which is 20 ft. in diameter, rises a cylindrical drum 
with a small dome over the spot from which Christ is said to have 
ascended. It belongs to the Muslims, who also regard it as sacTed, 
but Christians are permitted to celebrate mass in it on certain days. 
In an oblong marble enclosure is shown the impression of the right 
foot of Christ, turned southwards. Since the time of the Frankish 
domination this footprint has been so variously described, that it 
must have been frequently renewed since then. 

Suburb Neby Diud Gate of Zion 
JebelAbuT6r , Dwellings ft r^iivims " " * £ ' ° n_J^°^|«fc Gardens of the Armenian Monastery 

Tree of Judis, (Hill of jtvil Counsel) Roa«\t» Bethlehem Place where IPeter wept ~"J"gl ^ hV ^^ Mosque &Tombs of David' Armenian Seminary Synagogues SJames Church of the 

Valley "f Hinnom.lWadjy e r - R a b a b i ) I Dung Gat? Moghreb Minaret Rothschilds Hospiti 

of the Ashfenasim 

El K a I a- a (Ci tad e I ) 

Girls'School of the Engl.Mission (To«if P ofDayidlYafa Gate 

Latin Patriarchate 
Greek jMonasterj Latin Monastery of S* Salvador 

Church of the Sepulchre : Kaukab Minaret Hospice of StJohn 4 German Scholol 

K ; 

.ask? i 

;, ■ ''li'.-.fy,.:.' j -. ■ IIB! ,: VJ^afi* - ■'""■"■ "_ ._,_- i-'-- _■_■- r-" ; / :;v= ^ 

"iSWf *&&& 

«E^95. *T'&-B 

Hamra Minaret 

R ussian Colony 

H o s p i t a I DamascusGate Chuirch Talitl,s 

Mulaiwfeh Minaret Consulate : Pilgrims Houses 


German Hospital forChildren Watch-tower 

Arabian frot.Church """"^afa^ »2i m t r 

id,id- Monument 

Gate of Herod ; i Hill of the Grotto of Jeremiah ] 

;,, *^^-''"r^- 


Road from the Valley of Kedron 
to the Gate of Zion 

Brawn try latter from Photo graphic "Views . 

Slopetowards the \\ ; 

Mosque of el Aksa 

H a r a m 
d y S I t t i M 

Muslim Tombs Golden Gate Kubbet es Sakhra 

, , ,« / o • J c-iu -r - _ ~ l 7Dome of the Rock I 

s h - S h e r it (Site of the Temple) 

riam (Vallev of' Kedron or Jehosaphat.J Barracks I Castle 

Bcmcts Gate of S*Stephen 

>mane ( B ^ b Sftt - Mariaml 

cjts f Castle of Anton ia) New Conventofthe Rom. Cath. Sisters of Zion 

Slope toward 


Muslim Tombs 

the Wady Sitt 

Mariam (Valley of Kedron or Jehosaphat.) 

Engrave! bj Bertrana. 

from the Mount of Olives. 

of Jerusalem. MOUNT OF OLIVES. 4. Route. 219 

On leaving this enclosure dedicated to the memory of the 
Ascension, we knock at an adjoining door on the left, helonging to 
a monastery of dervishes, which occupies the site of a former 
Augustinian ahbey . "We are now conducted to the top of the minaret 
which commands a magnificent *View. Our panorama gives us the 
view towards the west, for which the morning light is the best. 
For the rest of the scene, however, evening light is more advan- 
tageous, and the ascent should therefore be made more than once. 
Beyond the valley of the Kidron extends the spacious plateau of 
the Ilaram esh-Sherif , where the dome of the rock and the Aksa 
mosque present a particularly imposing appearance. The spectator 
should observe the direction taken by. the Temple hill, the higher 
site of the ancient Bezetha to the N. of the Temple, and the hollow 
of the Tyropceon, which is plainly distinguishable, though now 
filled with rubbish, between the Temple hill and the upper part 
of the town. The dome-covered roofs of the houses form a very 
peculiar characteristic of the town. 

Towards the N., beyond the olive-grove outside the Damascus 
Gate, is seen the upper (W.) course of the valley of the Kidron, 
decked with rich verdure in spring, beyond which rises the Scopus. 
The view towards the E. is striking. Here for the first time we 
perceive that extraordinary and unique depression of the earth's 
surface which few travellers thoroughly realise. The blue waters 
of the Dead Sea , lying at the foot of the mountains which bound 
the E. horizon, and apparently not many hundred feet below us, 
are really no less than 3900 ft. below our present standpoint. The 
clearness of the atmosphere, too, is so deceptive that the mysterious 
lake seems quite near, though it can only be reached after a seven 
hours' ride over barren, uninhabited ranges of hills. The blue 
mountains which rise beyond the deep chasm , reaching the same 
height as the Mt. of Olives, once belonged to the tribe of Reuben, 
and it is among these that Mt. Nebo must be sought for. To the 
extreme S. of that range a small eminence crowned by the village 
of Kerak is visible in clear weather. On the E. margin of the 
Dead Sea are seen two wide openings ; that to the S. is the valley 
of the river Arnon (M6jib), and that to the N. the valley of 
the Zerka Ma'in. Farther N. rises the Jebel Jil'ad (Gilead), once 
the possession of the tribe of Gad. Nearer to us lies the valley of 
Jordan (el-Gh6r), the course oi the river being indicated by a 
green line on a whitish ground. (This last part of the view is best 
seen from the wely on the way to Bethany, about 300 paces to the 
E. of the minaret.) Towards the S. E. we see the course of the 
valley of the Kidron, or 'valley of fire', and on a hill-plateau to the 
left the village of Abu Dis. Bethany is not visible. Quite near us 
rises the 'mountain of offence', beyond the Kidron that of 'evil 
counsel', and farther distant, to the S. , is the summit of the 'Frank 
Mountain', or 'hill of Paradise', with the heights of Bethlehem and 

220 Routed. TOMBS OF THE PROPHETS. Environs 

Tekoah. To the S.W., on the fringe of hills -which bounds the plain 
of Rephaim on the S., lies the monastery of Mar Elyas, past whioh 
winds the road to Bethlehem. That townisitself concealed from view, 
but the large village of Bet Jala and several villages to the S. of 
Jerusalem, such as Bet Sufafa and Esh-Sherafat, are distinctly visible. 

In the S.W. part of the buildings which adjoin the chapel of 
the Ascension on the S. is a door leading to the Vault of St. Pelagia 
(Arab, rdhibet bint hasan), which is generally closed. The Jews 
place here the tomb of the prophetess Huldah (2 Kings xxii. 14), 
and the Christians the dwelling of St. Pelagia of Antioch, who 
did penance here for her sins in the 5th cent, and wrought 
miracles even after her death. The tradition as to Pelagia dates from 
the Crusaders' period. The door opens into an anteroom, whence 
twelve steps descend to a tomb-chamber, now a Muslim place of 
prayer, and uninteresting. 

Several different walks may be taken from the Mt. of Olives. 

a. To the South we may descend into the valley. To the S. of 
the minaret a tradition of the Crusaders' period points out the spot 
where Christ taught his disciples the Lord's Prayer. Peter of Amiens 
preached a sermon here, and a church was then erected. In 1868 the 
Princesse Latour d'Auvergne, Comtesse de Bouillon , a wealthy rela- 
tive of Napoleon III. , caused a church to be erected here in the 
style of a Campo Santo. Visitors knock at the door of the court. 
Around the handsome quadrangle run covered passages containing 
31 slabs , on which the Lord's Prayer is inscribed in as many dif- 
ferent languages. On the S. side the princess, who is still alive, and 
resides in a house adjoining the church, has had a monument erected 
to her memory. An apartment at the back of the church contains 
antiquities discovered when the foundations of the church were laid, 
including a leaden coffin and numerous fragments of mosaics. Near 
the church is a convent accommodating six Carmelite nuns. 

About 45 paces to the W. of this church is the place where the 
apostles are said to have drawn up the Creed. A path to the right 
diverges hence to the Garden of Gethsemane. The tradition 
regarding the creed , which was once' said to have been framed in 
the town , was attached to this new spot in the 14th cent. , and in 
the 15th cent, a 'church of St. Mark' rose here. The low site of 
the church, lying N. and S., and walled in , is still recognisable. 
At the sides are niches which once bore twelve arches , and at the 
N. end two pointed arches are still preserved. 

We descend hence by the most southern path (towards theS.W.) 
into the valley. From the point where the road takes a turn towards 
the N.W. , we diverge from the road about 50 paces to the S.W., 
and reach the Tombs of the Prophets, or the Small Labyrinth. 
The entrance (PI. a) is insignificant, and leads first into a rotunda 
(PI. 1), lighted from above. Three passages of 13 — 19 yds. in 
length are intersected by a semicircular transverse passage, 15 yds. 

of Jerusalem. 


4. Route. 221 


long, in such a maimer that large natural rocky pillars are formed, 
some of which are 33 yds. in circumference. The passages are 
uneven , and partly filled up. The 
wall of the outermost of these pas- 
sages contains about twenty-four 
shaft-tombs (p. 116). To the N.W. 
a passage with steps leads to an 
adjoining chamber (PI. 2), but the 
end of the passage cannot be reach- 
ed. (Lights should be brought.) 
This is a very fine example of an 
ancient rock tomb. The rough way 
in which the chambers are hewn 
point to a very early origin, but 
there is no historical authority for connecting them in any way with 
the prophets. That they belong to the Jewish period is proved 
by the form of the receptacles for the dead (k6kim). The Jews have 
a great veneration for these tombs. 

A few steps to the S. of the bend in the road we reach a small 
aperture in the Took, through which we may visit a small tomb- 
chamber with a number of niches , discovered in 1847. To the W. 
is another chamber, of circular form, roughly hewn in the rock, 
containing nine sunken tombs , all close together. To the E. , ad- 
jacent to these, there is another fine tomb-chamber. 

6. To the North of the summit of the Mt. of Olives , at a 
distance of \ hr. , rises a lower eminence of the mount, to the left 
of the road crossing the hill to the village of 'Isawiyeh (p. 322). 
This height is now called Karem es-Sayyad (vineyard of the hunter), 
or Qalilaea, or Viri Oalilaei. This last name it owes to the tradition 
that the 'men of Galilee' were addressed here by the two men in 
white apparel after the Ascension (Acts i. 11«). This tradition was 
current in the 13th cent. , but was not connected with this locality 
till the 16th. The passage Matth. xxvi. 32 was also interpreted to 
mean that Christ had appeared here , and the Galilaeans are said to 
have held meetings at this place. Extensive ruins once lay here, and 
some pilgrims even mention a village. A miserable ruin on the top of 
the hill now belongs to the Greeks. This point commands astill finer 
view of Jerusalem than the dervish monastery mentioned at p. 219. 

Following the top of the hill, we may now perform the circuit 
of the valley of the Kidron. The valley gradually expands , and 
the hill begins to rise from it more precipitously. At the point 
where the hill turns towards the N.W. it is called 'Akabet es-Suwdn. 
We thus reach the road leading from Jerusalem to 'Anata (R. 13). 
On the hill-plateau which extends to the N. of the city, on the N.W. 

a. 'Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven? this same 
Jesus, which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come in like 
manner as ye have seen him go into heaven.' 

222 Route 4. TOMB OF ABSALOM. Environs 

side, was probably situated the Scopus, where Titus and his legions 
were once encamped. The view of the town from the brink of the 
plateau is interesting in this respect that its position on the top of 
a rocky eminence is distinctly seen, and its indented N. wall, re- 
sembling that of a mediaeval fortress, its towers, and its numerous 
mosques and minarets appear to great advantage. Many of the 
details, however, and particularly the Haram, are now too far distant 
to be distinguishable. — In less than \ hr. we reaoh the N.E. 
corner of the town- wall , avoiding the road descending into the 
fertile valley of Jehoshaphat to the left. In a projecting tower 
between the N.E. corner of the wall and the Damascus Gate we 
observe a gate, now generally closed, which has been called by the 
Christians the Oate of Herod for two centuries past, and is named by 
the Arabs Bab es-Sahiri. — Damascus Oate, see p. 240. 

c. To the East there are two routes leading from the Mt. of 
Olives to the not far distantBetftanj/ (p. 258), which may be reached 
in 20 min. ; thence back to Jerusalem 40 min. (see R. 7). 

2. The Valley of the Kidron. To the W. of Gethsemane a road 
descends this valley. It soon divides : the road to the left leads 
to the Jewish tombs (p. 224) ; that to the right to the lower bridge. 
This bridge may also be reached by following the wall of the 
Haram from the Gate of St. Stephen as far as the Golden Gate, and 
then descending into the valley to the left. The first tomb we come 
to, on the left of the road, is the so-called Tomb of Absalom (Arab. 
Tantur Fir'aun, 'cap of Pharaoh'), a large cube, 6^ yds. square, 
and 20 ft. high. It is hewn out of the solid rock, and is detached on 
three sides, being separated from the rock by a passage 8 — 9 ft. 
wide. The E. side, however, is imbedded in rubbish. As the 
surrounding rock was not high enough to admit of the whole 
monument being executed in a single block, a square superstructure 
of large stones was erected above the massive base. On this is 
placed a drum , terminating in a low spire which widens a little at 
the top like an opening flower. So far as it is visible above the 
rubbish , the monument is 47 ft. high , and presents a quaint 
appearance. On each side of the rock-cube are four half-columns 
with very prominent capitals of the Ionic order, those on the W. 
front being best preserved. They bear, together with the corner 
pilasters, a frieze and architrave of the Doric order. The proper 
entrance to the structure is imbedded in rubbish, but one may 
creep into it through a hole on the N. side. The monument is 
called Absalom's Tomb from its supposed identity with that 
mentioned in 2 Sam. xviii. 18 a ; there is, however, no mention 
of it before the year A.D. 333. The names assigned to this and 

a. 'Now Absalom in his lifetime had taken and reared np for himself 
a pillar, which is in the king's dale ; for he said , I have no son to keep 
my name in remembrance : and he called the pillar after his own name : 
and it is called unto this day, Absalom's place'. 

of Jerusalem. GROTTO OF ST. JAMES. 

i. Route. 223 

the other monuments vary down to the 16th century. The enrich- 
ments , and particularly the Ionic capitals , indicate that the tomb 
dates from the Grseco-Roman period ; but the chamber may be older, 
and the decorations may have been added long after the first 
erection of the monument. In memory of Absalom's disobedience 
to his father, it is customary with the Jews to pelt this monument 
with stones. 

In the perpendicular rock on the E. side , beyond the Tomb of 
Absalom, is the Tomb of Jehoshaphat, with a broad entrance, almost 
entirely choked with rubbish, and surmounted by a kind of gable. The 
interior is of irregular shape. In the first chamber (PI. 1) there are 
three entrances to adjoining chambers, 
of which that on the S. side (PI. 2) has 
an additional cell of two compartments 
(PI. 3). The traces of a coat of mortar 
and of frescoes would lead one to in- 
fer that the principal chamber had 
once been used as a Christian chapel. 
It may possibly be the chapel which 
enclosed the tomb of St. James in the 
time of the Franks. In the innermost 
cavern several of the straps which the 
Jews bind round their arms when praying were found by Tobler. 

We proceed hence towards the S. to the Grotto of St. James, 
situated exactly opposite the S.E. corner of the Temple plateau. 
The narrow entrance looks towards the S. , and opens into a long 
passage, leading to a kind of vestibule (PI. 1). In front, towards 
the W., the vestibule is open for a space of 16 ft. , and is borne by 
two Doric columns 7 ft. in height, adjoining which are two side- 
pillars incorporated with the rock. Above these runs a Doric frieze 
with triglyphs ; over the cornice is a Hebrew inscription. We next 
enteran ante-chamber 
(PI. 2) towards the E., 
and beyond it a 
chamber (PI. 3) with 
three shaft-tombs of 
different lengths; be- 
yond which we ascend 
by several steps to a 
small chamber to the 
N.E. (PI. 4). To the 
N.ofNo. 2 is a chamber 
(PI. 5) containing 
three shaft-tombs, and 
to the S. of it is a pas- 
sage (PI. 6) with a shelf of rock to which steps ascend ; above the 
shelf are four shaft-tombs. Another passage leads from the vesti- 

224 Route 4. SILOAH. Environs 

bule to the S. to the tomb of Zacharias (PI. 7). The 'grotto of St. 
James' is considered holy by the Christians from the tradition that 
St. James lay concealed here after the Crucifixion, and that he 
ate no food until after the Resurrection. This tradition, and 
another that he is buried on the Mt. of Olives , date from the 6th 
cent. , while another to the effect that this grotto is his tomb is 
not older than the 15th. Monkish preachers are said to have lived 
here for a time, but the cavern was afterwards used as a sheep-pen. 

Still farther to the S. is situated a fourth monument, called the 
Pyramid of Zacharias, executed according to the Christians in 
memory of the Zacharias mentioned by St. Matthew (xxiii. 35), 
but according to the Jews in memory of the Zechariah of 2 Chron. 
xxiv. 20. The monument resembles Absalom's tomb, but is not so 
high, being 29 ft. only, and is entirely hewn in the rock. This cutting 
in the rock is very remarkable. On the S. side are still seen the 
holes which probably supported the scaffolding of the masons. The 
monument is about 16 ft. square. The sides are adorned with Ionic 
columns and half-columns, and at the corners are square pillars. 
Above runs a bare cornice, over which rises a blunted pyramid. 
No entrance is discoverable. A number of Hebrew names are 
inscribed on the monument. The traditions with regard to all these 
rock-tombs fluctuate, but they were probably executed in the 
Graeco-Roman period. 

Above these monuments , to the E. , the whole hill is covered 
with Jewish tombstones, and we pass others on our way south- 
wards to the village of Siloah (Arab. Silwdn) , which we reach in 
4 minutes. The village clings to the steep hill-side, and when seen 
from the opposite side is not easily distinguished from the neigh- 
bouring rocks, which are of the same colour. The main street inter- 
sects the village from N. to S. ; it consists of about eighty houses, and 
miserable as is its appearance, there are many worse in Palestine. 
As many of the ancient caverns of the Jewish necropolis which was 
formerly here are now used as dwellings and stables , they cannot 
easily be examined. At the entrance to the village, in the rock to 
the right , there is another monolithic pyramid like the monument 
of Zacharias ; but as it is enclosed by a wall in front, it is best seen 
from above. In the lower part of the cliff is a series of entrances to 
tombs , some of them artistically hewn. That these are remains of 
tombs , and that the back only of most of them is left , is apparent 
from the niches for lamps which they contain. There are other 
tomb grottoes in the village itself, and still farther to the S., on the 
descent to Job's well , numerous remains of tombs are seen on the 
hill to the left. The inhabitants of Silwan, who are all Muslims, 
readily show their caverns for bakhshish, but are notorious for their 
thievish propensities. They live chiefly by farming and cattle- 
breeding , and some of them bring water from the Siloah or Job's 
well on the backs of donkeys into the town for sale. These grottoes 

of Jerusalem. ST. MARY'S WELL. 4. Route. 225 

were once tenanted by hermits , and the Arabian village has only 
existed for a few centuries past. 

The village lies on the slope of the S. eminence of the Mt. of 
Olives, called Baten el-Hawd , and sometimes Mountain of Offence 
(mons offensionis, mons scandali), from 1 Kings xi. 7; but it is 
questionable whether there is any foundation for the story that this 
was the scene of Solomon's idolatrous practices , although they 
appear to be localised here by the Vulgate. The top, which may 
be reached in 6 min., commands an interesting view, though very 
inferior to that from the Mt. of Olives. To the E. lies the Wady 
Kattiui, to the W. the valleys of Jehoshaphat and of llinnom, and 
to the S. the valley of the Kidron, or valley of tire. 

From the N. part of the village a road leads to the neighbouring 
(4 min.) spring of St. Mary; from the S. part another descends 
towards the W. to the (4 min.) pool of Siloah; and a third descends 
towards the S. to (5 min.) Job's well. 

The entrance to St. Mary's Well, Arab. 'Ain Sitti Maryam, or 
'Ain Umm ed-Derej (fountain of steps), is to the W. of the remains 
of a small mosque. Over the staircase a curious device on the stone 
has been preserved. The well runs under the rock on the W. side 
of the valley of Jehoshaphat. We descend by sixteen steps through 
a vault to a level space, and by fourteen steps more to the water. 
The basin is 11^ ft. long and 5 ft. wide, and the bottom is covered 
with small stones. An outlet descends to the lower pool of Siloah 
(p. 226), to which Robinson, Tobler, and others made their way 
hence. The connecting passage is of very rude construction and 
varying height, being so low at places as only to be passable on all 
fours. Curiously enough this passage is not straight, but has 
several windings and there are a number of small culs de sac in its 
course, apparently showing that the unskilled workmen had 
frequently lost the right direction. The distance in a straight line is 
368 yds., but by the rocky channel 586 yds. Should the traveller 
care to explore it, lie should be provided with a lantern and 
suitable dress. 

Within this cavern Capt. Warren has discovered a shaft at the top, 
which expands and terminates towards the \Y\ of the hill of Ophel 
in a vaulted chamber of 39 ft. in width, where vases, glass lamps, 
and other relics were found. This passage was probably once used 
by the Jews as a place of refuge from their Roman persecutors. 

The spring of St. Mary is intermittent. In the rainy winter 
season the water flows from three to five times daily , in summer 
twice, and in autumn once only. This is accounted for as follows. 
In the interior of the rock there is a deep natural reservoir, which 
is fed by numerous streamlets, and has a single narrow outlet only. 
This outlet begins a little above the bottom of the basin, rises to a 
point higher than the top of the basin, and then descends. As soon 
as the water in the basin has risen to the height of the bend in the 

Palest 1 — 15 

226 Route 4. POOL OF SILOAH. Environs 

outlet, it begins to flow through it, and continues to flow on the 
syphon principle until it has sunk in the basin to the point where 
the outlet begins. The question as to what spring of ancient times 
corresponds to that of St. Mary has given rise to much controversy. 
The modern name is derived from a legend of the 14th cent, to the 
effect that the Virgin once washed the swaddling clothes of her 
Son, or drew water here. It has also been called the Dragon's 
Well , or Well of the Sun , and freqvfent attempts have been made 
to identify it with springs mentioned by ancient writers. Furrer is 
probably right in identifying it with the spring of Gihon (1 Kings 
i. 33; 2 Chron. xxxii. 30), which others have sought for to the 
N.N.W. and W. of the city (p. 149). Gihon could not be brought 
within the walls of the city, but Hezekiah, in order to render it 
available for the inhabitants, and to deprive their enemies of the 
water , caused a channel to be excavated from it towards the Tyro- 
pceon , a reservoir to be constructed there, and the upper channel 
of the spring to be closed (1 Kings xx.20). The basin near the Gihon 
was also called the King's Pool (Nehem. ii. 14). The spring also 
watered the orchards which from the time of Solomon down to the 
present day have presented so refreshing an appearance in this 
part of the valley. — A path ascends from St. Mary's Well to the 
N., towards the S.E. angle of the Temple wall. 

The so-called Pool of Siloah, or Siloam (Arab. 'Ain Silwan), 
lower down, at the outlet of the valley of Tyropceon, anciently 
lay near the Fountain or Water Gate (p. 150), within the walls. 
From this point also a road ascends to the town , at first following 
the Tyropoeon valley, on the sides of which are observed traces of 
garden terraces, and then forking to the left to the Gate of Zion, and 
to the right to the Dung Gate. Strictly speaking, it was only the 
smaller pool of Siloah which lay within the walls. This pool is 
52 ft. long and 18 ft. wide; to the N. of it stand several piers 
resembling flying buttresses, and from the middle of the basin 
rises the stump of a column, all these being fragments of ancient 
buildings. In consequence of the miracle recorded by St. John (ix. 
7") , the pool was deemed sacred. In the year 600 a basilica with 
baths stood over the pool, and in the 12th cent, a kind of monastery 
was erected here. — At the S.E. angle of the pond there is an 
outlet. The water is generally more or less salt to the taste, 
perhaps from the decomposition of the soil through which it 
percolates , and is moreover polluted by the washerwomen and 
tanners by whom it is constantly used. It loses itself in the 
gardens of the valley below , no longer filling the large Lower Pool 
of Siloah. The streamlet from the upper pool has for centuries 
flowed past the lower , which lies outside the ancient city wall to 

a. 'Go, wash in the pool of Siloam (which is by interpretation, 
Sent). He went his way therefore, and washed, and came seeing. 1 

of Jerusalem. JOB'S WELL. 4. Route. 227 

the E. of the upper, and now has its bottom overgrown with trees. 
The Arabs call it Birket el-Hamra, or the red pond. To the S. of 
this point stands an old mulberry-tree, enclosed by stones for its 
protection, and mentioned for the first time in the 16th cent. , where 
the prophet Isaiah is said to have been sawn asunder in presence 
of King Manasseh. The tradition of this martyrdom is alluded to 
by some of the fathers of the church. 

A road hence leads farther down the valley , reaching in a few 
minutes the junction of the valleys of Jehoshaphat and Hinnoni. 
We are now on the road to Mar Saba (p. 274) , which leads us in 
2 min. to a spring called Job's Well {Blr Eyyub). The channel of 
the Kidron is at this point 345 ft. lower than the Temple plateau 
(near Gethsemane 145 ft. only), and Mt. Zion rises steeply on the 
N.W. Near the well is a ruined mosque. Adjoining the place where 
water is drawn there are several stone troughs for cattle. The 
well is lined with masonry, and is 1*23 ft. deep. The water varies 
greatly in height, sometimes overflowing after much rain; but it 
very seldom dries up altogether, and is noted for its excellence. 
During the wet winter of 1873 — 74 a regular brook flowed hence 
down the valley of the Kidron. — 'Job's Well' has been thus 
named by the Arabs, but it has been called the : Well of Nehemiah' 
by the Frank Christians since the 16th cent. , from the tradition 
that the holy fire was concealed in this well during the captivity 
until recovered by Nehemiah, the leader of the restored exiles. A 
most interesting historical fact is that we are here standing 
on the brink of the well of En-Rogel (fullers' spring), mentioned 
by Joshua (xv. 7) as the boundary between the tribes of Judah 
and Benjamin. Here, too, Adouijah prepared a feast for his 
friends on the occasion of his attempted usurpation of the throne 
of David (1 Kings i. 9). The modern Ez-Zehweleh has of late 
been supposed identical with the 'stone of Zoheletti mentioned in the 
latter passage , but the fullers' well would then have to be placed 
nearer that of St. Mary. 

Descending the valley by the road from this point, we observe traces 
of caverns in the rock to the left. After 9 min. we diverge to the right 
and ascend to the (8 min.) village of Bet Sahur el-'Atika, which consists 
of a few miserable hovels , but contains several rocky caverns and a 
pigeon-tower. Below the road, as we proceed farther to the E., is a 
slope in which there are several rock-chambers containing shelf-tombs. 
Some of these grottoes have entrance-doors, niches, and arches, and some 
terminate in a semicircular form. More towards the N. E. side of the hill 
there are larger and deeper tomb-chambers , but the entrances to them 
are generally blocked with stones to keep out the cattle. These, however, 
may be removed by some of the herd-boys who are usually on the spot. 
Nearer the little dale towards the E. the ground bears traces of oil- 
presses, and there is also a large tomb-chamber. Along the whole N. 
side of the hill of Bet Sahur are rock-tombs. We first come to one with 
a vestibule and handsom'e portal , within which there is an extensive 
tomb, called Maghdret er-Rabe' by the Arabs. The antechamber leads to 
several different vaults. To the W. of it is another interesting rock- 
tomb with a vestibule; it is 20 paces long, and has a shelf of rock on 


228 Route 4. VALLEY OF HINNOM. Environs 

each side. The second chamber contains three other entrances leading 
to the vaulted tomb-niches. There are many other similar tombs in the 
neighbourhood, a topographical and geometrical plan of which would be 
of great service. Most of these tombs are probably to be referred to the 
Jewish epoch. We are now near a valley descending from the opposite 
Mount of Offence, and close to the Mar Saba road, and a walk of \ hr. 
more brings us back to the point where the road to the village ofSiloah 
diverges to the right. 

3. The Valley of Hinnom. From Job's Well we proceed to the W. 
towards the valley of Hinnom, which is bounded on the S. (left) 
by the Jebel Abu Tor. This hill is also called the Hill of the Tombs, 
the Hill of the Field of Blood, and most usually by the Franks the 
Mount of Evil Counsel. It is most easily ascended from the Beth- 
lehem road (p. -41), as it is steepest on the N. side. It derives the 
last of these names from a legend of the 14th cent, to the effect 
that Caiaphas possessed a country-house here, where he consulted 
■with the Jews how he might kill Jesus. 

The Valley of Hinnom, which never contains water, separates 
this hill from Zion. It comes from the W. and bounds the town ou 
the ,S.W r . and S. sides. The soil is well cultivated at places, 
though plentifully sprinkled with small stones. The name of the 
valley occurs in the description of the boundaries between Judah 
and Benjamin (Joshua xv. 8). It is properly the 'valley of the 
descendants of Hinnom', or still more accurately ' Ge Bene Hinnom , 
i. e. valley of the children of groaning, a name specially applied 
to the lower half of the valley ( now Wddy er-Rebaby). It was in 
this valley that children were anciently sacrificed to the idolMoloch 
(2 Kings xxiii. 10), in whose service kings Ahaz and Manasseh 
did not spare their own sons. The spot was called Topheth, or place 
of fire. Jeremiah rigorously opposed these revolting practices, and 
Josiah caused the place to be defiled that it might never again be 
the scene of such sacrifices. Even at a later period the valley was 
an object of detestation to the Jews, whence the word Gehenna, 
used in the New Testament, a contraction of the name mentioned 
above, came to signify hell. It is not now ascertainable whether 
the name 'valley of fire', at present applied to the lower part of the 
valley of the Kidron, has any connection with these ancient ido- 
latrous rites. The valley of Hinnom was formerly confounded with 
the upper part of the valley of Kidron, and is therefore occasionally, 
but improperly called the 'valley of Gihon' (p. 226). 

Instead of following the road at the bottom of the valley, we 
ascend the slope of the hill to the left to the ancient Necropolis. 
A little beyond the point where the valleys unite we find tombs in 
the hill to the left. They are excavated in two slopes of rock, one 
above the other. The low entrances are said once to have been fur- 
nished with stone doors. They contain a number of vaults for 
different families. Some of them were occupied by hermits from 
the early Christian period down to the middle ages, and afterwards 
by poor families and cattle. 

of Jerusalem. VALLEY OF HINNOM. 4. Route. 229 

The entrances to these ancient rock-tombs, approached" in some 
instances by flights of steps, 

are often beautifully decorated 
Their contents have probably 
been changed at different 
periods. We here adopt Tobler's 
plan : — 

1. Group of chambers, 
blackened with smoke , once 
a hermitage. 

*2. Rock-chamber with four 

3. Ruins of a portal. The 
second chamber towards the S. 
once contained a beautiful 
vaulted chapel. Farther S., a 

4. Imbedded chamber with 
ten shaft-tombs. 

5. Cavern farthest E., once 
a hermitage. That in the 
centre has a vault and cells 
adjacent to it. Next to it, on 
the N., is a cavern with an il- 
legible Greek inscription. 

6. Tomb-chamber. 

7. Chamber with three 
niches, and a cross over the 

8. Chamber remarkably well 
hewn. A few steps descend to 
the portal adorned with mould- 
ings and gable, and over the 
entrance lies a movable stone. 
The upper story contains a 
large anteroom with six finely 
enriched doors, and there are in 
all fourteen tomb-niches. The 
lower story is uninteresting, but 
still contains bones. 

9. Tomb-grottoes and chapel 
with paintings. 

10. The so-called Apostles' 
Cavern, in which, according 
to a tradition of the 16th cent. , 
the apostles concealed them- 
selves when Christ was taken 

230 Route 4. ACELDAMA. Environs 

prisoner, and during the crucifixion. Above the entrance is a frieze 
in ten sections. In the forecourt are two series of frescoes , one 
above the other, with monograms of the name of Jesus Christ, 
crosses , and other devices. The large chamber at the back of the 
chapel was probably once a hermitage ; beyond it is another chamber 
with tombs, as there is on the E. side also. 

11. This is a group of three different sets of chambers. Over 
the entrance is the inscription 'to the holy Zion' in Greek. The 
tombs were probably those of members of the 'church of Zion'. 

"We now ascend to the Aceldama, or Building of the Field of 
Blood, Arab. El-Ferdus (paradise), situated in the midst of the 
tombs (PI, 12), near a place where clay is dug. A view of several 
vaults may be obtained here from above (E.). The building is 
10 yds. long and 6| yds. wide. The vaults are 34 ft. high, and 
borne by massive central pillaTS. The lower part of the building 
consists of rock, the upper of drafted blocks of stone. The rocky 
sides contain shaft-tombs, and the whole building forms the ves- 
tibule of a series of tombs, the entrances to which are partly choked 
up. The flat roof contains round apertures through which the bodies 
were formerly let clown by ropes. On the W. wall of the interior 
are crosses and Armenian inscriptions. 

The Bible does not inform us where the 'field of blood' (Acts 
i. 19) lay, and it has since been shown in different parts of the en- 
virons of Jerusalem, churches and monasteries having been erected 
in connection with it. The present Aceldama has always been much 
revered by Christians, and is frequently visited by pilgrims, many 
of whom are buried here. The soil is believed to be very favourable 
to decomposition. 

13a. To the "NV. of the Aceldama there is a large and finely 
hewn cavern, the chambers of which are encrusted with mortaT. 
The tombs in the lateral chambers are of the shelf or niche form. 
The Greek Christians call the cavern Ferdus er-Rum, or paradise of 
the Greeks, or the 'cavern of the giant saint Onophrius'. 

13b, 13c. Uninteresting. 

24. About 20 paces below Aceldama, to the N., are two cham- 
bers with shaft and niche tombs. 

15. Unimportant. 

16. A cavern with a lower story containing shaft-tombs. The 
white limestone of the central chamber is remarkable for its red 

17. A cavern witli ancient Greek inscriptions. 

18. Lower down, a tomb with the inscription, 'Burial-place of 
the holy church of Zion for several persons from Rome,' in Greek. 

19 — 21. Unimportant. 

22. Tomb with an inscription like No. 11, and provided with 
a cistern. 

23. Cavern, to which ten steps in the rock ascend. Over the 

of Jerusalem. RIRKET ES-SULTAN. 4. Route. 231 

entrance to the chamber is the inscription, 'The excellent monument 
is the tonib of Amarulf from Germany', in Greek. 

Towards the AV. end of the ancient tombs a road turns to the 
right and leads across the valley of Hinnom. Instead of mounting 
to the Gate of Zion towards the N., we continue to ascend the 
valley. The large Jewish Hospice, or pooT-house (PI. f), founded 
by Sir Moses Montefiore, presents a very imposing appearance when 
seen hence, though a building of very inconsiderable depth. Beyond 
it are several windmills. In about 4 min. more we reach the Birket 
es-SuUan, or Pool of the Sultan, a large reservoir constructed in the 
valley below the S.W. angle of the town-wall. It is 175 yds. long 
from N. to S., and 73 yds. in width; the N. wall has fallen to 
ruin. On the N. side it is 35 ft. in depth, and on the S. side 
41 ft., including the rubbish. This imposing reservoir has been 
constructed by the erection of two substantial walls across the 
valley, the intervening space being excavated as far as the rocky 
sides of the valley, these last thus forming the two other sides. 
There were probably once two ponds here. The dry floor of the 
lower part consists of rock. The higher part on the E. side is now 
used as a garden. In the middle of the bridge to the S. of the pond 
is an old well, now dry. — This reservoir is also probably to be re- 
ferred to the ancient Jewish epoch, and is sometimes supposed to 
be the 'lower pool' referred to by Isaiah (xxii. 9). In the time of 
the Franks it was called dermanus, in memory of the Crusader 
who discovered Job's "Well. It was remodelled at that period, and 
in the second half of the 16th cent, was restored by Sultan Soli- 
man, whence its present name. At a later period the spot was 
pointed out here where David first beheld Eathsheba. 

To the N. of the pond runs the conduit which comes from the 
pools of Solomon (p. 254), descending the valley, and turning to 
the S. beyond it. From this point the road ascends the valley in 
about 5 min. to the Yafa Gate. Instead of taking that route, we 
may ascend directly to the town, towards the E., from the S. end 
of the pond. The first building which strikes the eye is Bishop 
Gobat's English School (PI. 29), situated opposite the Jewish 
Hospital, where Arab orphans and other children are educated in 
the Protestant faith. An old building called Blr el-Yehudi, or 
cistern of the Jews, which was sometimes supposed to have been 
David's residence, formerly stood here. The N. part of the school- 
house stands on a remarkable cube of rock. Beyond it are a garden 
and the English and German Protestant burial-ground. During the 
construction of the school and the levelling of the cemetery the 
workpeople came upon drafted blocks and artificially hewn slopes 
of rock, the direction of which indicates that they once bore the 
most ancient city-wall. About 160 paces S. E. of the school an an- 
cient rock-staircase has been discovered , each of the 36 steps of 
which is about 1 ft. in height. Owing to the rough style in which 

232 Route 4. CCRNACULTJM. Environs 

it is executed, it is believed to be of very remote origin. — In 1875 
Mr. Maudslay caused excavations to be made here on the S. side of 
the city, and for a long distance laid bare the face of the rock on 
which the ancient city-wall stood. These excavations, by which a 
tower, several reservoirs, etc., have been brought to light, are 
worthy of inspection. 

Our best route from the bishop's school to the tenaculum is to 
ascend to the S.W. corner of the town- wall, and there turn to the 
right. The Crenaculum lies in the midst of a congeries of buildings 
resembling a village, and called by the Muslims Neby Daiid ['pro- 
phet David'). The gate is on the N. side. It formerly belonged to 
the Christians , but is now in possession of the Muslims. The 
'Chamber of the Last Slipper'' , or Ccenaculum, is shown here. A 
Muslim custodian (fee 2 — 5 piastres) conducts the visitor to a room 
on the first floor, divided into two parts by two columns in the 
middle, and formerly a Christian church. Half-pillars with quaint 
capitals are built into the walls. The ceiling consists of pointed 
vaulting of the 14th century. Three windows look into the court. 
In the S.W. corner of the room a staircase descends to a lower story, 
and in the middle is shown the place where the table [sufra) of 
the Lord is said to have stood. Beyond a slightly raised space is a 
side room, in which the visitor sees a long, covered, and certainly 
modern coffin, styled the Sarcophagus of David, and said to be a 
copy of the genuine coffin of David which is alleged still to exist 
in subterranean vaults below this spot, in honour of which the 
Muslims have erected a mosque here. 

The church on Zion (comp. p. 147) dates from the begin- 
ning of the Christian period, being mentioned as early as the 4th 
cent., before the erection of the Church of the Sepulchre. In the 
time of the Empress Helena a 'Church of the Apostles' stood on the 
supposed scene of the Descent of the Holy Ghost, which was probably 
this spot. The 'column of scourging' (p. 198) was also probably 
here. It was not till the 7th cent, that tradition combined the scene 
of the Last Supper with that of the Descent of the Holy Chost, a 
combination neither warranted nor precluded by anything in the 
Bible. The scene of the Virgin's death was also at a later period 
transferred hither. In the time of the Franks the church was called 
the Church of Zion, or Church of St. Mary. The church of the 
Crusaders consisted of two stories. The lower had three apses, an 
altar on the spot where Mary died, and another on the spot where 
Jesus appeared 'in Galilee'. The washing of the apostles' feet was 
also said to have taken place here, while the upper story was con- 
sidered the scene of the Last Supper. Connected with the church 
of Zion there was an Augustinian abbey. In 1333 the Franciscans 
established themselves here, and from them the building received 
its present form. Attached to the monastery was a large hospital, 
erected in 1354 by a wealthy Florentine lady, and committed to the 

of Jerusalem. MOUNT ZION. 4. Route. 233 

care of the brethren. To this day the superior of the Franciscans is 
called the 'Guardian of Mount Zion'. For centuries the Muslims did 
their utmost to gain possession of these buildings, and as early as 
1479 they forbade pilgrims to visit the scene of the Descent of the 
Holy Ghost, as they themselves revered the tombs of David and 
Solomon on the same spot. In 1547 they at length succeeded in 
depriving the Franciscans of all their possessions, and for the next 
three centuries Christians had great difficulty in obtaining access to 
the place. The Tomb of David formed one of the holy places in 
the church of Zion so far back as the Crusaders' period, and it is 
possible that ancient tombs still exist beneath the building; what 
is now shown, however, is hardly worth visiting. As David and his 
descendants were buried in 'the city of Da\id'(l Kings ii. 10, etc.'), 
the expression was once thought to mean Bethlehem, and their 
tombs were accordingly shown near that town from the 3rd to the 
6th century. The evangelists, however, vrho were doubtless aware 
of the site of David's tomb, appear to place it in Jerusalem (Acts 
ii. 29°), where by this time Hyrcanus and Herod had robbed the 
tombs of all their precious contents. According to Xehemiah, iii. 16, 
we are justified in seeking for the tombs of the kings on Zion, but 
they were more probably on the Temple mount, above the pool of 
Siloah, Tather than here on the plateau of the upper town. Other 
authorities suppose that David caused himself to be buried in the 
'cotton grotto' (p. 239). 

Approaching the town from this spot towards the N.. we soon 
reach a bifurcation of the road. The edifice forming the corner is 
the Armenian Monastery of Mount Zion, or according to the legend 
the House of Caiaphas (PI. 55), called by the Arabs Hubs el-Mcsth, 
or prison of Christ. The small iron wicket of the monastery is on 
the N.E. side. The large vine and the tombs of the Armenian 
patriarchs of Jerusalem in the quadrangle should be noticed. The 
small church, adorned with paintings, has an altar containing the 
'angel's stone' with which the holy sepulchre is said to have been 
closed, and which the pilgrims kiss. A door to the S. leads into a 
chamber styled the prison of Christ. The spot where Peter denied 
Christ, and the court where the cock crew, are also shown. — The 
'angel's stone' is not heard of till the 14th cent., since which period 
it has been differently described and probably renewed. The legend 
as to the scene of the denial dates from the second half of the 15th 
century. The tradition regarding the house of Caiaphas also fluc- 
tuates. One author in 333 informs us that the house then stood 
between Siloah and Zion. The 'prison of Christ' was then for a time 
transferred by tradition to the praetorium (comp. p. 208), as perhaps 
the praetorium of the Crusaders stood here. At the beginning of the 

a. 'Men and brethren, let me freely speak unto you of the patriarch 
David, that he is both dead and buried, and his sepulchre is wilh us 
unto this day.' 

234 Route 4. LEPERS" HOSPITAL. Environs 

14th cent, the prison -was shown in the church of the Redeemer, 
where the house of Caiaphas was said to have stood, but since the 
beginning of the 15th cent, this spot has been permanently fixed 
upon as its site. The Armenians have long possessed the place, but 
sometimes allow the Latins to say mass here. 

A few paces to the N. we reach the Gate of Zion (Arab. Bab 
en-Neby Baud, gate of the prophet David '), which is situated in a 
tower of the town-wall. According to the inscription it was built 
in 947 (1539' — 40), and it has a massive door in two wings, mounted 
with iron. On paying a trifling bakhshish, visitors are conducted to 
the top of the battlements, where they enjoy a fine view of the hills 
beyond Jordan. Within the gate we turn first to the right, and then 
to the left, in order to reach the Bazaar (p. 211); or to the left, and 
then to the right, in order to reach the tufa Gate (p. 160). 

Erom the Yafa Gate we may pay a visit to the Lepers' Hospital. 
We descend the second street to the left, and reach in 5 min. a 
Greek cafe' shaded by a large tree on the right. (Mr. Cook's new hotel 
will be established here.) We pass some houses and tombs on 
the right, beyond which we ascend three steps, pass through an 
iron door, and traverse the garden of the hospital. This establish- 
ment was fitted up in 1867, and is presided over by a German 
custodian. The disease is not at all infectious, but the seclusion 
of the patients is necessary to prevent them from marrying and 
thus perpetuating the evil. Hideously repulsive leprous beggars 
are still met with on the Yafa road, as many of them, particularly 
the Jews, have a great repugnance to being lodged in the hospital; 
but it is hoped that most of them will in time be thus secluded, as 
there is no other effectual mode of eradicating this loathsome and 
generally incurable disease. The malady being hereditary, the 
children of leprous persons are almost always attacked with it in 
later life. In 1873 there were thirteen patients in the hospital. 

Leprosy was a disease of somewhat frequent occurrence among the 
Israelites, and when they escaped from the yoke of the Egyptians they 
were taunted with being a crowd of lepers. The Biblical regulations 
regarding leprosy are of a very rigorous character (Levit. xiii, xiv). Every 
one who had white spots or swellings on his skin had to show himself 
to the priest and submit to a seclusion of seven days ; and if he were 
found to he leprous he was compelled to live outside the town (comp. 
2 Kings vii. 3; xv. 5). A description of the terrible suffering caused by the 
malady is contained in the book of Job. Recovery, effected by a reaction 
of the skin, was of rare occurrence (Numb. xii. 10 — 15), and numerous 
ceremonies and sacrifices had to be performed before the convalescent 
could be received back into the community. Several months before the 
outbreak of the disease the patient feels languid and suffers from cold 
chills, shivering in the limbs, and attacks of fever. Reddish spots then 
make their appearance on the skin, and under them rise dark red lumps 
which are more or less movable. In the face particularly these lumps 
unite into groups resembling bunches of grapes. The mouth and lips 
swell, the eyes run, and the patient is frequently tormented by excessive 
itching over the whole body. The mucous membrane begins to be de- 
stroyed, and nodules form internally also. The organs of speaking, seeing, 
and hearing become affected. At length the swellings burst, turn into 

of Jerusalem. MAMILLA POOL. J. Route. 235 

dreadful, festering sores, and heal up again, but only to break out at 
a different place. The lingers become bent, and some of the limbs begin 
to rot away. This kind of leprosy with ils accompanying swellings, 
differs from the smooth leprosy, which produces painful, flat, inflamed 
patches on the skin, followed by sores. Other maladies are generally super- 
induced by the leprosy, but the patient sometimes drags on his melancholy 
existence for twenty years or more. The patienls in this hospital 
present a spectacle of human misery in one of its most frightful phases, 
and the visitor will not fail to sympathise with the benevolent efforts 
that are being made to alleviate their suffering to the utmost, and to 
prevent the farther spread of the scourge. 

Opposite the lepers' hospital, a few paces to the N. of the road, 
and nearly at the end of the valley of Ilinnom . is situated the 
Mamilla Fool, lying in the middle of a Muslim burial-ground. 
The pool is from E. to W. 97 yds. long, and from N. to S. 04 yds. 
wide, and 19 ft. in depth. In the S. corner are traces of steps. It 
is partly hewn in the rock, but the sides are also lined with a double 
wall. On the S. and W. sides aTe flying buttresses. In winter it is 
filled with rain-water, but it is empty in summer and autumn. The 
outlet, lined with masonry, is at the bottom, in the middle of the 
E. side, and runs thence in windings towards the town, which it 
enters by a depression a little to the S. of the Yafa Gate, discharging 
its water into the patriarch's pool (p. 21V). It seems natural to 
suppose that this reservoir is the 'upper Gihon', or at least the 
'upper pool', but no spring has yet been discovered to the W. of 
Jerusalem which answers to Gihon. Judging from various Bib- 
lical passages, we must probably rather seek for the 'upper pool' 
(Isaiah vii. 3) on the N. side of the town. This reservoir, on the 
other hand, probably answers to the 'Serpent PooV mentioned by 
Joseph ns, up to which Titus caused the ground to be levelled in 
order to facilitate his operations against the city (v. 3, 2). ■ — Route 
to the Monastery of the Cross, see It. 8. — AVe turn from the pool 
towards the N., leaving to the right the road by which we came, and 
thus reach the Yafa road. 

4. N.W. Side of the City. Russian Buildings. Tombs of the 
Kings, etc. — The Yafa Road, which at first skirts thetown- wall, the 
best road in the environs of Jerusalem, is often enlivened by pro- 
cessions of arriving and departing pilgrims and with foot-passengers. 
The muleteers and horse-owners, too, are generally posted outside 
the Yafa Gate, where travellers will find them lounging at the 
numerous Arabian cafes. On this N.W. side of the town there are 
remains of two towers, which however are only accessible from within 
the city, called Kal'at Jalud (castle of Goliath , PI. 32) by the 
Arabs. There is also a fragment of wall, in form approaching a cube, 
being about 19 ft. high, 30 paces long, and 24 paces wide. The top 
commands a view which repays the ascent. On the side next the 
oity-wall is a vault, where the large drafted blocks should be noticed. 
The roof is formed by five arches. At the base of the S.W. corner, 
viewed from the outside, are four courses of large drafted blocks, 
doubtless forming part of some ancient wall. Robinson identifies 

236 Route 4. RUSSIAN BUILDINGS. Environs 

this tower -with the mediaeval Tower of Tancred, although tradition 
places the latter at the N.E. angle of the town- -wall. 

On the Yafa road, outside the town-wall, we soon come to the 
first guard-house (p. 140). A little farther on, the eye is struck 
with the large walled quadrangle of the Russian Buildings, which 
we may enter on the S. side from the place called Meiddn. The 
first building on the left is the excellent hospital with the druggist's 
store and the residence of the physician; beyond it, the so-called 
Mission-house with the dwellings of the priests and the archi- 
mandrite, and rooms for wealthier pilgrims. Below, to the right,, is 
the Russian consulate with its flagstaff, beyond which, to the N., is 
a large building for female pilgrims. In the centre of the court, to 
the left, stands the handsome Cathedral, between the Mission-house 
and the building destined for the poorer pilgrims. The cells for the 
latter are rude and without beds , but the establishment is a 
great boon to that class, and accommodates 1000 persons at a time. 
The church is spacious and richly decorated in the interior. Divine 
service, accompanied by good singing, generally takes place about 
5 p.m., and may best be heard from the gallery. The building was 
begun in 1860 and completed in 1864. Several fragments of ancient 
columns were discovered when the foundations were being laid, and 
to the S. of the church may be seen a gigantic column [40 ft. by 
5 ft.), cut in the solid rock and not yet severed from the soil. 

A little farther on, to the left of the Yafa road, we observe the 
Talitha Kumi (Mark, v. 41 : 'Damsel, I say unto thee, Arisel'), an 
orphanage for girls founded by the Uhenish- Westphalian deaconesses. 
In this well organised building about a hundred Arab girls are 
educated by seven deaconesses and a lady superintendent. — A 
similar establishment, at the back of the Russian buildings, towards 
the N. , is Schneller's Syrian Orphanage for boys , where seventy 
pupils are taught by two masters and three teachers of handicrafts. 

To the E. of the wall of the liussian buildings a road leads to 
the N., traverses the olive-grove to the N. of the town, and crosses 
the road from the Damascus Gate to Neby Samwil (p. 143). In 10 
min. it leads us to the so-called Tombs of the Kings (Arab. Kubur 
es-Saltittn) , which lie a few paces to the E. of a cross-road, where 
a cistern is situated. We first look down into a large square chamber 
hewn in the rock, which is entered from the S. side by a flight of 
broad and high steps cut in the rock. A partly buried passage leads 
hence through a rocky wall, 4^ ft. thick, into an open court hewn 
in the rock, 30 yds. long and '27 yds. wide. (On the E. side of the 
entrance lies a cistern.) We now at length perceive to the W. the 
richly hewn portal of the rock-tombs. The portal has lately been 
widened to 38 ft.; like that of St. James' grotto (p. 223), it was 
formerly borne by two columns which relieved the open space. Some 
of the mouldings of the portal are still in admirable preservation, 
consisting of a broad girdle of wreaths, fruit, and foliage. We next 

of Jerusalem. TOMBS OF THE KINGS. 4. Route. T.\l 

enter a vestibule and here light our candles. The entrance to the 
tombs is on the S. side; to the right a round cistern, whence a 
short staircase descends. (By the side of the entrance has lately 
been found a curious rolling stone, which had previously been dis- 
covered but again lost, used to close the entrance to the tombs. ) 
A low passage first leads into a chamber about 19 ft. square, whence 
three entrances lead to tomb-chambers, two on the 8., and one on 

the "W. The S. E. chamber contains rock-shelves on three sides, 
and shaft-tombs on two sides. The second chamber has a depression 
in the middle, three shaft-tombs on the S., and three on the W. 
side. Immediately to the right of the entrance into this chamber 
a passage leads to the N. to a lower chamber, on the floor of which 
lies a handsome sarcophagus lid. The chamber to the W. of the ves- 
tibule contains three shelves, each with three shaft-tornbs. From 
the middle of the side to the right of the entrance a passage leads 
into a square opening, and thence to a chamber of some size with 
two vaulted niche-tombs and a recess at the back. — The different 
chambers bear distinct traces of having once been closed by properly 
fitted stone doors. These tombs once contained richly decorated 
sarcophagi, but few traces of these now remain. 

These catacombs, the careful construction of which leads to the 
inference that they were the burial-places of persons of high rank, 
are revered by the Jews, who from a very early period have called 
them the Cavern ofZedekiah, or the Tomb of the rich Kalba Sabua, a 
noble who lived at the time of the Roman siege. It is most probable, 

238 Route 



however, that this is the Tomb of Queen Helena of Adiabene, which 
according to Josephus was situated here. This queen, with her 
son Izates, became converted to Judaism in her own country, and, 
after the death of her husband Mumbaz in A.D. 48, resided at 
Jerusalem. She afterwards returned home, but after her death her 
body was brought to Jerusalem and buried in a pyramidal tomb 
three stadia from the city. Izates had twenty-four sons, and 
hence probably the extent of the tomb. These vaults were under- 
stood to be tombs as early as the 14th cent., and they were sometimes 
referred by tradition to the early kings of Judah , whence they are 
still called 'tombs of the kings'. 

About \ hr. farther to the N.W., on the road to Neby Samwil 
(p. 143), are situated the so-called Tombs of the Judges, to which 
a separate excursion should be made. On the W. side of the rock 
there is a small forecourt, 7^- ft. deep, leading to a vestibule, 12 ft. 
wide, open in front, and provided with a gable. In the tympanum 
is a ring from which pointed leaves extend in the form of rays. 
Another gable rises over the portal which leads into the tomb- 
chamber. The portal was once capable of being closed from within. 
The S.E. and N.W. corners of the first tomb-chamber are imbedded 


in rubbish. On the left (N. ) side of it are seven shaft-tombs, above 
which, at irregular distances, are three vaulted niche-tombs; and 
at the back of these again there are several shaft-tombs. In the W. 
wall is a niche. Adjoining this first chamber on the E. and S. are 
two others on about the same level, and two on a lower level. On 
each of three sides of the E. chamber are three shaft-tombs on a 
level with the ground, and 3 ft. above these are four more of the 
same kind. The S. chamber has on each of three sides three shaft- 
tombs, and above these a long vaulted niche- tomb. From the first 
chamber a passage , with three shaft- tombs, descends to the N.E. 
chamber, which contains five shaft-tombs on the N., five on the S., 
and three on the E. side. The other side-chamber contains no 
tombs , having been probably left unfinished ; it was once lighted 
from above. — The myth that the 'Judges of Israel' are buried here 
is modern. These chambers have also been styled 'tombs of the 

of Jerusalem. COTTON GROTTO. 4. Route. 239 

prophets', and sometimes those of the members of the Jewish courts 
of justice. There are other rock-tombs in the vicinity, but none of 
so great extent. 

Beyond the tombs of the kings the road descends into the upper 
valley of the Kidron, Arab. Wady el-Joz (nut valley), through 
which the great caravan-route leads to Nabulus (p. 324); by the 
latter we return to the town towards the S , avoiding a road to the 
left which diverges to the S.E. near the tombs of the kings. On 
this N. plateau were situated country houses and orchards in the 
Jewish period, a fact proved by the heaps of stones and the numerous 
cisterns and reservoirs found here. Descending a hill, we reach the 
Damascus Gate iu 10 min., but, instead of entering, turn to the left 
and in two or three minutes reach the so-called Grotto of Jeremiah 
on the left. This is now a Muslim sanctuary, and a wall is built 
across the entrance. The Muslim custodian often makes extortionate 
demands before he will open the door, but becomes reasonable when 
the traveller turns to go away (1 fr.). We first enter a small open 
court planted with fruit-trees, a view of which can also be obtained 
from the hill. Fragments of columns are scattered about here. 
Passing through a kind of mosque, we are conducted into a cavern 
towards the B., and then into a second, circular in shape, about 40 
paces long and 35 wide , and supported by a pillar in the centre. 
To the S.W. we are shown the tomb of the Sultan Ibrahim, and 
beyond it a lofty rock-shelf with the tomb of Barukh ed-Din. Since 
the 15th cent, this has been called the tomb of Jeremiah, and the 
prophet is said to have written his Lamentations here. These caverns 
were once inhabited by Muslim santons or monks. — From the court 
there is an entrance and a descent of five steps to a vault borne by 
a slender column with an elegant capital, beyond which a passage 
leads to the N., and eleven steps then descend towards the S.W. 
We find here a large and handsome cistern, with its roof supported 
by a massive pillar, and lighted from above. This is the most 
interesting object in these vaults, which were originally quarries. 
The rock may possibly have once extended from this point to the 
town-wall, and been afterwards removed to increase the strength 
of the fortifications. 

Outside the N. part of the town-wall, which here stands on the 
rock, runs a moat, and beyond it rises a heap of debris thrown up 
during the building of the Austrian hospice. Near this spot, about 
100 paces to the E. of the Damascus Gate, and exactly opposite 
the grotto of Jeremiah, there is in the rock, 19 ft. below the wall, 
the entrance to the so-called Cotton Grotto, discovered in 1852. 
Muslim authors speak of this cavern as the cotton, or Tather linen 
grotto (maghiiret el-kettdn), but it is now generally admitted that 
it is simply an extensive subterranean quarry, stretching far below 
the level of the city, and sloping considerably down towards the S. 
On the sides are still seen niches for the lamps of the quarry men. 

240 Route 1. DAMASCUS GATE. 

The rocky roof is supported by huge pillars. The blocks were se- 
parated from the rock by means of wooden wedges, which were 
driven in and wetted so as to cause them to swell ; and traces of this 
mode of working the quarry are still distinguishable. We possess 
no clue as to the period when the quarry was used. It extends 
towards the S. for a distance of 200 yds.; visitors require a light 
and a compass, or a thread to be used as a clue, or they may take a 
guide. If they are alone, a simple rule for their guidance is always to 
follow the main wall to the right, or always to the left, in which 
case they cannot fail to regain the entrance in time. The floor is very 
uneven, especially at places where blocks of rock have fallen down. 
There is a trickling spring on the right side, but the water is bad. 
We now cross the heap of debris to the pinnacled Damascus Gate, 
which like the others is built in an irregular, angular form, and has 
two large iron-mounted doors. This is the handsomest gate at Jeru- 
salem, and in its present form is a fine example of the architec- 
ture of the 16th century. According to the inscription, it was built, 
or at least restored, by Soliman in the year 944 of the Hegira. On 
each side are very slender columns, above which is a pointed gable 
with an inscription. From these columns the gate is called Bab el~ 
'Amud, or 'gate of the columns'. The tower of the gate commands 
a celebrated view. In the 12th cent, the gate was called that of 
'St. Stephen', as a church dedicated to that saint stood in the neigh- 
bourhood (comp. p. 207). Excavations here have elicited the fact 
that the gate undoubtedly stands on the site of an ancient gate, as 
a reservoir and a fragment of wall (running from E. to W.) con- 
structed of drafted blocks have been discovered here. It is, how- 
ever, possible that this wall was built by the Crusaders with an- 
cient materials. The Damascus Gateway consists, properly speak- 
ing, of two gate-towers, between which there are distinct traces of 
an ancient gateway, or at least of the upper part of the arch of the 
gateway which probably once formed an entrance through the third 
wall (p. 154). Tiider the gates there still exist subterranean 
chambers. That of the E. tower is 15 paces long and 9 paces wide, 
and is built of large blocks. The rushing of a subterranean water- 
course is said to have been frequently heard below the Damascus 
• iate, and it is not improbable that one may exist here. 

5. From Jerusalem to Bethlehem. 

This is a ride of 1 hr. 20 min., but the excursion may also be 
made on foot. Immediately outside the Yafa Gate the road de- 
scends to the left into the upper part of the valley of Hinnom, but 
another diverging to the left by the Mamilla pond (p. 235), being 
more level, is pleasanter for riding. Skirting the right side of the 
valley, we see the TUrket es-Sultan (p. 231) lying to the left below 
us, and a little farther on, we leave the Montefiore institution and 
a windmill on the hill to the right. At the point where the valley 







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MAR ELY AS. 5. Route. 241 

turns towards the E., our route ascends in a straight direction over 
slabs of rock. The best view of Jerusalem from this quarter is 
obtained by diverging to the left, immediately before the table- 
land is reached, and ascending the Hill of Evil Counsel (p. 228), a 
walk of a few minutes only. Its barren summit commands a parti- 
cularly good survey of the S. side of Jerusalem, with the village of 
Silwan and the Mt. of Olives opposite, and the villages of Bet Su- 
fafa, Esh-Sherafat, and the monastery of Mar Elyas to the S. The 
ruins on the 'hill of evil counsel' are probably those of an Arabian 
village, though traditionally called the Country-house of Caiaphas. 

The lofty plain extending hence towards the S., which our route 
traverses, is called Beka'a. Since the 16th cent, an attempt has 
been made to identify this region with the valley of Rephaim, 
through which the boundary between Judah and Benjamin ran 
(Josh. xv. 8, etc.). That valley derived its name from its abori- 
ginal inhabitants (p. 52). The Philistines were frequently encam- 
ped there, and it was there that they were defeated by David 
(2 Sam. v. 18, etc.). Tobler thought he had discovered the valley 
of Rephaim in the Wady Der Yasin, to the W.N.W. of Jerusalem, 
but this is in direct contradiction to the account of Josephus. 

The plain sinks towards the W. to the Wady el-Werd (valley of 
roses, p. 251). On the right, at the entrance to this valley, we first 
observe the village of Bet Sufdfa, and then that of Esh-Sherafat, 
at some distance from the road. In this plain also, which is now 
tolerably cultivated, tradition points out several sacred spots. A 
ruin to the right, at some distance, called Katamon and recently 
restored, is said to have been the House of Simeon (Luke ii. 25). 
Farther on, near some stones scattered along the path, is shown the 
Well of the Magi, where these sages are said to have again seen 
the guiding star (Matth. ii. 9 a ). At the extremity of the plain we 
pass the country-residence of the Greek patriarch on the right , and 
ascend a hill to the monastery of Mar Ely&s. on the left, ^ hr. 
from Jerusalem, very pleasantly situated on the saddle of the hill. 
On the way from the main road to the monastery lies a well from 
which the Holy Family is said once to have drunk. The view from 
the adjoining hill to the right is quite as fine as that from the terrace 
of the monastery. To the S.E. lies Bethlehem, to the N. Jerusalem, 
beyond which rises Neby Samwil , and the blue mountain-range to 
the E. of Jordan forms a beautiful background. The substantially 
built monastery is occupied by a few Greek monks only. It was 
erected at an unknown date by a bishop Elias, whose tomb was 
shown in the monastery church down to the 17th cent., and was 
rebuilt during the Frank regime (1160) after its destruction by the 
infidels. Shortly afterwards the tradition was invented that the 

a. 'When they had heard the king, they departed; and, lo, the star, 
which they saw in the east, went before them, till it came and stood 
over where the young child was.' 

Palestine. 16 

242 Route 5. TOMB OF RACHEL. From Jerusalem 

place was connected with the prophet Elijah , and the events 
described in 1 Kings xix. 3 et seq. , were even localised in a de- 
pression in the rock (to the right of the path , opposite the monas- 
tery-door), which was said to have been made by the prophet's foot. 

Beyond the monastery of Mar Elyas the road leads to the right, 
skirting a valley which begins to the E. of this point and descends to 
the Dead Sea. The soil here is cultivated. In front of us, beyond 
the valley towards theS. E., the round summit of the Frank Mountain 
(p. 256) comes in sight and towards the S. Bethlehem. On the r. 
(S.S.W.) lies the large village of Bet Jala (p. 253), with its white 
buildings. After 13 min. we observe on a hill to the right the 
beautifully situated ' Tantur (tower). The buildings in course of 
erection belong to the Bom. Oath. Maltese Order , and are destined 
for the reception of sick and destitute persons , irrespective of their 
nationality or religion. By a ruined little tower to the right of the 
road is shown the Field of Pease , so called from the legend that 
Christ once asked a man what he was sowing, to which the reply 
was 'stones'. The field thereupon produced pease of stone, some of 
which are still to be found on the spot. 

After 9 min. a road diverges to the right, leading to Hebron and 
the Pools of Solomon (p. 253). To the right here stands an in- 
significant building styled the Tomb of Rachel (Kubbet BdhU). 
The dome of the tomb closely resembles those of the innumerable 
Muslim welies (p. 35), and the whitened sarcophagus is apparently 
modern. The entrance is on the N. side. The tomb is revered by 
Muslims, Christians, and Jews, and is much visited by pilgrims, 
especially of the last-named faith. The walls are covered with the 
names of these devotees. The tradition appears to agree with the 
Bible narrative. Rachel died on the route to EphTatah (Bethle- 
hem), in giving birth to Benjamin, and was buried 'in the way' 
(Gen. xxxv. 19). Throughout the whole of the Christian period the 
tradition has always attached to the same spot, and for many centuries 
the supposed tomb was marked by a pyramid of stones, of which 
the number was said to have been twelve, corresponding with the 
number of the tribes of Israel. The monument appears to have 
been altered in the 15th cent., since which time it has been re- 
peatedly restored. A serious objection to the genuineness of the 
tomb, however, is founded on the passage 1 Samuel x. 2, where 
Rachel's tomb is described as being in the border of Benjamin. As 
the boundary between Judah and Benjamin could not, for many 
reasons, have passed this way, it is more probable that the tomb 
lay on the N. side of Jerusalem. 

"We continue to follow the main pilgrimage route, and in 13 mill, 
reach the hill opposite Bethlehem. To the left of the hill a path 
leads between walls in about 2 min. to the so-called David's Well. 
There are here three cisterns hewn in the rock, of which the most 
southern is the principal. A building, perhaps a monastery, once 

to Bethlehem. BETHLEHEM. 5. Route. 243 

stood heie. According to tradition, tliese are the cisterns which 
were 'by the gate of Bethlehem', whence the 'three mighty men' 
who had forced their way through the host of the Philistines, 
brought water to David (2 Sam. xxiii. 14—17). After much waver- 
ing , the tradition has been associated with this spot since the end 
of the 15th cent., but there can be no certainty as to the true site 
of the well until the position of Adullam be approximately ascer- 
tained (comp. p. 255). These cisterns are now nearly empty. The 
view of Bethlehem, situated beyond the Wady el-Kharrubeh, or 
valley of the carobs, is very picturesque from this point. The eye 
is at once struck with the careful way in which the ground is 
cultivated in terraces. The vegetation here, partly owing to the 
greater industry of the inhabitants, is richer than in the immediate 
environs of Jerusalem. 

Bethlehem. History. In the name of this town (Arab BU Lafiem), which 
has existed for thousands of years, is perpetuated a very ancient popular, 
but sensible tradition. In Hebrew the word means the 'place of bread', 
or more generally the 'place of food 1 , and is probably derived from the 
fact that the region about Bethlehem has from very remote antiquity 
presented a marked contrast to the surrounding 'wilderness' (1 Sam. xvii. 
28). Thence, too, it derived the epithet of Ephratah (Micah v. 2 a ), or 'the 
fruitful', though some have derived this name from Ephratah, Caleb's 
wife (1 Chron. ii. 50). We learn from the Bible that the inhabitants of 
Bethlehem possessed cornfields, vineyards, and flocks of goats, and that 
they made cheese (i Sam. xvi. 20; xvii. 18). Bethlehem is the scene of 
the beautiful idyl of the book of Ruth, which forms an introduction to 
the history of David, and it is to that monarch, who, especially at a 
later period , was looked upon as an ideal type , that the little town 
owes its celebrity and importance. In the eyes of the prophets Bethlehem 
was specially sacred as the home of the family of David , and the other 
celebrated members of the family, Joab, Asahel , and Abishai , also once 
resided here (2 Sam. ii. 18). The town was fortified by Rehoboain 
('2 Chron. xi. 6). It was not, however, until the Christian period, 
when it began to attract pilgrims, that Bethlehem became a place of any 
size. Down to the 4th cent, it was still unimportant; Justinian, how- 
ever, caused the walls to be rebuilt, and so many monasteries and 
churches were soon erected that it is spoken of as a flourishing place 
about the year 600, its church being at that period especially famous. 
On the approach of the Crusaders the Arabs destroyed Bethlehem, 
but the Franks soon rebuilt the little town, and founded a castle near 
the monastery. In 1244 the place was devastated by the Kharez- 
mians; in 1489 the fortifications were destroyed, and the walls and 
monastery razed to the ground. For a time the place lost much of its 
importance, but within the last two or three centuries it has gradually 
recovered. Quarrels between the Christians and the Muslims of Hebron 
and their other neighbours frequently caused bloodshed, and the inhabi- 
tants were even occasionally molested by the predatory incursions of the 
Beduins. The Muslims, who occupied a separate quarter at Bethlehem, 
were expelled by the Christians in 1831 on the occasion of a riot which 
had broken out owing to the imposition of a new tax, and after an 
insurrection in 1834 their quarter was destroyed by order of Ibrahim 
Pasha. Since that period 'the town has been almost exclusively occupied 
by Christians. 

a. 'But thou, Beth-lehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the 
thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall he come forth unto me that is 
to be ruler in Israel.' 


244 Route 5. BETHLEHEM. From Jerusalem 

Bethlehem is situated 2527 ft. above the level of the sea, on 
two hills running from E. to W., and connected with each other by 
a short saddle. To the S. of the town is situated the Wady er- 
Bahib, and to the N. the Wady el-Kharrubeh, whose well-cultivated 
terraces we have already mentioned. The slope of the hills towards 
the W. and E. is gentler than towards the N. and S. The situation 
of Bethlehem and its surrounding valleys is not unlike that of 
Jerusalem. — The wine of Bethlehem is considered better than 
that of Jerusalem. A kind of inn is kept by Hr. Schafer, a German, 
near the Protestant institution (see below). 

The town, which consists of several different quarters, numbers 
about 5000 inhabitants, about 300 of whom are Muslims and 50 
Protestants. The Latins possess a large monastery here with about 
15 Franciscan monks, where pilgrims are entertained for three days. 
The monastery lies on the slope of the hill, at the back of the large 
church, and has a school for boys and one for girls conducted by 
sisters of St. Joseph in connection with it. The Greeks have a 
monastery of the Nativity, two churches (St. Helena and St. 
George), and a school for boys and another for girls. The Armenian 
monastery accommodates 15 — IS monks and brethren. The three 
monasteries together occupy a large building resembling a fortress, 
which forms a prominent object at the S.E. end of the town. There 
is also, at the other end of the town, a German Protestant in- 
stitution with about 18 pupils, the master of which manages two 
other schools, attended by about 40 boys and 15 girls. 

The inhabitants, who have often given proofs of their intrepidity 
in their battles with their neighbours (see above), live chiefly by 
agriculture and breeding cattle, besides which they have for several 
centuries been occupied in the manufacture of images of saints, 
rosaries, crosses, and other fancy articles in wood, mother-of-pearl, 
coral, and stinkstone from the Dead Sea. The vases made of the 
last-named material, however, are very fragile. Bethlehem is also 
the market-town of the peasants and Beduins in the neighbourhood, 
many of the latter coming from the region of the Dead Sea. 

The large Church of St. Mary, erected over the traditional birth- 
place of Christ, lies in the \V. part of the town above the Kharriibeh 
valley, and is the joint property of the Greeks, Latins, and Armenians. 

The tradition which localises the birth of Christ in a Cavern near 
Bethlehem extends back as far as the 2nd century (Justin Martyr), but is 
not mentioned by the evangelists themselves. As an insult to the 
Christians, Hadrian is said to have destroyed a church which stood on the 
sacred spot, and to have erected a temple of Adonis in its stead, but this 
story is not authenticated. The first fact of which we are in possession 
is that in 330 a handsome basilica was erected here by order of the 
Emperor Constantine. De Vogue maintains that the present church is the 
original structure of the period of Constantine, and he draws this in- 
ference from the simplicity of its style and the absence of character- 
istics of the buildings of the subsequent era of Justinian. This view is 
borne out by the circumstance that we possess no account of buildings 
erected by Justinian at Bethlehem except in unfounded traditions of a 

to B'ethlehem. BETHLEHEM. 5. Route. 245 

later age. If this be the case, we are about to visit a church of 
venerable antiquity, and one which is specially interesting as an 
example of the earliest Christian style of architecture. In the year 
1010 the church is said to have miraculously escaped destruction 
by the Muslims under Hakim , and the Franks whose aid had been 
invoked by the Christians of Bethlehem found the church uninjured. 
Throughout the accounts of all the pilgrims of the middle ages there 
prevails so remarkable an unanimity regarding the situation and archi- 
tecture of the church , that there can be little doubt that it has never 
been altered. On Christmas Day, 1101, Baldwin was crowned king here, 
and in 1 110 Bethlehem was elevated to the rank of an episcopal see. 
The church soon afterwards underwent a thorough restoration, and the 
Byzantine emperor Manuel Comnenos (1143 — 1180) munificently caused 
the walls to be adorned with gilded mosaics. These were executed by 
an architect named Efrem , who introduced the effigy of the emperor at 
various places. The church was covered with lead. In 1482 the roof, 
which had become dilapidated, was repaired, Edward IV. of England 
giving the lead for the purpose, and Philip of Burgundy the pine-wood. 
The woodwork was then executed by artificers of Venice, conveyed by 
sea to Yafa, and carried thence to Bethlehem by camels. At that period 
the mosaics fell into disrepair, and the condition of the roof soon "became 
the subject of new complaints. Towards the end of the 18th cent, the 
Turks stripped the roof of its lead in order to make bullets. On the 
occasion of a restoration of the church in 1672 the Greeks managed to 
obtain possession of it. During the present century the roof has again 
been repaired. The Latins, who had long been excluded, were admitted 
to a share of the proprietorship of the church through the intervention 
of Napoleon III. in 1852. 

In front of the principal W. entrance (PI. 1) lies a large paved 
space, in which traces of the former atrium of the basilica have 
been discovered. This was a quadrangle surrounded by colonnades, 
in the centre of which were several cisterns for ablutions and 
baptisms. From the atrium three doors led into the vestibule of 
the church; but of these the central one only has been preserved, 
and it has long been reduced to very small dimensions from fear of 
the Muslims. The portal is of quadrangular form, and the simply 
decorated lintel is supported by two brackets. The windows on 
each side are built up. The porch is as wide as the nave of the 
church, but is not higher than the aisles, so that its roof is greatly 
overtopped by the pointed gable of the church. The porch is dark, 
and is divided by walls into several chambers. One door only leads 
from it into the church, instead of three as formerly. 

On entering the church we are struck by the grand simplicity 
of the structure, but the transept and apse are unfortunately con- 
cealed by a wall erected by the Greeks in 184'2. The building 
consists of a nave and double aisles, the nave being wider (11^ yds. ) 
than either pair of aisles (4^ yds. and 4 yds. ). The floor is paved 
with large slabs of stone. Each pair of aisles is separated by two rows 
of eleven monolithic columns of reddish limestone, with white veins. 
The base of each column rests on a square slab. The capitals are 
Corinthian, hut show a decline of the style; at the to}) of each 
is engraved a cross. The columns, including capitals and bases, are 
19 ft. high. The architraves above the columns recall the classical 
style of architecture. In the aisles these architraves bear the wooden 

246 Route 5. 


From Jerusalem 

beams of the roof. The aisles 'were not, as elsewhere, raised to the 
height of the nave by means of an upper gallery, but walls were 
erected to a height of about 32 ft. above the architraves^of the inner 
row of columns for the support of the Toof-beams of the nave. 
These form a pointed roof, dating from the end of the 17th cent., 
and once richly painted and gilded. The church is lighted only by 
the windows in the upper part of the wall, each window correspond- 
ing to a space between the columns. The smooth wall between the 
architrave and windows was covered with marbles and mosaics in 
the 12th century. This fivefold series of mosaics represents the 
following subjects, beginning from below: (1) A series of half- 
figures representing the ancestors of Christ; (2) A number of the 
most important Councils, with groups of fantastic foliage between 

1. Principal Entrance. 2. Entrance to the Armenian Monastery. 3. En- 
trance to the School of St. Jerome. 4. Entrance to the Greek Monastery. 
5. Font of the Greeks. 6. Entrance of the Greeks to the Choir. 7. Common 
Entrance of the Greeks and Armenians to the Choir. 8. Armenian Altar. 
9. Entrance to the Latin Church. 10. Steps leading to the Grotto of the 
Nativity (comp. Plan, p. 248). 11. Greek Altar. 12. GreekChoir. 13. Throne 
of the Greek Patriarch. 14. Seats of the Greek Clergy. 15. Pulpit. 
16. Latin Church of St. Catharine. 17. Latin Sacristy. 18. Entrance to 
the Latin Monastery. 19. Stairs to the Grottoes. 20. Stairs to the Cistern of 
St. Catharine. 21. Latin Monastery. 
The dotted lines in the Plan indicate the situation of the grottoes 
under the church (comp. Plan, p. 248). 

to Bethlehem. BETHLEHEM. 5. Route. 247 

them; (3) A frieze of foliage with rows of beading; (4) Figures of 
angels between the windows; (5) A frieze similar to No. 3. Very 
little, however, of these mosaics is now preserved. On the S. (right) 
side there are now about seven busts only, which represent the im- 
mediate ancestors of Joseph; above these are arcades, containing 
altars concealed by curtains, on which books of the Gospels are 
placed. The inscription above contains an extract from the re- 
solutions of the Council of Constantinople, and still higher are two 
crosses. Adjoining the arcades is placed a large, fantastic, artificial 
plant, formed of cubes of coloured glass on a gilded ground. The 
fragments preserved on the N. (left) side are more considerable. Here 
also , in the intervening spaces , are placed fantastic plants with 
vases or crosses ; but for the arcades are substituted representations 
of sections of churches, containing altars with books of the Gospels. 
Two of these are still preserved, viz. the churches of Antioch and 
Sardike, and one-half of a third church. The drawing is very primi- 
tive, being without perspective. Here, too, are Greek inscriptions re- 
lating to the resolutions of Councils. The order in which the Coun- 
cils were represented, with the relative inscriptions, is recorded in 
the writings of the earlier pilgrims. Above these churches there are 
remains of the figures of two angels between the windows. 

These are the arrangements of the front part of the basilica. A 
passage from the N. or S. aisle next leads us into the transept, which 
is of the same width as the nave. The four angles formed by the 
intersection of the transept with the nave are formed by four 
large piers , into which are built half-columns corresponding to the 
columns of the nave. The transepts terminate in semicircular apses. 
The nave is prolonged beyond the transept, but the aisles here are 
of unequal length, terminating in a straight wall, while the nave 
ends in an apse like those of the transept. This part of the church 
also was once embellished with mosaics , chiefly representing the 
history of Christ. The only one of these now extant is that of the 
S. apse of the transept, being a very quaint representation of the 
Entry into Jerusalem. Christ, accompanied by a disciple (the other 
figures having been destroyed), is riding on the ass. The people come 
from Jerusalem to meet him, and among them is observed a woman 
with a child sitting on her left shoulder. Smaller figures spread their 
garments in the way, and a man climbs a tree to cut branches. In the 
N. apse of the transept is a representation of the scene where Christ 
invites Thomas to examine his wounds. The apostles here are 
without the nimbus. In the background is seen a closed door, in 
front of which are arcades with foliaged capitals. The central arch 
is pointed. The third fragment represents the Ascension, but the 
upper part is gone. Here again the apostles are without the nimbus ; 
in their midst is the Virgin between two angels. The other small 
fragments are unimportant. 

In the S. part of the porch (PI. 2) is the entrance to the 

248 Route 5. 


From Jerusalem 

Armenian Monastery , and in the S. apse of the transept that 
(PI. 4) of the Greek Monastery, near which are the Font of the 
Greeks (PI. 5) and the Altar of the Circumcision. 

We now descend to the Crypt , situated under the great choir. 
It has three entrances , two of which are on opposite sides of the 
choir (PI. a); that on the N. side descends by a flight of 16 steps, 
and that on the S. side by a flight of 13 steps. The third entrance 
(PI. b) is from the church of St. Catharine. An entrance (PI. c) from 
the cloisters is now closed. The two staircases (PI. a, a) descend 
through doors direct into the Chapel of the Nativity, the most 
important part of the crypt, lighted by 32 lamps. It is 13^ yds. 
long (from E. to W.), 4 yds. wide, and 10 ft. high. The pavement 
is of marble , and the walls , which are of masonry , are lined 
with marble. Under the altar in the recess a silver star (PI. d) is 

a. Stairs to the Crypt, 
descending from the Greek 
choir of the church of St. 
Mary (see Plan, p. 2-16). 
b. Stairs to the Crypt , from 
the Latin Church of St. 
Catharine. c. Stairs now 
closed, d. Place of the Nati- 
vity, e. Manger of the Latins. 
f. Altar of the Adoration of 
the Magi. g. Spring of the 
=^-"5 Holy Family, h. Passage in. 
the Rock. i. Scene of the 
Vision commanding the 
flight into Egypt, k. Chapel 
of the Innocents. 1. Tomb of 
Eitsebius. m. Tomb of St. 
Jerome. n. Chapel of St. 

let into the pavement , with the inscription 'Zfic de Virgine Maria 
Jesus Christus natus est'. Around the recess bum 15 lamps, of 
which 6 belong to the Greeks, 5 to the Armenians, and 4 to the 
Latins. The recess still shows a few traces of mosaics. This sacred 
spot was richly decorated as early as the time of Constantine, and 
even with the Muslims was in high repute at a later period. 

Opposite the recess of the Nativity are three steps (PI. e) 
descending to the Chapel of the Manger. The manger, in which, 
according to tradition , Christ was once laid , is of marble, the 
bottom being white, and the front brown. The finding of the 
'genuine' manger , which was carried to Rome, is attributed to the 

to Bethlehem. BETHLEHEM. 5. Route. 249 

Empress Helena. The form of the chapel and manger of Bethlehem 
have in the course of centuries undergone many changes. 

In the same chapel, to the E., is the Altar of the Adoration of 
the Magi (PI. f), belonging to the Latins, and adorned with 
paintings by Maello (end of last century), representing that scene. 

We now follow the subterranean passage towards theW. ; before 
it turns to the N. , we observe a round hole (PI. g) on the right, 
out of which water is said to have burst forth for the use of the 
Holy Family. In the 15th cent, the absurd tradition was invented, 
that the star which had guided the Magi fell into this spring, in 
which none but virgins could see it. Passing through a door , and 
turning to the right, we enter a narrow passage in the Tock (PI. h), 
probably hewn by the Franciscans in 1476 — 1479, leading to the 
spot (PI. i) where Joseph is said to have been commanded by the an- 
gel to flee into Egypt. Other Scriptural evants were also associated 
by tradition with this spot, and in memory of them the chapel was 
fitted up in 1621. Five steps descend hence to the Chapel of the 
Innocents (PI. k), where, according to a tradition of the 15th cent., 
Herod caused several children to be slain who had been brought 
here for safety by their mothers. The rocky ceiling is borne by a 
thick column. Under the altar is an iron gate, generally closed, 
leading to a small natural grotto. 

Preceding in a straight direction, we reach a stair ascending to 
the church of St. Catharine , but at the foot of it we turn to the 
left and come to the altar and tomb of Eusebius of Cremona (PI. 1), 
of which there is no mention before 1556. Eusebius (d. 422) was 
a pupil of St. Jerome, to assist whom in the foundation of a monas- 
tery at Bethlehem he sold his property in Italy and repaired hither. 
Farther on is the Chapel of the Tomb of St. Jerome (PI. m), hewn 
in the rock. The tomb of the saint has been shown for about three 
centuries on the W. side, although it is recorded at a very early 
period that he desired to be buried near the place of the Nativity. 

St. Jerome, one of the most celebrated fathers of the Church, was born 
of pagan parents at Stridon in 331, and was afterwards baptised at Rome. 
While journeying in the East he had a vision at Antioch, commanding 
him to renounce the study of heathen writers. He then became an ascetic, 
went to Constantinople , and afterwards to Rome , where he interpreted 
the Bible to a band of Christian women. Paula, a Roman lady, and her 
daughter, accompanied him thence on a pilgrimage to the holy places, 
after which he retired to a cell near Bethlehem, where he presided over 
a kind of monastery. He died in 420. St. Jerome is chiefly famous as a 
scholar. As a dogmatist he anxiously strove to support the orthodox 
doctrine of the church. He learned Hebrew from the Jews, corrected an 
old Latin translation of the Bible (the Itala), and afterwards translated 
the whole of the sacred volume from the original into Latin (the Vul- 
gate). Following the example of the Greek fathers, he distinguished 
between canonical and non-canonical books, which last he called apo- 
cryphal. Interesting letters written by him are also still extant. 

Paula, the pupil of St. Jerome, and her daughter Eustochium, 
were ladies of great learning. Paula presided over a nunnery at 
Bethlehem, and died there Her tomb was formerly on the S. side 

250 Route 5. BETHLEHEM. From Jerusalem 

of the church, but since 1566 it has been shown opposite, and to 
the E. of the tomb of St. Jerome. — A little farther to the N. is the 
large Chapel of St. Jerome (PI. n), in which he is said to have 
dwelt and to have written his works. It is entirely hewn out of 
the rock, except on the N. side. A window looks towards the 
cloisters. A painting here represents St. Jerome with a Bible in 
his hand. The chapel is mentioned for the first time in 1449, and 
the tomb of the saint was also once shown here. 

Retracing our steps, we now quit the extensive crypt, and 
ascend the stairs (PI. b) leading to the Church of St. Catharine, 
which belongs to the Latins, and is separated from the basilica by 
a wall. This church, which is handsomely fitted up, is probably 
identical with a chapel of St. Nicholas mentioned in the 14th 
century. In the 16th cent, it was enlarged, and afterwards frequently 
restored. A door leads hence into the open air, and another into 
the Monastery of the Franciscans , which overlooks the Wady el- 
Kharrubeh, looking like a fortress with its massive walls. Within 
its precincts are numerous rooms for the reception of travellers, and 
several fine orchards. ■ — The Armenian Monastery merits a visit for 
the sake of the beautiful view of Bethlehem and the environs from 
its roof. From the Latin monastery the view is moTe towards the 
W. and X.. including Mar Elyas , Bet Sahur, and even part of the 
Dead Sea, while that from the roof of the Armenian ranges towards 
the S. and E. , into the Wady er-Rahib, and towards Tekoah and 
the Frank .Mountain. 

To the 8. of the basilica a street leads from the forecourt 
between houses, consisting of the Greek Monastery and its de- 
pendencies, back to the open air. The chain of hills now continues 
for some distance farther before we reach the descent into the 
valley. After f) min. we come to the Milk Grotto, or Women's 
Cavern, to which 13 steps descend from a large, open, vaulted 
entrance. The rocky cavern is about b\ yds. long, 3 yds. wide, and 
8 ft. high. The tradition from which it derives its name, and of 
which there are various versions, is that the Holy Family once 
sought shelter or concealment here, and that a drop of the Virgin's 
milk fell on the floor of the grotto. For many centuries both 
Christians and Muslims have entertained a superstitious belief that 
the rock of this cavern has the property of increasing the milk of 
women and even of animals , and to this day round cakes mixed 
with dust from the rock are sold to pilgrims. 

In order to visit Bet-Sahur and the so-called Field of the 
Shepherds , we may continue to follow the road which led us to 
the Milk Grotto , but as the descent is very steep it is advisable to 
send round our horses by an easier route to await us. About 7 min* 
after leaving the Milk Grotto, proceeding towards the E. , we observe 
to the right of the road a small ruin, which, according to a 
mediaeval tradition, occupies the site of the House of Joseph , and 

to Bethlehem. GROTTO OF THE SHEPHERDS. 5. Route. 251 

in ■which he had his dream. A little heyond it we reach the foot of 
the hill, and in 4 min. more the -village of Bet S&hur, sometimes 
called Bet Sahur en-Nasara (i. e. 'of the Christians'), to distin- 
guish it from the village of that name mentioned at p. 227. 
It consists of about fifty houses, and is inhabited by orthodox 
Greeks and a few Latins. Sepp supposes the name to be derived 
from Ashur (1 Chron. ii. 24; iv. 5). There are several grottoes 
and cisterns here. The highest of the latter, situated in the middle 
of the village, is famous as the scene of a traditional miracle. The 
inhabitants having refused to draw water for the Virgin , the water 
rose in the well of its own accord. The dwelling of the shepherds 
is now placed here (Luke ii. 8). The first historical notice we have 
of the village is from pilgrims of the 16th century. 

The key of the Grotto of the Shepherds must be obtained at the 
Greek monastery here (Der er-Rum). "We then ride on towards the 
E. to a small, well-cultivated plain, called by tradition the Field 
of Boaz, but without any authority. After 10 min. (N. E.) we 
reach the Grotto of the Shepherds, situated in the midst of an 
enclosed group of olive-trees. A tradition extending back to the 
year 670, and perhaps to the time of the Roman Paula (p. 249), 
makes the angels to have appeared to the shepherds here. For cent- 
uries a church and a monastery stood on the spot, but there is no 
mention of a grotto until the Crusaders' time. The subterranean cha- 
pel, to which 21 steps descend, belongs to the Greeks. It contains 
some paintings , shafts of columns, and a few traces of a mediaeval 
mosaic pavement. Around lie some ruins which perhaps belong 
to the mediaeval church of 'Gloria in Excelsis'. An attempt has 
recently been made to identify the site of this church with a spot 
about half-a-mile to the N. , but if that were its true locality the 
Eder Tower, or ' Tower of Flocks' , would also have to be transfer- 
red thither. This tower is mentioned by Paula as having stood in 
the Field of the Shepherds (Gen. xxxv. 21). In the middle ages 
its site was pointed out in the direction of Tekoah , but since the 
16th cent, has been again fixed here. 

In returning to Bethlehem we leave the road to the village of 
Bet Sahur to the left. The ascent to Bethlehem from the N. E. is 
more gradual than from the E. , and this is the direct route to the 
Franciscan monastery. 

Fkom Bethlehem to the Pools of Solomon, by Artds, see p. 255. 

From Bethlehem to 'Ain Kabih (2 hrs. 20 min.). In 25 min. we reach 
Bit Jdla (p. 253), and in 13 min. more Sir Sauna, beyond which we 
descend the narrow Wddy Ahmed, clothed with vines and olives. After J hr. 
we cross the Valley of Roses (p. 321). Opposite the mouth of the Wady 
Ahmed another road ascends the hill. After a walk of 25 min. more 
towards the N. W. we cross a small valley, ride along its right side, and, 
passing some tumuli, reach a broader road. After 4 min. we reach the 
top of the hill, where we enjoy a fine view of r Ain Karim, Kuloniyeh, 
Neby Samwil, etc., and after a steep descent of if hr. in the narrow but 
fertile valley we reach the village of 'Am Kdrim (p. 276). 

252 Route 5. TEKOAH. 

Fhom Bethlehem to Ekoedi byTekoah (8— 9hrs.). Throughout the whole 
of the desert of Judah an escort is necessary (comp. p. 283), and some 
of the Ta'amireh Beduins who act in this capacity should be directed to 
come to Jerusalem or Bethlehem in order that the necessary arrangements 
may be made. (ShSkh 'Uweda is recommended.) Those who travel 
without tents and fail to reach Engedi in one day , may obtain shelter 
at one of the numerous encampments of that tribe. At Engedi the night 
may, if necessary, be passed in the open air. From Engedi to Hebron 
(p. 283), or to Jericho (p. 270), is also a long day's journey. 

We first follow the road to the (1 hr. 20 min.) Frank Mountain 
(p. 256), before reaching which we diverge by a road to the right to 
(f hr.) KMrbet TeM'a, situated on the top of a long hill , 2397 ft. above 
the sea-level, with a spring at its foot. The ruins here correspond 
with the site of the ancient Tekoah, which is mentioned in the book of 
Joshua. The place was fortified by Jeroboam, and it was celebrated 
a3 the birthplace of the prophet Amos, who had originally been a shepherd 
(Amos i. 1). The region about Tekoah has from time immemorial been a 
desert (2 Chron. xx. 20) ; and indeed the whole district of the tribe of 
Judah, extending along the W. coast of the Dead Sea, has always been 
a sparsely peopled wilderness (Joshua xv. 61). — The ruins are now a 
confused mass, but the remains of a church are still traceable. (A monastery 
stood here in the middle ages.) There is a fine view towards the E., and the 
Dead Sea is visible through several openings in the hills. About 3hrs. to the 
S. E. of Teku'a we reach the cistern of Mtmeh in the Wddy Hasdseh, and in 
3 hrs. more we attain the culminating point of the pass of Engedi (p. 283). 

Fhom Bethlehem to Engedi byWady et-Ta'amireh(8 — 9hrs.). This is 
also a fatiguing route, and at places not entirely free from danger (e. g. in 
the valley of Ed-De'rejeh). From Bethlehem to the foot of the Mount of the 
Franks 1 hr. 20 min. Thence we descend to the E. into the W&dy el-Me'allik 
in 20 min. To the E. we observe the Jebel Halhul, an eminence resembling 
the Frank Mountain, which still remains visible in the opposite direction. 
After 50 min. the Wely Hmed rises to the right, above the valley, and a 
little farther on a wild valley debouches to the right. The road leads to 
the left through the small valley of Jdfet el-'Ursheh, which descends from 
the lesser Halhul. The great Halhul lies to the S. E. of the lesser. After 
35 min. we skirt the S. side of the summit of the great Halhul. Below, 
to the right, lies the deep valley of El-Bhehiyeh. A very steep and difficult 
path now descends to the valley of Ed-De'rejeh (stair-valley) , deeply 
hollowed out by heavy rains, the floor of which we reach in 1] hr. 
Towards the S. E. we again ascend and reach the plateau of Hasdseh 
(p. 271). After 40 min. we cross the valley of El-Mmcasseleh, which descends 
to the Wady Derejeh, and in \ hr. more we reach water in the Wddy el- 
Kesds. After 1J hr. more we reach the Wddy Shektf, and then the 
Wddy Emkhaitm, and in 1 hr. more the Wddy ed-Dowd r ireh, where there are 
numerous tombs. A number of Beduins are said to have perished here 
while fighting against the government. After 40 min. more the plain 
terminates, and we turn towards the pass of Engedi, which we now reach 
in 12 min. (see p. 284). 

6. From Jerusalem to the Pools of Solomon, Khareitun, 
the Frank Mountain, and Bethlehem. 

From Jerusalem to the Pools of Solomon 2 hrs. , Khareitun If hr., 
the Frank Mountain 40 min. , Bethlehem 1£ hr. — By starting early 
from Jerusalem, the traveller may on the same day visit the traditional 
cave of Adullam and the Mt. of the Franks. If Tekoah be also included 
in the excursion, one day and a half will be required, the night being 
spent at Bethlehem or Artas, whence an early start should be made in 
order to avoid the heat. 

POOLS OF SOLOMON. S. Route. 253 

From the so-called Tomb of Rachel (1 hr. from Jerusalem; 
p. 242) the road to Hebnm diverges to the right (K. 8), and this 
we follow for about 1 hr. to the Burak, or Pools of Solomon. We 
at first ride along the slope of the valley , with Bet Jala opposite to 
us (on the right) ; or we may ascend to the village , which however 
presents little attraction. It perhaps corresponds with the ancient 
Oiloh, the birthplace of Ahithophel (Joshua xv. 51; 2 Sam. xv. 
12). The village, which is large and tolerably clean, is inhabited by 
Christians only (about 3000), most of whom are Greeks. The large 
church was rebuilt in 1863. The Latin patriarch Valerga (p. 163) 
erected a seminary and schools here, which were completed in 1858, 
and the Protestants also have a school here. 

The road to the ponds is very stony , and for riding unpleasant. 
The view is shut out by low hills. At length , after 50 min. , a 
house becomes visible in the desert above the ponds, and the 
Monastery of Elias is seen to the Tight. The Castle by the ponds is 
a large square building with corner-towers, resembling a large 
khan, and dating in its present form from the 17th century. It 
was erected for protection against theBeduins, and is still garrisoned 
with a few soldiers. Within the court are a number of cylindrical 
beehives made of clay. About 180 paces to the W. of this, in the 
midst of the uncultivated fields on the hill- side, is a small 
door , within which stairs descend to the so - called Sealed Spring 
(light necessary). We enter a vaulted chamber, and to the right of 
it a smaller chamber, at the end of which a spring bubbles forth. 
The different streams unite in a basin of beautifully clear water, 
which is conducted by a channel to a fountain-tower above the 
first pond, part of it, however, flowing into the old conduit which 
passes the pools. The Arabs call the spring 'Ain Sdlih, while the 
Christians for the last three centuries have supposed it identical 
with the 'Sealed Fountain' mentioned in Solomon's Song (iv. 12). 
— The ponds were also partly supplied with rain-water. 

The so-called Pools of Solomon , three in number , are situated 
in a small valley sloping towards the E. at the back of the castle. 
The highest of them is bounded on the W. side by the road 
leading from Jerusalem to Hebron. As the valley descends abruptly 
towards the E., the reservoirs had to be constructed in steps, as an 
embankment of great size would have been necessary to confine the 
water of a single large reservoir. The lowest of the three was 
always filled first, and the two others in succession, and they were 
emptied in the same order, each, when empty, being refilled from 
the one above it. The three ponds do not lie exactly above each 
other. The second is 53 yds. distant from the highest, and 52 yds. 
from the lowest, and is about 19 ft. below the one and the same 
height above the other. At the lower (E.) end of each pond a wall 
is built across the valley, as is the case with the Sultan's Pool 
(p. 231). The Highest pond is 127 yds. long, 76 yds. wide at 

254 Route 6. POOLS OF SOLOMON. From Jerusalem 

the top and 79 yds. below , and is at the lower (E.) end 25 ft. 
deep. It is partly hewn in the rock, and partly enclosed by mason- 
ry, flying buttresses being used for the support of the walls. A 
staircase descends in the S.W. corner. The Central pool is 141 yds. 
long, 53 yds. wide at the top and 83 yds. below, and is 38 ft. 
deep. It is almost entirely hewn in the rock, and stairs cut in the 
rock descend in the N.W. and N.E. corners. In the N.E. corner is 
the mouth of a conduit from 'Ain Salih (see above). The E. wall 
of the Teservoir is very thick, and is strengthened by a second wall 
with a buttress in the form of steps. 

The Lowest pond, the finest of the three, is 194 yds. long, 49 
yds. wide at the top and 69 yds. below, and is at places 48 ft. deep. 
It is partly hewn in the rock, and partly lined with masonry. Stairs 
descend in the S.E. and N.E. corners. The inner walls are sup- 
ported by numerous flying buttresses. On the S. side there is a 
conduit for the reception of rain-water. The lower wall (E.) is 
built of large blocks in the form of steps, and is penetrated by an 
open passage leading to a chamber. On the W. side of this lowest 
chamber is the entrance to a channel from which the water of a 
spring situated under the bottom of the pool QAin FarujeK) flows 
to the N. E. through the chamber into another channel which brings 
a supply of water from the neighbouring 'Ain Ethan, situated on the 
S. ; the united streams are then conducted towards Bethlehem. 
Besides these and the 'Ain Salih, there is sf fourth spring in the 
castle, and there are thus four springs in all near the pools, all in- 
dependent of each other. 

By whom were these pools constructed ? The lower spring has 
probably been rightly identified with the spring of Etam, from 
which, according to the Talmud, the Temple at Jerusalem was 
supplied with water. The name 'Solomon's Pools' is based upon 
Eccles. ii. 6 ('I made me pools of water, to water therewith the 
wood that bringeth forth trees'), but that passage does not in the 
least prove that the gardens of Solomon were situated in this valley, 
although the bottom of the valley, where it is irrigated by the 
springs, is remarkably fertile. There is just as little ground for 
attributing the Jerusalem conduit to Solomon. Josephus records 
that Pontius Pilate began to construct a conduit with money be- 
longing to the Temple, intending to bring water to Jerusalem 
from a distance of 400 stadia, but that this proceeding gave rise to 
an insurrection. Now 400 stadia are about 48 miles. The account 
may be exaggerated, but springs still flow from other directions 
into this conduit, and Major Wilson discovered a second aqueduct 
(recently examined and measured by Schick), which comes from 
the Wddy 'Arub, near Hebron (p. 277). Another which comes from 
the Wddy Bidr (valley of wells), 1 hr. to the S. of the pools, has 
long been known (p. 277). These aqueducts are generally carried 
horizontally along the mountain-slopes , with a slight fall only, 

to Khareitun. ADULLAM. 6'. Route. 255 

but there is a remarkable portion between Bethlehem and Jerusalem 
which proves that the ancients were acquainted with the principle 
of the rise and fall of water when confined in pipes. In any case the 
reservoirs were constructed with a view to the water being carried 
to a distance, and not merely for the irrigation of the Etam valley. 
Though perhaps not so old as the time of Solomon, the pools are 
unquestionably of great antiquity. They were not discovered by 
the pilgrims until a comparatively late period. 

Descending the Wady Artas towards the E. , and skirting the 
pools, we find openings in the conduit whence water can be drawn. 
On a hill to the S. of the valley we observe a few ruins' probably 
on the site of the old town of Etam. The surrounding mountains 
are barren, but the floor of the valley is not entirely destitute of 
vegetation. After 20 min. we perceive to the right below us the 
modern village of Artas, which has given its name to the valley. 
It lies on the slope of the hill, and is chiefly inhabited by Mus- 
lims. The houses are miserably bad. A European colony has ex- 
isted here since 1849; and a German, who cultivates vegetables 
for the Jerusalem market, also keeps an unpretending inn. 

Fkom Artas to Bethlehem. The road continues to follow the conduit. 
After 8 min. a view of the town is obtained in front; in 7 min. more 
the path to the right, and in 3 min. a path to the left are to be avoided. 
After 5 min. the foot of the hill is reached, and the ascent to the town 
is made in 10 min. more (p. 243). 

Beyond the village of Artas the road descends the valley to the 
traditional Cave of Adullam and the so-called Fiiank Moun- 
tain. The irrigation soon ceases, and the gardens disappear. 
After 20 min. a small lateral valley descends from Bethlehem on 
the left. Our route frequently crosses the dry and stony bed of the 
brook, and descends the desert valley between low ranges of hills. 
After | hr. we observe some masonry on the rock to the right, and 
in 20 min. more a side valley diverges to the right. After J hr. we 
leave the valley where it makes a bend to the S". , and ascend a 
steep hill towards the E. between two valleys. At the top we again 
see Bethlehem, and enjoy a fine view of the hills to the K. of 
Jordan. In \ hr. we descend to the spring of Khareitun, where a 
group of the natives is generally congregated ; by the rock opposite 
lies the village of Khareitun, and before us opens a deep gorge. 
The whole scene is very imposing. Ve now descend on foot by a 
path to the right to (1 min.) one of the two entrances to the cavern. 
The opening is partly blocked by fallen rocks, and on the left 
yawns a deep abyss, so that caution in clambering over the rocks is 
necessary. Since the 12th cent, tradition has identified this cavern 
with the Cave of Adullam in which David sought refuge (1 Sam. 
xxii. 1; 2 Sam. xxiii. 13). According to the Book of Joshua (xv. 
35 ; xii. 15), however, the village Adullam must have lain much 
farther to the S. (comp.pp.311,320), and this accords also with the 
statement of Eusebius. The name Maghdret Khareitun is derived 

256 Route 6. FRANK MOUNTAIN. 

from St. Chariton, who after his capture by robbers on the way to 
Jerusalem founded a so-called Laura, or colony of monks (the pre- 
sent village of Khareitun) near Tekoah, and retired to this cavern, 
where he died in 410. The cave was occupied by other hermits also 
at a later date. It is a natural grotto of labyrinthic character, and 
as the explorer may easily lose his way he should either be pro- 
vided with a long thread to be used as a clue, or, better still, with 
a guide. The temperature in the interior is somewhat high. The 
cavern consists of a continuous series of galleries and side-passages, 
which are sometimes so low as to be passable by creeping only, but 
sometimes expand into large chambers. In many places the ground 
sounds hollow, as there are several stories of passages, one above 
another. A short rock-passage leads us into a spacious chamber, 
about 38 yds. long, from which several side-passages diverge. In a 
straight direction we traverse a long passage to a second cavern, 
into which we must clamber down a steep descent of 10 ft. ; another 
very narrow opening then leads to a third chamber. The innermost 
passages contain niches cut in the rock, and the fragments of urns 
and sarcophagi found here indicate that the place was once used for 
interments. The inscriptions found by Tobler in the inmost re- 
cesses of the cavern are illegible. 

A direct path leads hence to Bethlehem, but is not easily found 
in this wilderness without a guide. It leads back into the valley of 
Artas, and after 1 hr. ascends to the right, reaching Bethlehem in 1 hr. 
more. Another route, but very rough, is said to lead hence direct to 
Mar Elyas (p. 241). 

From the Wady Artas, and nearly from the point at which we 
return to it from Khareitun, a road ascends to the right to the (40 
min.) Frank Mountain, Arab. Jebel Ferdte (2669 ft. above the 

History. It is most probable that we see here the remains of the 
town of Herodia and castle of Herodium founded by Herod the Great, 
which were situated on the spot where he defeated the partizans of 
Antigonus. This spot is upwards of 10 miles (80 stadia) from Jerusalem, 
and Josephus is doubtless mistaken when he says that Herodium was 
60 stadia from that city. In many respects, however, his description 
applies admirably to the site we are now visiting (Antiq. xv. 9, 4). He 
states that a marble flight of 200 steps ascended to the Acropolis, and 
that the hill was thrown up artificially, a statement which is correct, 
if the top only of the hill be taken into account. Josephus also informs 
us that Herod conducted water hither from a distance at great expense 
(and traces of an aqueduct from the direction of Artas are actually vis- 
ible), and that he was afterwards buried here (see p. 261). — Several tra- 
vellers have endeavoured to identify this site with that of the ancient 
Belh-Haecerem (Jerem. vi. 1), which is said to have lain on a hill be- 
tween Jerusalem and Tekoah, but there is no sufficient ground for this 
conjecture. — Herodium was the seat of a toparchy. After the overthrow 
of Jerusalem it surrendered without a blow to the legate, Lucilius Bassus. 

The hill is now called Ferdls, or Fureidis ('paradise', i. e. 
orchard), or, by Europeans only, the 'Frank Mountain'. The tradi- 
tion that at the time of the Crusades the Franks held out for a 
long time here against the Muslims dates from the end of the 15th 

FRANK MOUNTAIN. 6. Route. 257 

century. At the foot of the hill, on the W. side, are some ruins 
called Stabl (stable) by the natives, and a laTge quadrangular re- 
servoir, called Birket Bint es-Sultdn (pool of the sultan's daughter), 
about 65 yds. square, but now dry. In the middle of it rises a 
square structure, resembling an island. This is probably either the 
ruin of a small villa, or, as De Saulcy supposes, the remains of the 
tomb of Herod. The summit of the hill, which rises in an abrupt 
conical form to a height of about 385 ft. , may be reached in 
20 minutes. At the top, on the margin of the platform, there are 
other ruins, about 330 yds. in circumference. The platform is not 
level, but depressed like a crater. The castle which once stood here 
has disappeared, with the exception of the enclosing wall, of which 
the chief traces are the remains of a few towers. The E. tower con- 
tains a vaulted chamber with a mosaic pavement. The blocks of 
stone which lie on the plateau at the top and on the slopes of the 
hill are large, regular, and finely hewn. 

The view is beautiful. It embraces the desert region extending 
down to the neighbourhood of the Dead Sea, with a number of wild 
cliffs, between which a great part of the blue sheet of water is 
visible. To the S. the view is intercepted by other hills. To the 
S. W. are the ruins of Tekoah, and the village of Khareitun. To the 
W. is the wely of Abu Nejem, and to the N. "W. Bethlehem ; to the 
right of it Bet Sahur, and in the foreground Bet Ta'mar; on a hill 
rises Mar Elyas. To the N. are Neby Samwil and the village of Abu 
Dis. Farther off stretches the chain of hills to the N. of Jerusalem. 

We now return towards Bethlehem. At the bottom of the valley 
grow a few olive-trees. In \ hr. we reach (W.N.W.) the small 
village of Bet Ta'mar, which we leave to the right. It lies on a 
height, and shows traces of ancient buildings, but cannot be iden- 
tified with the Betamar of Eusebius. Our road runs to the N. W., 
to the right of the Wddy ed-Diya' (valley of the landed estates). 
After 20 min. we descend; to the left lies a small valley, and in 
the distance (S.) rises the wely of Abu Nejem. After 5 min. we 
take the path to the right skirting another valley. Bethlehem now 
lies before us, but we are still in an uncultivated region. When we 
have descended the valley for \ hr. more, cultivation at length be- 
gins, and in 17 min. more we reach the hill of Bethlehem. 

7. From Jerusalem to Jericho, the Ford of Jordan, 
the Dead Sea, and back to Jerusalem by Mar Saba. 

To Jericho 6 hrs., the Dead Sea 2J hrs., Mar Saba 5 hrs. 20 min., 
Jerusalem 3J hrs. (or to Bethlehem about 3 hrs.). — For this excursion 
the traveller should be provided with — (1) a Beduin guide for the 
valley of the Jordan, and (2) a letter of introduction for Mar Saba. The 
government farms out the right of escorting travellers to Jericho , and 
for some time past the privilege has been in the hands of the sh§kh of 
Abu Dis (p. 258), who is generally represented by one of his sons or a 

Palestine. J7 

258 Route 7. BETHANY. From Jerusalem 

deputy at Jerusalem during the travelling season. (Enquire at the hotels.) 
A single attendant for a whole party usually suffices. It is customary to pay 
the shekh 5 fr. per day for this escort, and to give the attendant himself, 
if well-conducted, a few francs at the end of the journey. — A letter of 
introduction for Mar Saba, should be procured with the aid of the 
hotel-keeper, the consulate, or the dragoman, from the great Greek 
monastery at Jerusalem, as otherwise the traveller will not he admitted. 
A dragoman, however, may be dispensed with on this tour, as there is 
a kind of inn at Jericho. A small supply of provisions only need therefore 
be taken, including a few bottles of wine, a vessel for water, and some 
tobacco for the attendants and the Beduins one happens to meet. The 
dragomans often make exorbitant demands for the excursion, but 60 fr. 
for each of a party of several persons for the three days is a very ample 
allowance, unless tents are to be taken. The circuit may be made in 
either direction, but it is advisable to proceed to Jericho first in order 
that the horses may have the better road for the descent. Owing to the 
heat of the climate in the valley of the Jordan, the excursion should be 
made as early in spring, or as late in autumn as possible. 

We start from the Bab Sitti Maryam, or Gate of St. Stephen 
(p. 207). The road to Jericho has of late years been tolerably well 
repaired and levelled by the Greek monastery at the expense of a 
Roumanian lady. We descend the Kidron valley, and leave Gethse- 
mane on the left. The road skirts the Mt. of Olives, and gradually 
ascends opposite the city. It turns a corner, 8 min. beyond the 
garden of Gethsemane. A little above this point the spot is shown 
where Judas is said to have hanged himself, tradition, after much 
wavering, having pointed to this place since the loth century. The 
Mt. of Offence we leave to the right, and the Mt. of Olives to the 
left. The road skirts the latter and leads round a gorge. About 
halfway Tound it is shown the site of the fig-tree which was cursed 
by Christ (6 min. ). Above, the village of Abu Dis is seen in the 
distance to the right. In 18 min. more we reach Bethany, so called 
by the Franks only. The Arabic name is El-'Azarlyeh, from Lazarus, 
or Lazarium, the Arabs having taken the L for an article. TheTe 
can be little doubt that its site corresponds with the ancient Bethany, 
the distance from Jerusalem, 15 furlongs (John xi. 18), corre- 
sponding with our 40 minutes' ride. The name, which signifies 
'house of poverty', was probably suggested by its solitary and remote 
situation bordering on the desert, or by the fact that lepers, who 
are popularly called the 'poor', once sought an asylum here (Mark 
xiv. 3°). Christ, too, sought repose and the society of his friends 
in this lowly village. At a very early period churches and monas- 
teries were erected here, and spots of traditionary interest pointed 
out to pilgrims. In 1138 Milicent, wife of Fulke, fourth king of 
Jerusalem (p. 11-i), founded a nunnery by the church of St. Lazarus, 
and in 1159 the building came into the possession of the Hospitallers. 

The present El-'Azariyeh lies on a well cultivated spur to the 
S. E. of the Mt. of Olives, to whose somewhat barren slopes it 

a. 'And being in Bethany in the house of Simon the leper, as he sat 
at meat, there came a woman having an alabaster box of ointment of 
spikenard very precious ; and she brake the box, and poured it on his head.' 

to Jericho. BETHANY. 7. Route. 259 

presents a pleasant contrast. It consists of about forty hovels, 
containing Muslim inhabitants only. The water here is good, and 
there are numerous fig, olive, almond, and carob trees. The most 
conspicuous object is a ruined Tower, which, judging from its 
large drafted stones, must be older than the time of the Crusaders, 
and is not the tower built by Milicent to defend her nunnery. 
About twenty paces to the N.E. of this so-called 'Castle of Laza- 
rus' is the Tomb of Lazarus. So far back as the 5th cent, the 
Roman Paula visited a church which stood over the tomb of Lazarus 
(Arab. Kabr el-'Azar). The door looks towards the N., and to the 
E. of the tomb rises a mosque with its white dome; for the Mus- 
lims also regard Lazarus as a saint, and have taken possession of 
his tomb. As they prevented pilgrims from visiting the place, the 
Christians caused a stair leading to it to be constructed from with- 
out, partly through the rock. We descend by 26 steps into a small 
square ante-chamber, which is said once to have contained a chapel, 
and is a Muslim as well as Christian place of prayer. Proceeding 
to the E., we ascend three high steps to the so-called tomb-chamber 
of Lazarus. On the E. side is an entrance now walled up. The 
poor-looking chamber is lined with masonry, and its whole ap- 
pearance is unlike that of a Jewish tomb. The tomb of Lazarus was 
formerly shown in the church above, and this vault was probably 
called the penance-chapel of Mary Magdalene. The Latins some- 
times celebrate mass in these chapels. 

The other sights of Bethany need not detain us. About 43 yards 
to the S. of the Tomb of Lazarus tradition points out the site of 
the house of Mary and Martha. The site has been shown in many 
different places, and at one time the sisters were said to have had 
two separate houses, the authority for this statement being a strained 
interpretation of Luke x. 38, 39 a . The same vacillation character- 
ises the tradition as to the house of Simon the leper (Matth. 
xxvi. 6] ; and indeed nothing certain is known regarding the places 
visited by Christ, except that he must have come up from Jericho by 
this route. 

Beyond Bethany our route ascends a hill, where Martha is said 
to have met Jesus (St. John xi. 20), and tradition has as usual en- 
deavoured to fix the precise spot. On the plateau, 7 min. from 
the village, whence Bethany is seen lying picturesquely below, is 
the so-called Stone of Rest, about 3 ft. long, which pilgrims kiss. 
After 7 min. more we descend into the Wddy el-Hod, or valley of 
the watering-place, so named from the well of Hud el-'Azarlyeh, 
which we reach in A hr., the only well between this and the valley 
of the Jordan. The small basin contains leeches, but the water is 

a. 'Now it came to pass, as they went, that he entered into a certain 
village: and a certain woman named Martha received him into her house. 
And she had a sister called Mary, which also sat at Jesus' feet, and 
heard his word.' 


260 Route 7. WADY EL-KELT. From Jerusalem 

good. A handsome building once enclosed the spring, and a 
khan stood on the opposite side of the road, hoth probably built in 
the 16th century. Since the 15th cent, the -well has been called 
the Apostles' Spring, as it was assumed that the apostles must have 
drunk of its water on their journey. It has also, and perhaps 
rightly, been identified with the 'sun-spring' of En-Shemesh 
(Joshua xv. 7). 

The route now descends the Wady el-H6d, a somewhat barren 
valley, commandingno view. It must have been somewhere here that 
Shimei cursed and cast stones at David, who was fleeing before 
Absalom down to Jericho (2 Sam. xvi. 5). After 25 min. we leave 
to the right the small Wady el-Jemel (camel valley), and after 
52 min. more we must cross a low hill in order to reach Wady es- 
Sidr. (The 'sidr' tree is the Zizyphus spina Christi, p. 262.) After 
12 min. a small valley called Sa'b el-Meshak lies on the left. In 
23 min. more we reach the Hadrur khan, which lies about halfway 
to Jericho. There are several dilapidated buildings here, but they 
are uninhabited and afford no refreshment or accommodation. The 
water in the cisterns is bad. This district is very dreaTy, and tradition 
therefore localises the parable of the Good Samaritan here (St. Luke 
x. 30 — 37). After 20 min. more a path to the right leads to the 
khan El-Ahmar, which was probably once a castle for the protection 
of the road. The valley to the right is the Wady er-Bumani (valley 
of pomegranates). In 20 min. we obtain a view of a plain to the 
right. This part of the road is called 'Akbet el-Jerad ('ascent of 
the locusts'), and the mountains here form a large amphitheatre. 
After \ hr. we obtain a view to the left into the deep Wady el-Kelt, 
the principal tributaries of which are in the Wady Fara to the N. 
of Jerusalem (p. 322). It winds down to the Jordan through deep 
ravines, but contains no water except in the rainy season. It has 
been supposed, and not without good reason, to be identical with 
the brook Cherith (1 Kings xvii. 3, 5). We. next come to a house 
called Bet esh-Sherif. The view gradually develops itself, and at 
length we perceive the Dead Sea with its dark blue waters. After 
another hour we again have the Wady el-Kelt below us. and in 20 
min. more we obtain a complete view of the vast plain of Jordan. 
We pass two ruined houses , called Bet Jeber (the upper and the 
lower), which perhaps occupy the site of the ancient castles of Thrax 
and Tauros which once defended the pass. On the right, farther 
on (10 min.), is the ruin of Khirbet el-Kdkun at the foot of the 
hill. We now Teach the plain of Jordan, called the Ohor (hollow). 
On the right of the road, to the E. of Kakun, we perceive the ancient 
Birket Musa, or Pool of Moses, with walls composed of small unhewn 
stones. It is 188 yds. long and 157 yds. wide, and belonged to the 
ancient system of reservoirs and conduits which once irrigated this 
district and rendered it a paradise. This is perhaps the remains of a 
pool constructed by Herod near his palace at Jericho; foT this, it 

to Jericho. JERICHO. 7. Route. 261 

appears, is the site of the Jericho of the New Testament. The hill 
we see rising like an artificial mound from the plain is Tell Abu 
'Alaik (hill of the bloodsuckers). After \ hr. we cross a small valley, 
near traces of an aqueduct, and descend the Wady el-Kelt, and in 
9 min. , the road leads beneath a handsome aqueduct with ten pointed 
arches , where the Wady el-Kelt is crossed. Travellers with tents 
here turn direct to the N. , without entering the modern Jericho (Er- 
Rlha), and pass the artificial Tell es-Samerat, to the Sultan's Spring 
(p. 262), to which other travellers also should make an excursion. 
The vegetation has by this time become very luxuriant. In 7 min. 
we reach the village. 

Jericho. The Inn, situated on the left at the entrance to the village, is 
a dirty mud-hut surrounded by hedges. The beds are bad, the rooms small 
and close, and vermin abundant. For supper, bed, and breakfast a charge 
of 10s. is made. Adjacent is a colony of Greek monks, who occupy them- 
selves with horticulture, and who also receive travellers. Tents, as already 
observed, are most conveniently pitched near the Sultan's Spring. Those 
who have none should not venture to spend the night in the open air, 
as the change of temperature is great, and a heavy dew falls. Travellers 
intending to put up at the inn should arrive by daylight if possible, in 
order to avoid scrambling through the numerous thorny hedges and 
bushes in the dark (comp. p. 262). 

History. The modern village of Er-Riha is quite distinct from the 
ancient Jericho. The latter lay by the spring at the foot of the hill of 
Karantel, that is to the W. of modern Jericho, and to the N. of the 
Jericho of the Roman period. This is proved both by the Bible and by 
Josephus. It was from Nebo, a peak to the S.E. beyond Jordan, 
that Moses looked upon the plain of Jericho (Deut. xxxiv. 3). The 
town was at that time of considerable size and enclosed by walls, and 
the vegetation was very rich. It is sometimes called the 'city of 
palms', and down to the 7th cent, of our era date-palms were common, 
though they have now almost entirely disappeared. Around the town 
lay a large and flourishing oasis of corn and hemp-fields. At that very 
remote period the inhabitants were rich in gold and silver. The Israelites 
conquered the town (Joshua vi.), and Joshua declared that whoever should 
rebuild it should be accursed (ver. 26). During the whole of the later 
period, however , we find the site of the ancient heathen town occupied 
by an Israelitish town, which at first belonged to the tribe of Benjamin, 
but afterwards to the kingdom of Judah. In spite of many conquests 
Jericho continued to flourish. It was specially noted for its balsam gardens, 
the culture of which probably dated from the period when Solomon received 
rare spices from S. Arabia (1 Kings x. 10). What this plant was is quite 
unknown, but Dr. Hooker suggests that it may have been the Zakkum (see 
p. 262), a tropical plant which abounds near Jericho and yields an oil famous 
throughout the East for its healing properties. Here, too, flourished the Henna 
(Lawsonia inermis), which yields a red dye. In the time of Christ shady 
sycamores stood by the wayside (Luke xix. 4). Antony presented the dis- 
trict of Jericho to Cleopatra, who sold it to Herod; and that monarch em- 
bellished it with palaces and constituted it his winter residence, as being 
the most beautiful spot for the purpose in his dominions. He died here, but 
directed that he should be interred in the Herodium (p. 256). — It was at 
Jericho that the Jewish pilgrims from Peraea (E. of Jordan) and Galilee used 
to assemble on their way to the Temple; and Christ also began his last journey 
to Jerusalem from this point (Luke xix. 1). As early as the 4th cent, the 
councils of the church were attended by the bishops of Jericho. The empe- 
ror Justinian caused a 'church of the mother of God' at Jericho to be 
Testored, and a hospice for pilgrims to be erected. About the year 810 
a monastery of St. Stephen existed at Jericho. New-Jericho, on the site 
of the present village, sprang up in the time of the Crusaders, who built 

262 Route 7. JERICHO. From Jerusalem 

a castle and a church of the Holy Trinity here. The place was afterwards 
inhabited by Muslims and gradually decayed. In 1840 it was plundered by 
the soldiers of Ibrahim Pasha, and in 1871 almost entirely destroyed by fire. 

Modern Jericho consists of a group of squalid hovels inhabited by 
about sixty families. Like the other inhabitants of the S. part of 
the Jordan valley, those of Jericho appear to be a degenerate race, 
as the hot and unhealthy climate has an enervating effect. The 
villagers usually crowd round travellers with offers to execute a 
'fantasia', or dance accompanied by singing, but the performance is 
tedious and uninteresting. The performers clap their own or each 
other's hands, and improvise verses in a monotonous tone. The trav- 
eller should be on his guard against thieves. 

The only curiosity in the village is a building on the S.E. side, 
resembling a tower. It probably dates from the Frank period, when 
it was erected for the protection of the crops against the incursions 
of the Beduins. The battlements command an interesting survey 
of the village and the Jordan valley. Since the 15th cent, this 
building has been said to occupy the site of the House of Zacchaeus 
(Luke xix. 1 — 10). In the 4th cent, the sycamore into which he had 
climbed was shown. The village gardens contain large vines which 
are said to yield an abundant supply of grapes in summer. Around 
the village the ground is overgrown with thorny underwood, some- 
times taking the form of trees, such as the Zizyphus Lotus and Z. 
spina Christi (the nebk, or nubk, and sidr of the Arabs), the fruit 
of which ('jujubes', Arab, dorn) is well flavoured when ripe. The 
formidable thorns of these rhamnacese, from which Christ's CTOwn of 
thorns is said to have been composed, aTe used by the Beduins in 
the construction of their almost unapproachable fences. Among the 
other plants occurring here are the Acacia Farnesiana, the babul of 
India, celebrated for its gum and the delicious fragrance of its 
flowers, and the Zakkum tree (Balanites JEgyptiaca), also called the 
pseudo balsam-tree, ot balm of Gilead, with small leaves like the 
box, and fruit resembling small unripe walnuts, from which the 
Arabs prepare 'pseudo-balsam', or 'Zacchaeus oil', quantities of which 
are sold to pilgrims. The 'rose of Jericho' (Anastatica hierochuntica) 
does not occur here, but is found farther S., on the banks of the 
Dead Sea (p. 284). Near Jericho are also found the gorgeous scarlet 
Loranthus, the Acacia vera, or true gum Arabic plant, and the 
Solanum sanctum (Arab, hadak), a very woody shrub, 3 — 4-£ ft. 
high, with broad leaves, woolly on the under side. The fruit looks 
like an apple, being first yellow, and afterwards red, and containing 
black seeds. It is sometimes called the apple of Sodom, and has 
been erroneously connected with the wine of Sodom mentioned in 
Gen. xix. 32. All these are products of a sub-tropical climate, for 
we are now about 886 ft. below the level of the Mediterranean, and 
the corn-harvest takes place here in May. 

In 25 min. we reach r Ain es-Sultan, or the Sultan's Spring, by 
which Jericho was once supplied with water. It wells forth. 

to the Dead Sea. JEBEL KARANTEL. 7. Route. 263 

copiously from the earth and runs into an old basin of hewn stone, 
13 yds. long and 8 yds. wide. Numerous small fish swim about in 
the water, and among the bushes around it hover various strange 
looking birds. The temperature of the water is 84° Fahr. The 
earliest pilgrims found a tradition already existing here that this 
was the water which Elisha healed with salt (2 Kings ii. 19 — 22), 
whence it is called Elisha s Spring by the Christians. Remains of a 
paved Roman road have been found in the vicinity. Above the 
spring the site of the House of Rahab, who received into her house 
the spies of Joshua (Joshua ii.), was formerly shown, as it was in- 
stinctively felt that the ancient town must have stood on this spot. 

We now turn to the N. and in 10 min. reach the ruins of build- 
ings on the left, with remains of an aqueduct. This place is popu- 
larly called Tawdhtn es-Sukkar (sugar-mills), in reminiscence of 
the culture of the sugar-cane which flourished here down to the 
period of the Crusaders, and might still be profitably carried on. 
Towards the N.W. we arrive in 5 min. at a spur of the Quarantana 
hill. The valley to the left is the Wddy Dentin. Continuing our 
way to the N.W. , we next come to the 'Ain Dtik, a spring which 
waters the valley. By this spring probably lay the ancient castle of 
Docus (1 Mace. xvi. 15), where Simon Maccabseus was assassinated 
by his son-in-law. From this point the beautiful, green, well- 
watered Wddy en-Nawd'imeh stretches far up into the mountains. 

A visit to the hermits' caverns on the Jebel Karantel is very interesting, 
but fatiguing, and should not be attempted by' ladies or persons liable to 
dizziness (guide necessary). They are reached by clambering upwards for 
20 min. over slabs of rock. In 1874 we found two Abyssinian hermits 
here, who, as the guides assured us, lived permanently in the caverns and 
ate nothing but herbs. According to other accounts , they retire hither 
during Lent only. Their occupation consisted in reading Ethiopian prayer- 
books. There is also an ancient little church here hewn in the rock. 
Among the cliffs higher up Tristram has discovered a number of other 
hermitages, some of which have even been adorned with frescoes. These, 
however, are only accessible to practised climbers, provided with ropes. 
The hermitages on this mountain are of very ancient origin , the weird 
seclusion of the spot having attracted anchorites at a very early period. 
Thus St. Chariton (p. 256) is said once to have dwelt here , and the 
hermitages were enlarged by Elpidius. The name Quarantana (Arab. 
Karantel) was first applied to the hill in the time of the Crusaders (1112), 
from which period dates the legend that this was the scene of Christ's 
temptation and of his forty days' fast (Matth. iv. 1 — 11). In the time 
of the Crusaders the monastery on the Quarantana was dependent on 

The summit of the hill, which can only be reached from the W. side 
(guide necessary), commands a noble prospect. To the E., beyond the 
broad valley of Jordan, rises the wooded Neby 'Osha (p. 336), to the S. of 
which is the Jebel et-Tiniyeh. To the N. towers the Sartabeh. In the 
valley below (N.) are two beautiful pastures. On the S. side the Karantel 
is separated from the hill Nkeb el-Kh§l by the deep Wady Dentin. On 
the top of the hill are traces of fortifications, which probably formed 
part of the girdle of castles by which the Franks endeavoured to defend 
the E. frontier of their possessions. 

The plain of Jericho presents several points of interest; but 
those who intend making the journey from Jericho to the ford of 

264 .Route 7. THE JORDAN. From Jerusalem 

Jordan, the Dead Sea, and Mar Saba in a single day will have little 
time for digressions. The direct route to the famous Ford of Jordan 
leads to the E.S.E., and can be performed in l£ hr., but by mak- 
ing a slight digression to the N. the following points may be in- 
cluded. In 25 min. we reach the Khirbet el-Etleh, by a large 
square pool, and in 20 min. more the Tell Jeljul, to the N. of the 
Wady el-Kelt. Zschokke, the discoverer of this hill, argues with 
much plausibility that this is the ancient Gilgal, which lay to the 
E. of Jericho, where the Israelites erected twelve stones in memory 
of their passage of the Jordan, and where the rite of circumcision 
was renewed (Joshua iv. 19, '20°; v. 2). In 723 Willibald 
found a wooden church here. On the other hand it is more ques- 
tionable whether the Gilgal where Samuel judged Israel (1 Sam. 
vii. 16). and Saul was made king (1 Sam. xi. 14, 15), was situated 
here (instead of rather to the N.W. of Jericho); for we should then be 
obliged to assume that the men of Judah came as far as this point to 
meet David on his return beyond Jordan (2 Sam. xix. 15, 40). 
In the time of the Crusaders a church stood here enclosing the 
'twelve stones', and the spot was then known as Gilgal, but the 
alleged preservation of the twelve stones throws some doubt on 
the identity of the two places. Gilgal was at all events situated 
on the frontier of Judah and Benjamin. — About 50 min. to the E. 
of this point we reach Kasr el-Yehudi (castle of the Jews), imme- 
diately to the N. of the Wady el-Kelt, and \ hr. to the W. of the 
influx of that valley into the Jordan. This is a large square struc- 
ture of hewn stones, with vaults and dilapidated arcades. An ob- 
long vault with a niche towards the E. seems to have been used as 
a church, and contains inscriptions by Greek pilgrims. Through 
an opening we look down into a cistern. Among the stones are seen 
some of the small cubes which once formed a mosaic. The ruins 
are sometimes called Der Mar Yuhanna, or monastery of St. John. 
The foundation of a church on this site (over a grotto where John 
the Baptist is said to have dwelt) is attributed to the Empress 
Helena, and a monastery existed here for a long period. Justinian is 
said to have dug a well here. — We turn hence towards the S.E. in 
order to reach the bathing-place , ■£ hr. distant, cross a lofty em- 
bankment thrown up here by the Jordan, and descend to the river 
with its wooded banks. 

The Jordan is the principal river of Palestine (comp. Introd., 
p. 40; as to its sources, see p. 382). Before reaching the Dead 
Sea, its waters form the lakes of Huleh and Tiberias. In a straight 
direction the distance from the sources of the river to the mouth 
is not above 136 miles; but the meanderings of the stream across 
its broad plain greatly increase its actual length. Thus, while the 

a. 'And the people came up oat of Jordan on the tenth day of the first 
month, and encamped in Gilgal, in the east border of Jericho. And those 
twelve atones, which they took out of Jordan, did Joshua pitch in Gilgal.' 

to the Dead Sea. THE JORDAN. 7. Route. 265 

Dead Sea is in a direct line only 64 miles distant from the Lake of 
Tiberias, the length of the river is three times that distance. The 
Jordan, which in Arabic is often meTely called Esh-SherVa, or the 
watering-place, derives its Hebrew name of Yarden ('descent') 
from its rapid fall. From the foot of Hermon to the Huleh it de- 
scends 1434 ft., thence to the Lake of Tiberias 897 ft., and from 
that lake to the Dead Sea 667 ft., i. e. 2998 ft. in all, of which 
1707 ft. only are above the level of the Mediterranean. The 
Arabs call the valley of the Jordan El-Ghor, i. e. the depression or 
hollow, while the Hebrews gave the name of 'Araba, or desert, to 
that part of the valley between the Lake of Tiberias and the Dead 
Sea. Most of the N. part of the valley is fertile, and from the Kam 
Sartabeh, on the route between Nabulus and Es-Salt, a number of 
green oases, interrupted by barren tracts, extend southwards. 
Numerous brooks fall into the Jordan on both sides of the valley, 
but a few of them only are perennial, such as the Yarmuk and the 
Nahr ez-Zerka, both on the E. side. The character of the districts on 
both sides is essentially different. The E. region is better watered, 
until it reaches the desert lying still farther to the E. , and politically 
it has always been distinct from the country W. of Jordan, as the 
deep valley was destined to form a natural barrier between the 
Jewish and the heathen races (comp. Gen. xxxii. 10), although 
several of the tribes of the former remained beyond Jordan (see 
p. 58). Most of the paths descending into the Jordan valley are wild 
and rugged. The width of the valley varies very much, being greatest 
between Jericho and Nimrin, where it measures about 8 M. across. 
Geologists suppose the Ghor to be the ancient basin of a vast inland 
lake ; but neither that lake, nor its residue represented by the Dead 
Sea. can ever have been connected with the Red Sea since the continent 
assumed its present form, there being an entire absence of fossils, 
even in the oldest formations, in the intervening district. There 
is. moreover, to the S. of the Dead Sea a mountain barrier running 
across the r Araba valley (p. 297), which Tenders such a connection 
impossible. In this vast lake valley the river, which averages 
33 yds. in width, has worn for itself two channels, the older being 
flat and broad , and the more recent , within the other, being 
narrower, with precipitous sides. Into this valley of Jordan in the 
narrower sense, which averages less than a mile in width, we de- 
scend over a deeply furrowed and barren terrace of clayey soil, about 
50 ft. in height. During the seasons of rain and melting snow the 
river sometimes overflows its present low-lying banks. The thicket 
which conceals the water from view was once infested by lions 
(Jerem. xlix. 19). The Jordan contains numerous fish, which mi- 
grate to different parts of the river according to the season. The water 
is clear where it emerges from the Lake of Tiberias, but soon assumes 
a tawny colour from the clay which it stirs up in its rapid course. 
The water is not unwholesome for drinking, but is unrefreshing 

266 Route 7. THE JORDAN. From Jerusalem 

from its high temperature. The depth of the water varies greatly 
with the seasons. In autumn there are numerous fords. One of the 
most famous is that of Kasr el-YehUdi, the bathing-place of the 
Greeks and a great resort of pilgrims. Farther S. is the bathing- 
place of the Latins, called makta.% or place of passage, which, so far 
as the meaning of the word is concerned, would correspond with the 
ancient ' Beth' abard ('house of passage'; St. John i. 28), to the site 
of which however we possess no other clue. With regard to the miracle 
which enabled the Israelites to cross the Jordan (Joshua iii.), it is 
quite possible that the river may have been temporarily dammed 
from some natural cause above Sartabeh (the ancient Zaretan?), 
where its channel is very narrow. The city of Adam, mentioned in 
verse 16 of the chapter quoted, is also supposed to be identical with 
Tell Damiyeh. There is little or no trace in the Bible of the 
existence of bridges over the Jordan, the river being usually 
crossed at fords (1 Sam. xiii. 7; 2 Sam. x. 17); but David and Bar- 
zillai were conveyed across it in a ferry-boat (2 Sam. xix. 18, 31). 
The miraculous division of the waters by the cloak of Elijah is also 
localised at this ford by tradition (2 Kings ii. 8). St. Christopher 
is said to have carried the infant Christ across the river somewhere 
in this neighbourhood. 

Pilgrims are chiefly attracted to the Jordan by its association 
with John the Baptist and the baptism of Christ (Mark i. 5 — 11). 
The above-mentioned monastery of St. John affords a proof that the 
baptism of Christ was at a very early period believed to have been 
performed here. In reminiscence of that event, baptism in 
Jordan was as early as the time of Constantine deemed a special 
privilege. In the 6th cent. Antoninus found a great concourse of 
pilgrims here. He records that both banks were paved with marble; 
that a wooden cross rose in the middle of the stream; and that, after 
the water had been blessed by the priest, the pilgrims entered it, 
each wearing a linen garment, which was carefully preserved in 
order afterwards to be used as a winding-sheet. In the middle ages, 
too, baptisms took place in the Jordan, but the place for bathing 
and baptism was higher up, near the monastery. Since the 16th 
cent, the time of baptism was changed from the Epiphany to the 
pleasanter season of Easter. Disorderly scenes frequently took place 
here. From an early period the pilgrims were conducted, or rather 
hurried into the water by Beduin guides (sometimes accompanied 
by the pasha), and quarrels among the Christians were not uncom- 
mon. Down to the present time the Greeks attach great importance 
to the bath in Jordan as the termination of a pilgrimage. The great 
caravan starts for the Jordan immediately after the ceremonies 
of Easter, and the encampment lighted with pine torches on the 
bank of the river presents a quaint and interesting spectacle. The 
priests wade into the water breast-deep, and dip in the stream the 
men , women , and children as they approach in their white gar- 

to the Dead Sea. THE DEAD SEA. 7. Route. 267 

ments. Some of the pilgrims fill jars from the river to be used for 
baptisms at home. At other seasons also crowds of pilgrims are 
often encountered here. Caution is recommended to those who 
cannot swim, as the stream is very rapid and deepens towards the 
E. bank. The finest survey of the scene is obtained from a spot a 
few paces above the bathing-place. The pilgrims are seen drying 
their linen, and enthusiastically drinking and bathing, while in the 
background rise the mountains to the W. of the Dead Sea, the spur 
of Ras el-Peshkha being especially prominent. The banks are fringed 
with tarfa trees and willows. The crocodile , which is said to have 
formerly infested the river, is probably extinct (Macgr. p. 405). 
— A route leading more to the S. may be taken from Jericho to the 
bathing-place of the Latins. It first leads S.W. to Umm Okafer, or 
the place of custom, which, notwithstanding its suggestive name, 
tradition has never connected with Zacchams, and in 1 hr. more to 
the lukewarm 'Ain Hajla. About 10 min. to the W. S.W. of this 
spring is the ruin of Kasr el-Hajla, occupying a site corresponding 
to the ancient Beth-Hogla, which lay on the frontier between Judah 
and Benjamin (Josh. xv. 6). The character of the walls and remains 
of paintings indicate that the place was once a monastery, and the 
natives call it Dtr Mar Yuhanna Hajla, or monastery of St. John. 

An excursion to the influx of the Jordan into the Dead Sea pre- 
sents little attraction. The influx is about 1^ hr. from the bathing- 
place. The river falls into the sea in two arms, the latter part of 
its course being nearly level, so that the salt-water mixes with that 
of the river up to a considerable distance from the mouth. Fish 
that are carried down to the Dead Sea die, and are thrown up on 
the beach. Near its mouth also the immediate banks of the river 
are wooded, but the upper part of them consists of clayey and barren 
walls of earth of grotesque forms, the edges of which are apt to 
crumble when trodden upon. Lumps of salt and nodules of sulphur 
are frequently found in the clay. 

The direct route from the bathing-place to the Dead Sea and 
Mar Saba leads for some distance through the bushes on the bank 
of the river, and strikes across the open, treeless country. The 
clay-soil, which is coated with strata of salt and gypsum, is ab- 
solutely barren. This desolate plain is traversed for 25 min., when 
the valley is regained. The view over the plain, however, is very 
fine, and partieularly that of the blue slopes on each side of the 
sea, with the deep indentation of the valley of the Zerka Ma'in 
towards the S., to the left. In the middle of the day the view is 
unfortunately apt to be obscured by haze. After 40 min. (S.W.) we 
reach the bank of the Dead Sea opposite a small island. 

The Dead Sea was called by ancient Hebrew writers the Salt 
Sea, and by the prophets the Eastern Sea also. It was afterwards 
named the Sea of Asphalt, and by Greek authors at an early period 
the Dead Sea. The Arabs give it the same name, but more com- 

268 Route?. THE DEAD SEA. From Jerusalem 

monly call it Bahr Lut, or Lake of Lot. Mohammed having in- 
troduced the story of Lot into the Koran. The earlier accounts of 
the Dead Sea having been either inaccurate or exaggerated, the 
United States of America sent an expedition to explore it in 1848, 
and many of the former doubts and difficulties have thus been set 
at rest. (See Report of the Expedition of the United States to the 
Jordan and Dead Sea. by W. F. Lynch.) 

The Dead Sea is 46 M. in length (about the same as the Lake 
of Geneva), and its greatest breadth to the S. ofWady Mo.jib is 
10 M.; the breadth of the strait opposite the peninsula is 4 M. ; 
towards the N. . near Ras Mersed. the sea narrows to 8^ M., and at 
Ras el-Feshkha to 7 M. On the E. and "W. sides it is flanked 
by precipitous mountains with often little or no space between 
them and the water. The shallow S. bay of the sea, which, however, 
is not visible from the N. end, is bounded by a low peninsula 
(ATab. el-lisan, or tongue; comp. Joshua xv. 2, where the word 
translated 'bay' means literally 'tongue'). At the S.W. end of the 
lake rises a hill of salt (p. 288). 

Until the year 1837 it was never supposed that the Dead 
Sea lay below the level of the Mediterranean. The following figures 
are the result of the most recent measurements : — 

Level of Dead Sea below level of Mediterranean 1293 ft. 

Greatest depth of Dead Sea 1310 ft. 

Height of Jerusalem above Mediterranean . . 2494 ft. 
Height of Jerusalem above Dead Sea .... 3697 ft. 

The American expedition, with great trouble, conveyed two 
metal boats from Acre to Tiberias, whence they sailed down the 
Jordan. On the Dead Sea they spent twenty-two days in cruising 
about and taking soundings. They found the mean depth to be 
1080 ft.; that of the S. bay was nowhere more than 11 ft.; the 
greatest depth was 1308 ft., between 'Ain Terabeh (W.) and the 
mouth of the Zerka Ma'in (E.). The total depth of the cavity of the 
Dead Sea below the Mediterranean level is therefore 2601 ft. The 
level of the Dead Sea varies, however, with the seasons, as will be 
seen by the pieces of wood encrusted with salt which lie on its 
banks. From a very remote period the Dead Sea has formed a re- 
ceptacle for the waters of the Jordan and the surrounding hills, and 
it is one of the most ancient lakes in the world. At the end of the 
tertiary period the water stood considerably higher than now, 
deposits of clay being found on the surrounding mountains at a 
height of 350 ft. above the present level. The supply of water was 
also greater in ancient times, and it should be observed to what a 
depth the brooks on the E. and W. sides of the sea have hollowed 
out their beds. Although the volume of water which empties itself 
into the sea is still considerable, it is probable that the level of the 
sea is gradually sinking. It has been calculated that 6 million tons 
of water fall into the Dead Sea daily, the whole of which pro- 

to the Dead Sea. THE DEAD SEA. 7. Route. 269 

digious quantity must be carried off' by evaporation, as it is not 
conceivable that so low a lake should have any outlet. Nor is it 
difficult to imagine that the hot and dry air in this profound and 
unique basin should be capable of absorbing an enonnous amount 
of moisture. In consequence of this extraordinary evaporation, the 
water that remains behind is impregnated to an unusual extent with 
mineral substances, as well as with the salt which it dissolves from 
the beds of clay on the banks. The specific gravity of the water is not 
everywhere the same; it varies from 1.021 to 1.256, the average 
being 1.166. It is lightest at the mouth of the Jordan, and for 
some distance opposite to it, and heaviest, i. e. most charged with 
mineral ingredients, in the deepest parts of the sea. The human 
body floats without exertion on the surface, and can only be sub- 
merged with difficulty; but swimming is unpleasant, as the feet 
have too great a tendency to rise to the surface. Irritation of the 
skin is often experienced by persons who bathe in the Dead Sea, 
but this is probably caused chiefly by exposure to the fierce rays of 
the sun. After the bath, however, the skin retains an oily sensation, 
which may be removed by a subsequent bath in the Jordan (in 
which case the journey must be made in the reverse direction), but 
this second bath is by no means indispensable. — The water appears 
to have been used at one time for sanitary purposes. 

The water contains on an average 25 per cent of solid substances, 
one-half of which is chloride of sodium (common salt). The chloride 
of magnesium which is also largely held in solution is the ingredient 
which gives the water its nauseous, bitter taste, while the chloride 
of calcium makes it feel smooth and oily to the touch. There are 
also many other ingredients in small quantities. The water boils at 
221° Fahr. The salt of the Dead Sea has from the earliest times 
been collected and brought to the Jerusalem market, and is con- 
sidered particularly strong. Asphalt is said to lie in laTge masses 
at the bottom of the lake, but it seldom comes to the surface except 
when loosened by storms or earthquakes. Others, however, think 
that the asphalt proceeds from a kind of breccia (a conglomerate of 
calcareous stones with resinous binding matter) which lies on the 
W. bank of the lake, and finds its way thence to the bottom ; and 
that when the small stones are washed out of the mass the 
bituminous matter rises to the surface. The asphalt of the Dead 
Sea was prized above all other kinds in ancient times. 

It is now well ascertained that the Dead Sea contains no living 
being of any kind. Neither shells nor coral exist in it, and sea-fish 
put into its waters speedily die. The assertion, however, that no 
living thing exists on its banks, and that no bird can fly across it, 
is quite unfounded. The poverty of the fauna must be admitted, 
but is to be ascribed to the want of fresh water and the consequent 
absence of vegetation, and not to any supposed poisonous property 
of the air. Where a supply of fresh water exists, the soil beaTS a 

^10 Route?. THE DEAD SEA. From Jericho 

luxuriant tropical vegetation (see Engedi, p. 284). The banks of 
the lake were once inhabited (chiefly by hermits), as ruins found 
on them indicate. Not a single boat is now to be seen on the lake, 
but it was navigated in the time of Josephus , during the middle 
ages, and even later. When a storm bursts over this rock-bound 
cavity, the waves (according to Lynch) lash the sides of boats like 
hammers, but owing to the heaviness of the water they speedily sub- 
side when the storm is over. 

In clear weather the scenery presented by the mountains and 
water is beautiful. The promontory on the right is Ras el-Feshkha. 
Farther to the S. is Ras Mersed, beyond which lies Engedi. To 
the left, at some distance, is seen the ravine of the Zerka Ma'in, 
descending from a mountain 3480 ft. in height. The mountains of 
the Dead Sea, however, are rarely seen with great distinctness, as a 
slight haze usually veils the surface of the water ; but when seen 
from a distance, and especially from a height, the atmosphere seems 
perfectly clear, and the water is of a deep blue colour. When seen 
from the immediate neighbourhood the colour of the water is greenish, 
and it has a somewhat oily appearance. 

The traveller should not omit to bring a sufficient supply of 
fresh water from Jericho or from the Jordan, as none is to be found 
on the whole route. The wood cast up on the shores of the sea has 
been used at places in erecting a kind of framework , over which 
carpets may be stretched as a protection from the heat and glare. 

Fkom Jericho to 'Ain Feshkha and Engedi (10 — 12 hrs.). At r Ain 
Feshkha there is nothing to see, and the route thither is good and level. 
Thence to Engedi the route is fatiguing and destitute of water, hut not 
uninteresting, and is recommended to those who are about to return to 
Jerusalem via Hebron. It affords an opportunity for a nearer acquaintance 
with the banks of the Dead Sea and the desert of Judah , furrowed with 
its profound gorges. A Beduin escort (p. 283) and provisions are necessary. 

From Jericho we ride southwards on the W. side of the broad and 
scantily planted floor of the valley. From the beginning of the Dead Sea 
onwards the plain narrows , and at last terminates in a sharp angle at 
r Ain Feshkha, a copious spring , surrounded by a growth of reed-plants, 
which wells forth near the bank of the lake. The water is clear , but 
somewhat warm, brackish , and sulphureous \ these properties , however, 
are easily removed by placing it in porous jars and adding wine. (Water 
should be taken hence for the journey to Engedi.) Near the spring are 
some slight traces of ruins. The promontory of Ras el-Feshkha, which 
projects far into the sea at this point, can only be crossed in a straight 
direction by experienced climbers. We must therefore ascend with our 
horses by a steep and stony zigzag path to the right, make a long circuit 
of at least 2J hrs. to the W., up and down hill, and at length descend by 
an equally unpleasant path, regaining the shore of the sea on the S. slope 
of the W&dy en-Nar (lower Kidron valley), on the other side of the 
promontory. This rough journey, however, is not uninteresting as the 
promontory commands a survey of the N. end of the Dead Sea and the 
lower part of the Jordan valley. To the S. the rocky promontory of 
Mersed (see below) abuts on the lake, and the lofty hills to the E. with 
their deeply indented valleys form an admirable frame to the picture. 
Meanwhile the sun's rays have redoubled their intensity , and when we 
again approach the sea we perceive the somewhat overpowering odour of 
some sulphureous springs, by which we are accompanied almost all the 
way to Engedi. Stinkstone (p. 145) is frequently found here. The route 

to Jerusalem. NEBY MUSA. 7. Route. 271 

passes the mouths of the Wddy el-Ghiiwer, et- Ta r dmireh, and ed-Derejeh, and 
continues tolerable until we have passed the Wddy Hasdseh (about 2hrs.). 
Where , however , it skirts the (1 hr.) Rds Mers'ed , it again becomes 
extremely rugged both for man and beast, and seems almost impracticable 
at places. Engedi (p. 2S4), after another ascent, is reached in 1J hr. more. 

Another Route. A second path to Engedi , which leads from the 
top of the Eas el-Feshkha, beyond the above mentioned ravine of the 
Wady en-Nar, ascending hills, and crossing valleys, is even more 
laborious than the other, but commands finer views. 

The passage of the valleys , especially that of the Wddy el-Ghum'r 
(see above) , is attended with some difficulty , as the precipices often 
necessitate long circuits. After ] hr. we reach another valley , and after 
40 min. the Rds JVekb et - Terdbeh, a bold rocky buttress above the spring 
of that name, commanding a grand and uninterrupted view of the Dead 
Sea and its surroundings. To the S.E. rises Kerak, and to the N.E. the 
lofty Neby 'Osha (p. 336) forms a well known landmark. In 40 min. 
more we come to a point where a bad road descends to the left to 'Ain 
Terdbeh, and in \ hr. more we pass near the union of the Wady et-Ta r amireh 
with the Wady Derejeh (to the left, below). In 20 miu. we reach the 
Wddy et-Ta'dmireh, which descends from Bethlehem, and in 35 min. the 
Wddy ed-Direjeh, the lower part of the Wady Khareitun. The passage 
of these two vallejs is rendered difficult by the almost perpendicular 
character of their banks. In 20 min. we reach the opposite hill. After 
40 min. we strike across the Wddy el -Hasdseh, descending from Teku'a 
(p. 252), and then mount the hill. In 40 min. more the extensive table-land 
of Hasdseh is reached, where Rashaideh Beduins are frequently encamped. 
The plain is furrowed with small, dry watercourses , and overgrown with 
underwood at a few places only. After another 40 min. we cross the 
small Wddy Shell/. On the left rises the Jebel Shekif, from which the 
Ras Mersed (see above) runs out into the sea. In 1 hr. 10 min. the Wddy 
Suder, a small dry channel, has to be crossed; in 20 min. we reach the 
point where the Jerusalem road diverges (p. 252), and at length in ^ hr. we 
arrive at the hill of Engedi (p. 283). 

The road from the N.W. end of the Dead Sea to Mar Saba 
follows the bank of the sea for some distance. The heat here in the 
middle of the day is often scorching. After 18 min. we leave the 
'Ain el-Jehayyir to the left ; its brackish water should not be drunk 
except in case of necessity. We then leave the sea and ascend the 
Wddy ed-Dabr, deeply eroded by its brook, and partly overgrown 
with underwood, where game is said to abound (partridges, wild 
pigeons, hares, etc.). After 35 min. we enjoy a fine view of the 
Jordan valley and the Dead Sea. The route then leads to the left, 
skirting a deep ravine, and affording several other points of view. 
To the right we soon perceive the pass of Nekb Wady Mum, and in 
35 min. we enter the Wddy el-Kenttera. On the hill to the N. W. 
we observe the Muslim pilgrimage shrine of Neby Musa (Moses' 
tomb), of which we have no notice earlier than the 13th century. 
The records of the death of Moses in the region to the E. of Jordan 
are so well authenticated that few travellers will care to visit this 
spot. Annually, on an afternoon in April, the spot is visited by a 
great Muslim pilgrimage, accompanied by a number of half-naked 
fanatical dervishes, who parade the streets of Jerusalem the whole 
of the previous morning, shouting their 'la ilaha ill Allah !' 

We now continue our ride through the valley. After 40 min. 
the Jebel Jamum rises on our right, and we Teach the table-land of 

272 Route 7- MAR SABA. From Jericho 

Bke'a, which ascends towards the S.S.W. This plain is coveted 
with willows in spring, and is frequented by Beduins of the tribe of 
Htem. After 42 min. we cross the Wddy Kherabiyeh, which like all 
these valleys descends towards the E. In the Wddy Bke'a, on the 
left below, we perceive Beduin encampments. The view hence of 
the Dead Sea, far below the mountain spurs, is grand and beautiful. 
In ■£ hr. we reach the rain-reservoir of Vmm el-Fus. A heap of 
stones on the way side, 20 min. farther, is intended to apprise 
travellers that they are near the Neby Musa (p. 271). After 
35 min. more we lose sight of the Dead Sea, and descend by a bad 
path into the Wddy en-Ndr, or Kidron valley, the floor of which is 
reached in 28 min., and we are now surrounded by a barren wil- 
derness. The path then ascends from the Kidron valley by means 
of steps, and in 20 min. reaches the top of the hill near a watch- 
tower, where our goal, the monastery of Mar Saba, now rises 
before us. Visitors must knock loudly at a small barred door for the 
purpose of presenting theiT letter of introduction and obtaining ad- 
mission. No one is admitted after sunset, even when duly provided 
with letters. Ladies are not admitted, and must pass the night in 
the tower outside. Above the gate rises a second tower, where a 
watchman is posted who scans the mountains and valleys far and 
wide to see whether any danger threatens the monastery. 

In the interior we descend by about 50 steps to a second door, 
whence a second staircase leads to a paved court, from which lastly 
a third leads to the guest-chamber. The divans here are gen- 
erally infested with vermin. The accommodation is very poor, but 
bread and wine are to be had, and there are kitchens for the use of 
travellers who bring their dragoman and cook. For a night's lodging 
for three persons 10 fr. is usually paid, besides 2 fr. to the servant, 
and i — 1 fr. to the porter. 

Those who happen to pass a moonlight night in the monastery 
will carry away the most distinct idea of its singularly desolate si- 
tuation. On such a night the visitor should take a walk on the ter- 
race and look down into the valley. The rock falls away so perpen- 
dicularly that huge flying buttresses have had to be constructed in 
order to afford the very moderate space occupied by the monastery. 
The barren heights beyond the valley contain a number of old her- 
mitages now occupied by jackals. The bottom of the ravine lies about 
590 ft. below the monastery, and at about the same level as the 

History. In the 5th century a Laura , or settlement of monks , was 
founded here by St. Euthymius. His favourite pupil Sabas was born in 
Cappadocia about 439, and when hardly eight years of age renounced all 
worldly advantages and entered a monastery. Ten years later he went 
to Jerusalem , and then settled in this wilderness with Euthymius. As 
his reputation for sanctity became known, he was joined by a number 
of anchorites, with whom he lived according to the rule of St. Basilius 
in a Laura founded by him. In 484 he was ordained priest by the Bishop 
of Jerusalem , and raised to the rank of abbot of the order of Sabaites 
named after him. He died in 531 or 532, after having greatly dis- 

to Jerusalem. MAR SABA. 7. Route. 273 

tinguished himself in theological controversies against the monophysites, 
and founded several other monastic settlements. In 614 the monastery 
was plundered by the Persian hordes of Chosroes , and in subsequent 
centuries its wealth repeatedly attracted marauders (796 and 842), in 
consequence of which it became necessary to fortify it. It was again 
pillaged in 1832 and 1834. In 1840 it was enlarged and restored by the 
Russians. — After Easter many pilgrims return from Jordan via. Mar 

A monk orlay-brother conducts visitors through the monastery, 
which consists of a number of terraces adjoining and above one 
another. Every available spot has been converted by the monks 
into a miniature garden. Figs ripen here much earlier than at Je- 
rusalem, as the sun beats powerfully on the rocks. In the centre 
of the paved court stands a dome-covered structure, decorated in the 
interior with greater richness than taste, containing the empty tomb of 
St. Sabas. This sanctuary is the chief attraction for pilgrims, although 
the remains of the saint have been removed to Venice. To the N. 
W. of this detached chapel is the church of St. Nicholas, consisting 
chiefly of a grotto in the rock, which was perhaps once a hermitage. 
Behind a grating here are shown the skulls of the martyrs slain by 
the troops of Chosroes. The monastery church, of basilica form, on 
the E. side, is uninteresting. A few old pictures on a gilded ground 
are still extant, while others have been exchanged by the Russians 
for modern works. The tomb of Johannes Damascenus, or Chrysor- 
rhoas, is also shown here. He wrote in the 8th cent., and though 
not a man of pre-eminent talent, is regarded as one of the last dis- 
tinguished theologians of the early Greek church. — At the back 
of this church lie the chambers of the pilgrims and the cells of the 
monks. The latter, in accordance with the rule of their order, lead 
an ascetic life, eating little else than vegetables, and fasting fre- 
quently. Their only neighbours are wild birds which they feed, and 
which become so tame as to eat out of their hands. They seem not 
overburdened with learning, and they deny visitors access to their 
library, where however Tischendorf discovered some fine MSS. The 
monastery is supported by donations and by the rents of a few 
lauded estates. There are now 65 monks here, and they have the 
care of a few lunatics. One of the little gardens contains a palm- 
tree which is said to have been planted by St. Sabas. Its dates, as 
the monks declare, have no stones. The chief memorial of the 
saint is his grotto, which is shown on the S. side of the monastery, 
near the guest-chamber. A passage in the rock leads to the grotto, 
adjoining which is a smaller chamber called the lion's grotto. One 
day, as the legend runs, the saint on entering his cave found it oc- 
cupied by a lion, whereupon he began fearlessly to repeat his 
prayers and then fell asleep. The lion dragged him out of the cave 
twice, but the saint, objecting to these proceedings, assigned him a 
corner of the cavern, after which they lived peaceably together. 

Fkom Map. Saba to Jerusalem (3^ hrs.). The route ascends 
the Kidron valley. At first the valley is left on the right, and after 

Palestir" 18 


20 min. the bed of the brook is crossed. The limestone rock con- 
tains numerous bands of flint. After 7 min. the route turns to the 
left, and encampments of Beduins are occasionally passed. On the 
left (S.), after 7 min. more, we observe a cavity hewn in the rock, 
containing bad water. In 50 min. we leave the Kidron valley, 
which here makes a circuit towards the S., and enter the W/ldy el- 
Leben (milk valley), which leads at first a little to the N. and then 
to the W. A fatiguing ascent of 40 min. brings us to the watershed, 
whence a striking view of Jerusalem is obtained ; nearer us lies 
Bet Sahur el-'Atika (p. 227). To the S. E. we see the Frank Moun- 
tain, and to the S. W. the village of SurBaher. Descending to the 
W. we regain the Kidron valley in 35 min., Bet SaMr lying on the 
left. After 28 min. the W/ldy Kattun descends from the Mt. of Olives 
on the right. In 10 min. we reach Job's Well (p. 227), and in 
^ hr. more the Yafa Gate. 

Feom Mah Saba to Bethlehem (2 hrs. 50 min.). The road ia tolerable. 
At first it ascends to the N. from the upper tower of the monastery, 
affording several fine retrospects of the Dead Sea and the wild mountain 
scenery. _ After 25 min. the monastery tower disappears. In spring all 
these heights are covered with good pastures. Far below in the Wady 
en-Nar (p. 272), are seen the huts of the villagers who live under the 
protection of the monastery. After 20 min. the Mt. of Olives comes in 
sight on the right. A path diverges here to the right to the ruined monas- 
tery Der ibn 'Obed, or Mar Theodotius, with remains of two churches. 
In 10 min. we gain the top of the hill, whence we have a fine view, the 
Frank Mountain (p. 256) being also visible towards the S. After 4 min. 
the road descends into the Wady el-'Ardis, and in 10 min. reaches the 
bottom of the valley. It then ascends slightly, and in ] hr. reaches a 
small valley, on the left side of which it again ascends. After 17 min. 
we have a view of a large basin ; opposite to us lies Bethlehem, and on 
the right rises Mar Elyas. In 40 min. we reach the first fields and or- 
chards of Bethlehem. The monastery of Mar Saba also possesses land here. 
The watch-towers with which most of the gardens are provided date 
from the time of Ibrahim Pasha, but the practice of erecting such towers 
was already common among the ancient Jews. After 10 min. we leave 
the village of Bet Sahur (p. 251) a few hundred paces to the left, after 
6 min. avoid a path to the left, in 10 min. pass the Latin monastery, and 
in 2 min. more reach the space in front of the church of St. Mary at 
Bethlehem (p. 244). 

8. From Jerusalem to the Monastery of the Cross, 
c Ain Karim, and c Ain el-Habis. 

The journey occupies 2-J hrs. — Leaving the Yafa Gate, we 
follow the second road to the left, leading to the Birket Mamilla 
and the Leper House (p. 234). We next leave the road to 'Ain 
Yalo (p. 321) to the left, and that to Ain Karim to the right, and 
descend the valley in 20 min. to the Monastery of the Cross, 
Arab. Der el-Musallabeh. The road has lately been improved by the 
Greeks and Russians, and the adjoining land freed from stones and 
planted. The monastery is of irregular quadrangular form, sur- 
rounded by windowless walls, and extends down towards the S., 


occupying the E. side of the floor of the valley. It belongs to the 
orthodox Greeks. 

The foundation of the monastery is attributed to the Empress 
Helena, but this is a mere tradition. According to another tradition, 
the church was founded in the 5th cent, by Tatian, King of the 
Georgians. The fact that in 1099 the Crusaders found the mon- 
astery already in existence renders it probable that it was really 
founded before the introduction of El-Islam. At that period it was 
the property of the Georgians. The monastery seems to have sub- 
sequently belonged to various other sects, but never to the Latins. 
It has suffered much at the hands of the Arabs, who plundered it 
and murdered the monks more than once. It has of late been hand- 
somely restored, but more walls are necessary for the protection of 
the grounds. Here, too, we And the iron-mounted wicket which 
has so long been in use in Oriental monasteries. The buildings 
embrace several large and irregular courts, and are fitted up partly 
in the European style. They also contain a large seminary for 
priests, with six professors and sixty pupils. Besides theology, the 
pupils are taught Greek, Latin, French, Hebrew, Arabic, and music. 
The library contains many fine works and a number of MSS. The 
plan of the monastery church seems to corroborate the conjecture 
that it dates from the Byzantine period. It consists of a nave and 
aisles. The dome is borne by four large pillars, and is provided with 
small windows. The vaulting and arches are pointed , whence a 
mediaeval restoration is to be inferred. The paintings on the walls, 
some of them of a rude character, were also retouched in the 17th 
century. The fine mosaic pavement is of considerable antiquity. 
The principal shrine of the monastery is behind th high altar, 
where a round aperture, lined with marble, marks the spot where 
the tree from which Christ's cross was formed is said to have grown. 
This tradition gives the monastery its name, which is more properly 
the 'monastery of the place of the cross'. The tradition is probably 
very ancient, although not traceable farther back than the Crusaders' 
period, and never entirely recognised by the Latins. Among later 
myths may be mentioned that of Adam being buried, and that of 
Lot having lived here. 

Leaving the monastery, we retrace our steps for 3 min., and then 
take the r Ain Karim road to the left. It intersects the valley of the 
monastery of the Cross, and in 18 min. enters the Wady Medtneh; 
it then crosses a hill in 13 min. to the Wady el-Bedawtyeh. On 
the right lies Khirbet Nahleh. The top of the Jebel 'Ali, which we 
now ascend, commands a view of the Mediterranean, the Mt. of 
Olives, and part of Jerusalem. After 22 min. we come to the ruins 
of Bet Esmtr; to the right lie the ruins of Der Yastn, and on a hill 
farther off Neby SamwU (p. 143); to the N.W., beyond the valley, 
is El-Ak&d on a hill. Descending hence, we reach the village of 
'Ain Karim in \ hr. 


276 Route 8. 'AIN KARIM. 

History. 'Ain Karim probably answers to the Karem of the Septuagint 
(Josh. xv. 60), although the name, which signifies vineyard, is too com- 
mon to be much relied upon as a clue. A tradition which arose in the 
time of the Crusaders makes 'Ain Karim the r city of Juda\ the residence 
of Zacharias and Elizabeth (Luke i. 39) ; but that place is more likely to 
have stood on the site of the modern Yata near Hebron. 

The village of 'Ain Karim lies in a beautiful and fertile district 
on the slope of the hill to the E., above a broad basin. It contains 
about 600 inhabitants, of whom 100 are Latins, and the rest Mus- 
lims. They are all tillers of the ground, and possess olive-groves 
and vineyards , watered by the spring of 'Ain Karim which lies a 
little to the S., and which was associated in the 14th cent, with 
the supposed visit of the Virgin and called St. Mary's Well. About 
4 min. to the W. of the spring stands a chapel, constructed in 1860 
from ruined walls and vaults, marking the alleged site of the house 
or summer-dwelling of Zacharias, the father of John the Baptist, 
where the Virgin visited Elizabeth. In the chapel near the en- 
trance is shown a piece of the stone which yielded at the place 
where Elizabeth concealed the infant John for fear of Herod. 

To the E. rises the castellated Latin Monastery of St. John, 
where travellers can be accommodated. It has recently been restored 
and enlarged. The monks and brethren are chiefly Spaniards. The 
garden of the monastery, with its conspicuous cypresses, lies within 
the enclosure. The dome-covered church of St. John, which is en- 
closed by the monastery on three sides , peers prettily above the 
walls. After this church had for centuries been used by the Arabs 
as a stable, the Marquis de Nointel, ambassador of Louis XIV., 
prevailed upon the sultan to restore it to the Franciscans ; and ere 
long these indefatigable monks succeeded in firmly establishing 
themselves here, rebuilding the monastery, and purging and restor- 
ing the cnurch, which last, with its dome and mosaic pavement, is 
now one of the finest modern churches in Palestine. The older part 
of the building is probably not earlier than the Crusaders' period, 
when the birth of John the Baptist was first localised here. The 
church consists of nave and aisles; the elegant dome is borne by 
four pillars , and the pavement is still adorned with old mosaics. 
The Mgh altar is dedicated to Zacharias, the father of John the 
Baptist, and the S. chapel to the memory of the Virgin's visit to 
Elizabeth. Adjoining the organ is a picture representing St. John 
in the desert, attributed to Murillo. On the left (N.) of the altar 
seven steps descend to a crypt, the alleged birth-place of the Bap- 
tist, where five well-executed basreliefs in white marble, repre- 
senting scenes from his life, are let into the black walls. This 
chapel, though lined with masonry, is said, like that at Bethlehem 
(p. 248), to be a grotto in the rock. Besides the Franciscans, there 
are also Sisters of Zion established at 'Ain Karim, where they 
preside over a girls' school , beautifully situated on a hill opposite 
the village. This place is visited by numerous pilgrims. 

'AIN EL-HABIS. 8. Route. 277 

From 'Ain Karim we proceed to the W. towards the so-called 
Terebinth Valley, the lower part of the Wddy Hanlna or Wddy Ku- 
loniyeh (p. 140), which is partly planted , and partly overgrown 
with underwood. It has erroneously been supposed identical with 
the valley of Elah mentioned in 1 Sam. xvii. 2 (comp. p. 319). 
In 1 hr. we reach the spring 'Ain el-Habis. The Orotto of St. 
John, to which steps hewn in the rock ascend , lies close to the 
spring. It belongs to the Latins, who have erected an altar in it. 
On the side next the valley there are two apertures in the wall of 
rock , leading to a kind of balcony , whence we survey the Wddy 
Sdtdf, named after the opposite village, and the villages of Soba 
and (to the N.) Kuloniyeh and Neby Samwil. The place is called 
by the Christians the Wilderness of St. John, although now well 
planted. It was cultivated in ancient times also, if one may 
judge from the traces of garden terraces. The altar is said to stand 
on the spot where the Baptist slept when he dwelt in the grotto 
(Matth. iii. 1—6; Luke i. 80). From another passage, however 
(Luke iii. 3), it is obvious that by the 'wilderness of Judaea' the 
region near Jordan is meant; and moreover the tradition attaching 
to 'Ain el-Habis does not date farther back than about the year 1500. 

For the sake of returning to Jerusalem by a different route, we 
may proceed from 'Ain el-Habis through the Wady Hanina, and 
reach the Yafa road near Kuloniyeh (p. 140) in an hour. Or turning 
at first to the right from the spring, and then striking across the hill 
towards the S., we may descend to the village of Welejeh (p. 321), 
and thence to 'Ain Ydlo, and reach Jerusalem through the Wddy el- 
Werd (valley of roses) in 2 hrs. (comp. p. 321). 

9. From Jerusalem to Hebron. 

This journey occupies 6 hrs. 40 min. — Route to the Pools of 
Solomon, see p. 253. Our route ascends past the highest pool to a 
hill towards the S. (j hr.), whence we observe a water-conduit 
which empties itself into the lowest pool. From the chain of hills 
which we now cross, we see, turning round, the small village of 
El-Khidr, with a Greek monastery and lunatic asylum, to the right, 
and soon afterwards the ruins of Ber el-Bendt on the left in the 
deep Wddy el-Fuhemish, or Wddy el-Bidr (from its numerous 
cisterns), into which we descend % hr. later, and then ascend the 
long and straight valley. We observe numerous air-shafts be- 
longing to the underground conduit (p. 254). Having reached 
the upper end of the valley we remark on the right (after ^ hr.) the 
ruins of a tower. We then descend into (20 min.) the broad Wddy 
'Arub which runs E. and W., and where, -j hr. to the left (E.), 
beyond a low hill, are situated several copious springs which were 
once conducted to Jerusalem (comp. p. 254). A large pond and 
remains of gardens still exist at this spot. We next (\ hr.) come 

278 Route 9. HEBRON. From Jerusalem 

to the ruined village of Abu Fid , and afterwards cross a valley. 
The hills are partly -wooded. After 1 hr. we reach the spring of 
'Ain ed-Dirweh, the enclosure of which is built of fine, regular 
blocks. Above it is a platform with traces of an ancient Christian 
church. A little way to the E. there are tomb-chambers in the 
artificially hewn and levelled stratum of Took. To the W. rises a 
hill overgrown with bushes, on the slope of which there are also 
several tombs. At the top of the hill are ruins called Burj Sur, 
which answer to the ancient Beth-Zur (Josh. xv. 58). After the 
return of the Jews from the captivity the inhabitants of Beth-Zur 
aided in building the walls of Jerusalem (Nehem. iii. 16), and at 
the period of the Maccabees Beth-Zur was a place of great impor- 
tance. In the time of Eusebius the spring in which Philip baptised 
the eunuch was pointed out near Beth-Zur (Acts viii. 26 — 39; 
comp. p. 321), and if this was really the scene of that event the old 
road from Jerusalem to Gaza must have passed this way. 

A little farther on (5 min.), a ruined tower rises on the right. 
In 20 min. the ruin of the mosque of Neby Yunus (Jonah), sur- 
rounded by the ruined village of Halhul, becomes visible on a hill 
to the left. This village existed in the time of Joshua (xv. 58), 
and the Oedor mentioned by him in the same passage is the Jedur, 
which we have passed on the right. Some of the later Jewish 
writers mention a tradition that the prophet Gad was buried here 
(2 Sam. xxiv. 11), which is possible, as there are rock-tombs in the 
neighbourhood. This spot, as well as several others, claims to be 
the burial-place of Jonah (p. 436). 

After a ride of 35 min. through a partially cultivated district, 
we perceive about 300 paces to the left of the road a large building 
called Haram Rdmet el-KhalU, the shrine of Abraham, with a 
spring. The S. and W. walls only are preserved, and two or three 
courses of stone, one 80, the other 55 paces long, are still visible. 
The blocks are quite flat, some of them being of great length (10 — 
16 ft.), and are jointed without mortar. In the N.W. angle of the 
interior there is a cistern. What purpose the building served, and 
whether it was ever completed, cannot now be ascertained. Jewish 
tradition places the Grove of Mamre here, and the valley is still 
called the Valley of Terebinths (comp. pp. 277, 319). The basilica 
which Constantine is said to have erected at Hebron cannot well 
have any connection with these ruins, as their style points to a 
much earlier period. About 50 yds. to the E. are the ruins of an- 
other building, which is more likely to have been the basilica, and 
near it are two vine-presses in the rock. After \ hr. we pass the 
ruins of the village of Khirbet en-Nasara (ruin of the Christians), or 
Rujum Sebzin, and (5 min.) the cistern of Bir en-Namra. We 
soon enter the vine-clad Wady Sebta, and in 50 min. reach the 
small town of El-KhalU (Hebron). 

to Hebron. HEBRON. 9. Route. 279 

Hebron. The Accommodation obtainable at several Jewish houses 
is tolerable ; one of these is opposite the entrance to the Haret esh- 
Shekh. The shekh Hamza also receives travellers. The charges should 
be fixed beforehand, and also the fee (1 fr.) for a guide through the town, 
if desired (but unnecessary). For the excursions to Engedi, Masada, etc., 
see the remark made on p. 283. The Muslims of Hebron are notorious 
for their fanaticism (see p. 282) , and the traveller should therefore avoid 
coming into collision with them. The children shout a well-known 
Arabic curse after 'Franks', of which of course no notice should be taken. 

History. Hebron ('friendship') is a town of hoar antiquity. Mediaeval 
tradition localised the creation of Adam here ; and at a very early period, 
owing to a misinterpretation of Joshua xiv. 15, where Arba is spoken of 
as a great man among the Anakim (giants) , Adam's death was placed 
here. From the same passage it appears that the ancient name of Hebron 
was Kirjath Arba ('city of four'). It is difficult to decide whether to 
follow the interpretation of Josh. xv. 13, which makes Arba the founder 
of a family, as in our English version , or rather to adopt the signifi- 
cation of 'fourfold town'. This name might be derived from its having 
four quarters, which, though altered, still exist. Possibly these quarters 
belonged to four different families , who at first lived in distinct en- 
closures. At all events the town was always considered very ancient, 
and Moses records that it was built seven years before Zoan, or Tanis, 
the capital of lower Egypt (Numbers xiii. 22). Abraham is also stated 
to have pitched his tent under the oaks of Mamre, the Amorite (Gen. 
xiii. 18), the place being near Hebron , and opposite the cave of Machpelah. 
When Sarah died (Gen. xxiii.) Abraham purchased from Ephron the 
Hittite the double cavern of Machpelah as a family burial-place ; and 
the narrative is no doubt intended to convey the meaning that an 
interest in the soil of Palestine was thereby secured to Abraham's 
descendants. Isaac, too was buried here, and Jacob's remains, by his 
express desire, were afterwards brought from Egypt and placed beside 
those of his wife Leah. Hebron was destroyed by Joshua (x. 36, 37), and 
this fertile region was afterwards presented to Caleb and his descendants 
as a reward for his services as one of the spies of Moses. The town then 
became an important place belonging to the tribe of Judah, and at the 
same time a city of refuge and a residence of the Levites (Josh. xx. 7). 
David spent a long time in the region of Hebron; and it was not until 
he could no longer hold out against Saul that he offered his services to 
Achish, the Philistine king of Gath (1 Sam. xxi. 10). After Saul's death 
David returned , and for 7^ years ruled over Israel from Hebron. It was 
at the gates of Hebron that Abner was slain by Joab , and David caused 
the murderers of Ishbosheth , the son of Saul , to be hanged by the pool 
of Hebron. Hebron afterwards became the headquarters of the rebellious 
Absalom, but after that period it is rarely mentioned. It was fortified 
by Kehoboam, and repeopled after the captivity. Judas Maccabams had 
to recapture it from the Edomites, and Josephus reckons it as a town of 
Idumsea. Hebron was next destroyed by the Romans. During the Muslim 
period Hebron still maintained its importance, partly by its commerce, and 
partly as a sacred place owing to its connection with Abraham, who 
was represented by Mohammed as a great prophet. The Arabs call him 
khalil Alldh, or the 'friend of God' (St. James ii. 23), and their name for 
Hebron is therefore 'the town of the friend of God', or briefly El- Khalil. 
The Crusaders also called Hebron the Castellum, or Praesidium ad sanctum 
Abraham. Godfrey de Bouillon invested the knight Gerard of Avesnes 
with the place as a feudal fief. In 1167 it became the seat of a Latin 
bishop, but in 1187 it fell into the hands of Saladin. Since that period it 
has been occupied by the Muslims. 

The modern Hebron lies in the narrow part of a valley descending 
from the N.W. ; and, unless it he assumed that the ancient city was 
situated higher up on the slope to the E. , it was one' of the few 

280 Route 9. 


From Jerusalem 



/ij! ,'■, VS. 

' -^Wj/th & rro aiiT cl ft Sa ulcy. 


to Hebron. HEBRON. 9. Route. 281 

towns of Palestine that did not stand on a hill. The hill on the S.W. 
side rises about 3000 ft. above the sea-level. The environs are extre- 
mely fertile, and beautifully green in spring. The vine thrives here 
admirably, and it has therefore been supposed that this is the valley 
of Eshcol (valley of grapes), whence the spies of Moses brought the 
large bunch of grapes , the pomegranates , and figs (Numbers xiii. 
23, 24). It has, howeveT, lately been shown that the valley of 
Eshcol more probably lay farther S., near the Tuleilat el-'Inab, 
or the vine-clad hills around Beersheba, and that tradition had 
merely selected Hebron as being the most southern part of the 
mountains of Palestine where grapes thrive. Almond and apricot 
trees also occur, and the environs are copiously supplied with water. 

The present town is divided into several distinct quarters. The 
N.W. quarter is called Haret csh-Shekh, deriving its name from the 
beautiful Mosque of the Shekh 'Ali Bakka (d. 670), which probably 
dates from the Mameluke period, and whose minaret forms the 
handsomest modern architectural feature in the town. Above this 
quarter is the aqueduct of the Kashkala spring , near which there 
are ancient grottoes and rock-tombs. From the spring a path well 
worn in the limestone of the mountain leads to the top of the hill 
Hobdl er-Riah. The W. quarter is called Haret Bab ez-Zawiyeh, and 
the S.E. Haret el-Haram, to the S. of which lies Hilret el-Musha- 
rika. The large building on the hill of Kubb el-Janib , on the S. 
side, is the Quarantine. The houses are generally spacious and built 
of stone, many of them having domes as at Jerusalem. The popu- 
lation numbers from 8000 to 10,000 souls , including 500 Jews. 
The merchants of Hebron carry on a brisk trade with the Beduins, 
and often travel about the country with their wares. The chief 
branches of industry are the manufacture of water-skins from goats' 
hides, on the N. side of the Haram, and the glass-houses, which 
are also at the N. end of that quarter. Glass was manufactured 
here as early as the middle ages, and the principal articles made are 
lamps and coloured glass rings used by the women as ornaments. 

Outside this quarter, in the bed of the valley to the N. , is 
situated a reservoir, 28 yds. in length, 18 yds. in width, and 21 ft. 
in depth. Farther to the S., at the bottom of the valley, is a still 
larger basin constructed of hewn stones, square in form, each side 
being 44 yds. long. These pools are unquestionably ancient, and 
it was perhaps near one of them that David hanged the murderers 
of Ishbosheth (see p. 279). Tradition has settled the point in favour 
of the larger pool. In the town the tomb of Abner and Ishbosheth is 
shown within the court of a Turkish house, but is not worth visiting. 

The most important building at Hebron , and one of unique 
interest, is the Great Mosquef Haram), which, according to tradition, 
encloses the cave of Machpelah. It is situated in the lower part of 
the quarter named after it, and also named Haret el-Kal'a, or castle 
quarter. The castle is now half in ruins. On the X. side it is over- 

282 Route 9. HEBEON. From Jerusalem 

topped by the adjacent wall of the Haram, which also appears once 
to have been fortified. The enclosing wall is built of very large 
blocks, all drafted and hewn smooth. The drafting, however, is 
not so deep as that of the stones of the Haram at Jerusalem. The 
walls are strengthened externally by square buttresses, sixteen on 
each side, and eight at each end. They are without capitals, but a 
kind of cornice runs round the whole building. Above this old 
wall, which is 48 — 58 ft. high, the Muslims erected a modern wall 
and at the corners four minarets, of which two still exist. Between 
the two N. corners aTe steps of gentle ascent , leading to the court 
in the interior. Visitors are conducted as far as the entrance 
doors, but Muslim fanaticism precludes their nearer approach. 
The enclosing walls bear marks of antiquity , but it can hardly be 
supposed that they belong to the era of Solomon , as the walls of 
Jerusalem , built by Herod , also contain admirable specimens of 
drafted stones. A more careful examination of its details will, 
however, be necessary before the age of the structure can be approx- 
imately ascertained. 

By a special firman of the sultan, the Prince of Wales was admitted 
to the mosque in 1862, the Marquis of Bute in 1866, and the Crown-Prince 
of Prussia in 1869. These distinguished visitors were attended respec- 
tively by Stanley , Pierotti , Fergusson , Eosen , and others. Fergusson's 
account is contained in 'The Holy Sepulchre and the Temple at Jerusa- 
lem' (London, 1865). According to that author the tomb was open down 
to the beginning of the Christian era , its holiness forming its sole pro- 
tection. The present wall of the Haram was erected in the Herodian 
period , while tombs and cenotaphs in white stone or marble were also 
added. A church was probably erected here in the time of Justinian, and 
other shrines were placed on the upper level, over those which remained 
below, but none of these structures are now extant. The small building 
which forms the S. part of the Haram is probably a church of the Cru- 
saders, dating from 1167 — 1187, but has been restored by the Arabs, and is 
possibly of Arabian origin. The marble incrustation with which the in- 
terior is adorned to a height of 6 ft. dates from 1331, when the Mame- 
luke Sultan Mohammed ibn Kelaun erected the building round the court, 
which now contains the cenotaphs of the patriarchs. Joseph's tomb was 
fitted up in 1393. The cenotaphs still extant are of stone, and are hung 
with cloth embroidered with gold and silver. The tombs of Abraham, 
Sarah, Jacob , and Leah are in separate apartments outside the mosque. 
The place of honour in the centre of the mosque is occupied by the tomb 
of Isaac and Rebecca. Under the pier arch between the tombs of Abra- 
ham and Isaac is a circular opening in the floor. It is not yet ascertained 
whether this is the only entrance to the subterranean cavern, and whether 
older cenotaphs still exist there. — To the right of the Mihrab of the 
mosque is a finely carved pulpit, executed in 1091. 

The building is surrounded with the dwellings of dervishes, 
saints, and the guards of the mosque, who derive their maintenance 
from six villages in the plain of ShaTon and Philistia. 

In order to visit the traditional Oak of Mamre (£ hr.), we quit the 
town, leave the road to Jerusalem on the right, and ride towards the 
N.W. on a paved road between vineyard-walls. After 17 min. we come to 
a well on the right. We then (5 min.) pass through a gate to the right and 
soon see the oak before us. A gate (8 min.) now leads us into gardens at 
present belonging to the Russians, where a hospice for Russian pilgrims 
is being built. The oak which is shown here as the Oak of Abraham 

to Hebron. WADY KHABRA. 9. Route. 283 

was highly revered as far back as the 16th cent., and is unquestionably 
of great age. Tradition formerly pointed out the grove of Mamre near 
the present Rdmet el-Khalil (see p. 278), but the spot on which we now 
stand appears to answer the description better (Gen. xxiii. 17, 19). The 
trunk of the oak is about 32 ft. in circumference below. At a height of 
19 ft. it divides into four huge branches, which together form a majestic 
umbrageous crown, 95 paces in circumference. In the country to the W. 
of Jordan the oak el-balltit (Quercus ilex pseudococcifera), does not, as beyond 
Jordan, develop into a large tree, but, as the young shoots are eaten oft' 
by the goats, it usually takes the form of bushes only. A few gigantic trees 
have, however, owing probably to superstitious veneration, been allowed 
to grow up unmolested. Under such trees the Israelitish community 
was in the habit of assembling ; and there too they used to bury their dead. 
From the oak a direct road leads to Kliirbet en-Nas&ra (p. 278), and 
thence to the Jerusalem road (J hr.). 

Excursions to the S. End of the Dead Sea are comparatively seldom 
undertaken, although the traveller obtains there for the first time a distinct 
idea of the barrenness and desolation of this region. Petra may also be 
visited from the S. end of the sea. All these excursions, however, require 
an escort and competent guides, and are therefore somewhat expensive. 
When the Beduins of these districts are at war with each other, travelling 
becomes impossible. The traveller who intends to visit Engedi, Masada, 
and Jebel Usdum only must negociate with the tribe of the Ta'amireh; 
but if he extends his journey to Petra he will require a Jehalin, and 
afterwards a Huwetat escort. For the journey to Moab an arrangement 
should be made with the Jehalin (better than the Ta'amireh) , and then 
with the Beni Sakhr. For the journey to Petra camels are better than 
horses, but are' not absolutely necessary. The dragoman has to arrange 
all these contracts with the Beduins , and great caution is therefore 
necessary in the selection of a dragoman for one of these expeditions. The 
dragoman of an English party of six persons was paid 44 fr. a day for 
each person in 1873, but that charge was somewhat exorbitant. 

From Hebron to Engedi (7 — 8 hrs.), an interesting, but fatiguing 
route. A guide and escort (comp. p. 252) may be procured at Hebron, 
but the shekh is apt to make extortionate demands , especially if he 
thinks that the traveller is anxious to make the excursion. The writer 
was unfortunately unable to take very accurate notes on this part of his 
tour, and will therefore be grateful for farther information. 

Immediately beyond Hebron we leave the road in the valley leading 
towards the S. to Petra (p. 299), and ascend the slopes of the Jebel Jobar 
to the S.E. After 1 hr. 20 min. we observe on a small hill to the left 
of the road a low building resembling a tower, with pointed arches 
(therefore not very ancient), called Tell Zlf, the Ziph of the Bible, near 
which David hid himself (1 Sam. xxiii. 24), and which was afterwards 
fortified by Rehoboam. In the vicinity are other remains of walls. Fine 
view of the neighbouring mountains. To the right, after 40 min., are 
extensive cisterns by the wayside , but it is very difficult to draw water 
from them. (About i hr. to the S., on the way to Masada, are the ruins 
of the ancient Carmel, p. 288). We turn to the E. and in 1 hr. reach the 
Wddy Khabra, the beginning of the extensive wilderness of Judaea, which 
is intersected by dry , furrowed wadies , and extends to the Dead Sea. 
Water for the horses is to be found at one spot only , 2 hrs. from the 
cisterns just mentioned, in a hollowed rock to the right of the path. 
For two hours more we follow the windings of the Wady Khabra. At the 
point where we leave it, the valley is deeply hollowed out in the brown 
rocky soil, and we are surrounded by a wild and grand wilderness. A broad 
plateau , on which Beduins are frequently encamped , is next reached. 
After about 1^ hr. the top of the pass of Engedi commands a strikingly 
grand view of the blue surface of the Dead Sea and the opposite hills of 
Moab, forming a refreshing contrast to the dreary waste behind us. The 
nearer shore , with Engedi , does not come in sight until we have begun 

284 Route 9. ENGEDI. From Hebron 

to descend the pass. The path winds down like a flight of steps over 
precipitous rocks, where riders dismount, and the passage is very difficult 
for the baggage-mules. Lower down, the path improves , and in 35 min. 
we reach the spring of Engedi. 

There is no doubt that the modern 'Ain Jidy answers to the ancient 
Engedi, both names signifying the goat's spring. The older Amorite 
name of the village situated here was Hazezon Tamar (Gen. xiv. 7). To 
the wilderness of Engedi , which belonged to the dominions of Judah, 
David once retired (1 Sam. xxiv. 1 et seq.). According to Josephus, there 
were once beautiful palm-groves here, and in the time of Eusebius Engedi 
was still a place of importance ; hut in the middle ages the place 
was almost unknown. The water of the spring is warm (80° Fahr.), 
sweetish , and impregnated with lime , and contains a number of small 
black snails. The natives assert that the water comes under the mountain 
from Se'ir (?) near Hebron. The different varieties of zizyphus mentioned 
near Jericho (p. 262) also occur here, as well as the 'oshr (Calotropis 
procera), which is seldom found except in Nubia, S. Arabia, and other 
sub-tropical regions. This tree bears a bladder-like, hollow fruit, filled 
with long silky hairs that grow attached to the seeds ; it has been assumed 
that this is the apple of Sodom, described by Josephus. The seyal tree 
(Acacia seyal), from which gum Arabic is obtained , occurs here as well 
as on Mt. Sinai. Among the smaller plants the night-shade (Solarium 
melongena), bearing the 'egg-apple', is very common. 

By the spring, and to the E. of it, are a few remains of old buildings, 
The village mentioned in the Bible probably lay below the spring. The 
gradual slope towards the sea was converted into terraced gardens. We 
have still to descend about 330 ft. to the level of the sea, which we reach 
in 20 minutes. 

Engedi is very impressive by moonlight. The precipitous cliffs on 
one side and the sea on the other, the warmth of the atmosphere, and 
the strange-looking vegetation seem to transplant the traveller into an 
almost tropical zone. In the morning the sun , which in spring rises in 
the gap formed in the opposite mountains by the Wady Heidan, tints the 
rocks with a peculiar red glow , and sets in motion the fleecy mists 
which frequently hover over the sea. 

From Engedi to Jericho, see p. 270; to Bethlehem, see p. 252. 

Fhom Engedi to Masaba (4J hrs.). From a point 20 min. below 
the spring we turn to the S. ; vegetation soon (7 min.) ceases, and a 
dreary, stony waste is traversed. On the slopes to the right, however, 
are observed traces of old terraces. We cross the (5 min.) Wddy el-'Orejeh 
descending from Bet Ummar . and the fortress of Masada soon comes in 
sight to the S. The slope to the right, about 5 min. from the path, is 
barren and uncultivated, a few salt-plants only appearing to thrive. The 
chief of these is the Salsola kali, Arabic hubebeh , a plant with a flat, 
glossy, reddish stalk, and small glass-like leaves, which the Arabs burn 
in order to obtain alkali (p. 46). The so-called Rose of Jericho also 
occurs here, but the plant is neither a rose, nor does it grow near Jericho. 
It is a a low annual herb of the cruciferous order , soft and herbaceous 
at first, but whose branches become woody with age. It owes its name 
anastatica (the arising) to a peculiarity -of its woody branches, springing 
from the crown of the root . which are curved inwards when dry , but 
spread out horizontally when the plant is moistened. This phenomenon 
has given rise to a superstitious belief in the virtues of the plant, and it 
is accordingly gathered in great quantities and sent to Jerusalem where 
it is sold to pilgrims. The finest specimens occur to the S. of Masada. 

After 1 hr. more the mountains come nearer the shore, and we have 
to round a promontory. To the left are several small hills where the 
sea-water is evaporated for the sake of its salt. Abraham , once coming 
this way with his mule, is said to have asked some people engaged in 
carrying salt what they found here, to which they replied 'earth'. Since 
that period their falsehood has been punished by the increased difficulty 
of procuring the salt, which is now done by evaporating the water in 

to the Dead Sea. 


9. Route. 285 

small artificial lakes. A kind of yellow everlasting and wild barley 
are the commonest plants occurring here. We next cross the (20 min.) 
watercourse of the Wddy Khabra (see p. 283). The plain on the coast 
again expands , and several salt-pools are seen on the shore. After 
32 min. we cross the small valley of Umm el-FUs, deeply hollowed in the 
mountain-side. The large peninsula of El-Lisdn rises more and more 
conspicuously from the sea. We now (18 min.) follow the bed of the 
Wddy Seydl, and (15 min.) ascend to a somewhat higher level. In the 

i'i~.*-Z. -z:0%ki£r . SsLiSfcvi 

precipitous mountain-range on the right opens the large Wddy Nemriyeh. 
the floor of which we reach in 23 min. ; a number of acacias grow in 
the valley, but there is no water. In 10 min. we reach the opposite 
height, and proceed direct to the hill of Masada. On the way we cross 
the two small valleys of Zentit and Galldr, and in 50 min. reach the foot 
of the hill. 

Masada. History. The castle on the hill, now called Es-Sebbeh, is 
identical with the ancient Masada, a mountain-stronghold founded by 
the Maccabees. Herod the Great afterwards restored it and rendered it an 

286 Route 9. MASADA. From Hebron 

impregnable place of refuge , partly from dread of aggression on the part 
of Cleopatra. Josephus states that Herod enclosed the whole of the 
platean at the top of the hill with a wall constructed of white stone, 
seven stadia in circumference , 12 ells high , and 8 ells thick ; and that 
he erected on this wall 37 towers of defence , each 50 ells high , through 
which the fortress was entered. The enclosed space, the soil of which was 
very rich, was used by the king for cultivation. He then built a palace 
on the W. slope, within the wall, and facing the N. The palace-wall 
was also thick and lofty, and the building had four corner-towers, each 
60 ells high. The apartments, colonnades, and baths were fitted up in a 
varied and costly style, and contained numerous monolithic columns, and 
walls and pavements of mosaic. The E. slope , on which an artificial 
stair called 'the serpent' ascended, being practically inaccessible, Herod 
protected the W. side by a large and impregnable tower at the narrowest 
point. — It was after the destruction of Jerusalem that Masada played 
its most important part in history. Eleazar with his band of robbers 
gained possession of the place by stratagem, and found there considerable 
stores of provisions and weapons which had been left by Herod. The 
Romans under Flavius Silva then built out from the rock to the W. of 
the castle an embankment 200 ells in height , on which they brought 
their besieging engines close to the wall. The defenders then erected 
within the outer wall a second , of beams of wood , and filled the 
intervening space with earth. The Romans succeeded in setting this 
second wall on fire, and the whole of it was burned down. Eleazar here- 
upon persuaded his adherents to kill their wives and children, and then 
themselves. They obeyed, and the sole survivors were two women and 
five boys who had hidden themselves. Next day the Romans took 
possession of the stronghold, where they found nothing but dead bodies 
and smoking ruins. On their departure they left a garrison in the place. 
The hill must be ascended on foot, the path being impracticable 
for riding. The slopes consist chiefly of detritus. At places there are 
remains of the Roman wall with which the whole hill was surrounded 
in order to prevent the escape of any of the 'sicarii', as the Jewish 
followers of Eleazar were called. After 25 min. we come to ruins of 
towers , probably also built by the Romans , and cross a small valley. 
To the left, on the hill opposite, are several inaccessible rocky caverns, 
perhaps tomb-chambers. We now (10 min.) reach the last and most 
laborious part of the ascent, and cross a slope of loose stones which 
form the remains of the embankment thrown up by the Roman 
besiegers. Through a well-preserved gateway, consisting curiously 
enough of a pointed arch , we enter upon the spacious plateau on the 
summit of the hill. This plateau is 600 yds. long and 200 — 250 yds. 
wide , and is surrounded on almost every side by perpendicular rocks 
about 1180 ft. in height. Around the brink of the precipice runs the 
enclosing wall , which is still preserved at places. The other remains 
are not extensive. On the N. side of the hill stands a square tower; and 
38 ft. higher, but still 19 ft. below the level of the plateau, rises a round 
tower. From the N. wall branch off a great many side-walls, which 
were perhaps built during the last siege of the place. To the W. of 
these is a large cistern, and farther to the S. a second. In the centre of 
the plateau are the remains of a building resembling a Byzantine chapel, 
with walls adorned with mosaics. To the S. of the chapel is a tomb- 
cavern with inscription. Although there is no historical record that 
Masada was ever inhabited after the catastrophe mentioned above , the 
architectural remains lead to the inference that this was the case. 
The archway on the W. side , looking down on the Roman embankment, 
looks as if it belonged to the Crusaders' period. The ruins to the N. 
and W. of this arch , however, seem to belong to the palace of Herod, 
while those on the S. side of the plateau are now a shapeless mass. — 
The greatest attraction is the view from the top. The nearer we approach 
the S. end of the Dead Sea, the more desolate does the wilderness 
become. Around lies a vast mountain region, without a trace of a human 
habitation. The colouring of the sea and mountains , except when the 

to the Dead Sea. YA.TA. 9. Route. 287 

midday heat envelops everything in a white haze, is singularly vivid, 
and we obtain almost a bird's-eye view of the S. end of the sea. Exactly 
opposite to us lies the pointed promontory (p. 285) ; to the S. the eye 
ranges as far as the salt mountain Jebel Usdum, with its fantastic outline, 
and opposite rises Kerak and the whole range of the mountains of Moab. 
Immediately below the fortress the ramparts thrown up by the Roman 
besiegers are still distinctly traceable. 

From Masada to Hebron (10 hrs.). The road leads back in the 
direction of the Wddy Nemriyeh (p. 285) , but turns more towards the 
mountains. After J hr. the ascent begins on the right side of the wild 
and steep valley; we quit the bank of the Dead Sea, and penetrate 
into the furrowed mountains. The mountain-goat of Sinai occurs here, 
and also the cony (Hyrax Syriacus) , a very curious little animal of the 
cloven-footed family, with a brown coat (comp. p. 5!)). Its flesh is much 
esteemed, but it was forbidden to the Israelites (Levit. xi. 5). It was 
known to the psalmist also as a frequenter of the rocks (Psalm civ. 18). 
Its Arabic name is wabr, and the Hebrew ahaphan. 

After 25 min. we see to the right opposite us the spring 'Ain el- 
Hshiba , and after riding round a deep ravine we reach (10 min.) the 
spring of 'Orebeh. The road now ascends the valley, affording a limited 
view of the Dead Sea and the N. point of the peninsula. In 1^ hr. the 
top of the hill is reached, and a view is obtained of the remarkable 
rocks we have just mounted. To the right lies the deep W&dy Seydl (or 
Seferiyeh). After 50 min. a steep descent begins. After 20 min. we avoid 
a path to the left and the Seferiyeh valley on the right, and we at length 
descend to the (20 min.) bottom of the Seferiyeh valley, where rain-water 
is to be found. Beduins of the Jehalin tribe have encampments in this 
region. Again ascending to the W. we reach the top of another hill (^ hr.), 
aid then descend into the small valley of Abu Mar&ghit (13 min.), or 
rather two valleys which unite here. Beyond another small valley, 
reached in 10 min. , we ascend to the N.W. , and on arriving at the top 
of the hill (25 min.) we see the valley of El-Mghdra in front of us. The 
road now ascends slightly to the (1J hr.) hi'l of Rijm el-Bakara, which 
commands a view, and then leads to (J hr.) the small W&dy el-Hadireh, 
to the (£ hr.) valley of Lghef el-fftem, and to (1 hr.) Khirbet el-Melassafa, 
a place where a number of half-caste Beduins live in tents. These 
people are notorious thieves. We are now on a lower level , and culti- 
vated land is reached. After 1 hr. we see the village of Ydta, which 
was the ancient Levitical city of Juttah (Joshua xv. 55) , which again 
has been supposed by some to be the 'city of Juda' of the New Testament 
(Luke i. 39), where the priest Zacharias resided. Semil'a (p. 299) is left far 
to the S., and the road turns more towards the N. After f hr., to the left 
of a cavern on the right side of the road , we perceive the village of 
Khirbet Regh r a, which is only inhabited by peasants in summer. The soil 
is productive , but the scenery with its low ranges of hills is uninter- 
esting. In 20 min. Tell Zif (p. 283) becomes visible, and in 40 min. 
more we reach Hebron (p. 279). 

From Masada to Jebel Usddm (6| hrs.). From the foot of the hill 
the route leads to the S. across the plain to (35 min.) a valley called 
Wddy Sebbeh , on both sides of which are the extensive ruins of walls 
and towers built by Silva in his campaign against the 'sicarii'. On the 
right the hills rise perpendicularly, on the left several hills separate us 
from the Dead Sea. Groups of eroded hills, with horizontal strata of gyp- 
seous clay, are seen in every direction. The mountains gradually advance 
towards the shore of the sea. A ride of 2 hrs. 50 min. brings us to the 
dry bed of the Wddy el-BedUn (mountaingoat's valley) , which is deeply 
cut through beds of clay. The seyal acacia still occurs frequently. The 
coast road is now quitted, in 20 min. a hill is ci'ossed, and a bad road 
then crosses a cliff about 190 ft. high, which rises abruptly from the 
water. In 1} hr. we reach the ruined fort of Umm Baghek on the N. side 

288 Route 9. JEBEL USDUM. From Hebron 

of the valley. There are two reservoirs here , which were once fed by 
a conduit from the mountains. The whole of the S. bay of the Dead 
Sea is very shallow, its depth varying from 3 to 11 ft. From this 
point we reach the N. end of the Jebel TTsdum in 1 hr. 40 min. 

History. In the name of Usdum is preserved the ancient name of 
Sodom (Gen. xviii, xix). The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrha may 
possibly have been brought about by a natural phenomenon which is 
quite consistent with the character of the S. part of the Dead Sea. 
The region of the Dead Sea has been frequently visited by earthquakes, 
and when it is considered that the valley of Siddim in which these 
towns were situated was full of asphalt mines, the undermined earth 
may easily have given way in consequence of an earthquake and 
swallowed up whole villages. With asphalt there are generally connected 
petroleum wells ; and these may from lightning or some other cause (as 
happened at Baku on the Caspian Sea) have caught fire and have thus 
caused a conflagration in which the towns were consumed. — The attempt 
to place the valley of Siddim in the region to the N. of the Dead Sea ap- 
pears to us, from all we at present know, to be a failure. 

Jebel Usdum is an isolated hill about 7 M. in length, the highest 
point of which is about 385 ft. above the level of the Dead Sea. The 
sides are so steep and crevassed that it is difficult to ascend it. It 
consists almost entirely of pure crystallised salt, which takes the form 
of pinnacles and minarets , and has been partly washed out by the rain. 
These formations probably gave rise to the tradition mentioned by 
Josephus, as well as later writers, that the pillar of salt into which Lot's 
wife was converted was to be seen here. In many places the hill is 
covered with strata of chalky limestone or clay. Many blocks of salt 
have detached themselves from the top of the hill and rolled down , but 
these are not generally transparent. 

Fkom Hebbon to Jebel Usdum (14£ hrs.). The route at first leads 
towards the S. , down the valley , which soon turns a little to the W. ; 
and at that point we leave it to the right and strike across the hill to 
the E. A rocky region is now entered; we gradually descend, and cross 
the large valley into which the valley of Hebron opens. In If hr. we 
reach the open country , and in 10 min. the hill of Tell Zif (p. 283). 
The plain across which our way lies to the S. is one of the best 
cultivated in the territory of ancient Judah. It slopes towards the 
Dead Sea to the E. , but still stands from 2200 ft. to 2400 ft. above the 
Mediterranean. After \ hr., on a low hill to the left, we observe the village of 
Umm el-'Am&d, or mother of columns, a name which it derives from the 
remains of some clumsy columns which once belonged to a church. 
Farther on, to the S.W. , rises the tower' of SemU'a (p. 299). In J hr. 
we reach the ruins of Carmel. This place is mentioned by Joshua (xv. 
55) ; it was hither that Saul repaired after his victory over the Amale- 
kites (1 Sam. xv. 12), and in this neighbourhood Nabal", the husband of 
Abigail, had great possessions (1 Sam. xxv. 2). The ruins rise on the 
hill-side in amphitheatrical form, and many well-hewn stones are scattered 
in every direction. There are also two round towers and three small 
churches, which, judging from the disposition of their ruined columns 
and apses, belong to the Byzantine epoch. The most important ruin is a 
large fort with very thick walls , the substruction of which consists of a 
spacious vaulted chamber. On the first floor are pointed vaultings and 
windows, showing the building to be of comparatively late origin (period 
of the Crusaders). The terrace affords a survey of the environs. The 
small valley contains a large ancient reservoir. The neighbouring village 
of Ma r hi* which we next pass, had nearly the same history and fate as 
Carmel. The ruins contain rough -dressed blocks of stone, and there 
are subterranean rock-dwellings. We follow the road to the right of Tell 
Ma f in, and (in 1 hr. from Carmel) reach the top of a hill. In descending 
we see before us the depression of the Dead Sea, and we enter a pasture 
district which belongs to the Jehalin Beduins, a tribe numbering 750 
persons only. The dominions of this small tribe are badly watered, and 

to the Dead Sea. ZUWERA. 9. Route. 289 

in the middle of summer water has to be brought from Carmel. A camp- 
ing place may, however, be found near the tents of these half-nomads. 

The road now leads more to the S. , across the undulating plain, 
passing on the right the ruins of Jembeh , Karyaten , and El-Beyud. After 
1 hr. we pass near Tayyibeh, the walls of which are built of round stones. 
To the S.W. , about 1 hr. distant, rises the Tell 'Arad , a hill named 
after the king of the ancient Canaanitish city (Numbers xxi. 1; Judges i. 
16). We next reach (1 hr.) Tell Ehdeib (?), which also lies on the margin 
of the small valley we have been traversing. After \ hr. the valley 
turns towards the E. , and lower down it is called Wddy Seydl (p. 285). 
To the left (35 min.) lies the ruin of El-Msek. Ascending gradually, we 
reach (f hr.) the top of the broad hill, near an eminence with ruins 
called Rujem Seldmeh. An extensive view is obtained hence , embracing 
the lofty plains, and to the W. the Tell Milh (p. 299). Farther to the 
S.E. we reach (10 min.) Sudeid , and the country gradually assumes the 
character of a desert. After 40 min. we come to the first slope of the 
hills towards the Dead Sea. Rude foundation walls here , called Zuwe'ra 
el-Fdka ('the upper'), mark the site of an old village. By the ruins of a 
square tower to the right of the road we survey the S. part of the Dead 
Sea. On the margin of the sea the top of Jebel Usdum and the penin- 
sula beyond it become visible , and to the S. of them lies the GMr , a 
broad, sandy valley (see below). In the extreme S. rises Mount H6r 
(p. 297). The road descends and (20 min.) crosses the Wddy el-Jerrdh. 
After 2 hrs. 50 min. we come to the brink of the second mountain slope, 
and descend by a pass into the Wddy ez-Zuwera, at the foot of which the 
character of the soil alters from limestone to soft chalk , or whitish, 
hardened clay in horizontal beds. The bottom of the valley is reached 
(50 min.) by the small fort of Ez-Zuwera, which stands on a cliff of 
crumbling chalk. In the soft, perpendicular rock, nearly opposite 
the fort, a little above the ground, is a chamber with loopholes. 
We now descend the valley, the Dead Sea continuing in view before us, 
and reach (£ hr.) the broad plain of the coast, covered with acacias and 
tamarisk trees. On the right the broad Wddy el- Mahauwat descends to 
the plain. Our road to the S.E. traverses the plain sloping towards the 
sea, and in 25 min. brings us to the N. end of Jebel Usdum. 

Fkom Jebel Usdum to Keeak (16£ hrs.). After a ride of 1J hr. along 
the sandy coast, we reach, at the foot of Jebel Usdum, a cavern with an 
entrance about 10 ft. high and 10 ft. wide, which we may explore with a 
light. The blocks of salt here are often coated with clay. Stalactites 
hang from the roof of the cavern , through which there is a considerable 
draught. In 20 min. we reach the S.W. end of the Dead Sea , and here 
the Jebel Usdum turns a little to the W. The S. end of the sea 
is very shallow , and the coast consists of a marshy flat which is 
sometimes covered with water , as the pieces of wood drifted over it in 
all directions indicate. "Near the shore the reddish soil is too spongy to 
walk upon. This tract is furrowed by the channels formed by the water 
as it retires. We obtain a view here of the white cliffs bounding the 
Ghor, or Jordan valley, on the S. B. Beyond them begins the 'Araba valley, 
extending to 'Akaba, but which, according to the most recent investigations, 
can never have formed a communication between the Ked Sea and the 
valley of Jordan (see p. 297). The Valley of Salt, in which David (2 Sam. 
viii. 13 ; 1 Chron. xviii. 12 ; 1 Kings xi. 15 ; Ps. 60) and Amaziah (2 Kings 
xiv. 7) defeated the Edomites, probably lay in this plain , now called 
Es-Sebkha, which is strongly impregnated with salt. To the N. the 
promontory Ras Mersed , and even the Has el - Feshkha (p. 270), are 
visible. After traversing the barren plain, intersected with watercourses, 
for 1 hr. 50 min., the road reaches a thicket of reeds, forming the be- 
ginning of the Ohdr es-Sdfiyeh. In addition to the reeds we observe the 
'oshr tree (p. 284) and the Salvadora Persica, a tree averaging 25 ft. in 
height, which from the fact of its having a pungent taste, has been 
supposed to be the mustard-tree of Scripture. We next (1 hr.) reach the 
brook 'Ain el-Ashka, and (Jl hr.) the wretched reed huts of the Ghawarineh. 

Palestine. 19 

290 Route 10. PETRA. 

On the hill lies the ruin of Kasr el-Aswad. We again approach the sea- 
shore, and (after 2 hrs.) reach the N. end of a bay, where many shrubs 
flourish. On the promontory to the left are acacias and other trees. The 
road skirts another bay, and the curiously coloured cliffs advance towards 
the shore. We next (1 hr.) traverse another wooded promontory , on 
which lie some ruins and the tomb of the Shekh Sdleh, whom the Beduins 
invoke to aid them in their predatory expeditions. The channels of brooks 
here contain water. In 1 hr. we reach the S. end of the peninsula, where 
Ibrahim Pasha was defeated by the Beduins of the region to the E. o f 
Jordan. We then come to the well and large reservoir of El-Ketmeh, 
constructed of masonry, with some adjoining ruins. The road crosses a 
tract of apparently sulphureous character to (1] hr.) the Wddy ed-Derd'a, 
or Wddy Kerak, which frequently contains water. Some ruins here are 
popularly called sugar-mills, and in the beautiful and extensive oasis of 
Mezru r a adjoining them are encampments of Ghor Arabs. The peninsula 
itself is a flat, clayey plain, about 100 ft. in height, and without a 
vestige of life of any kind. Opposite are seen Sebbeh , El-Mersed, and 
other places. Even the Frank Mountain is visible, on the E. side of which 
are the mouths of the Mojib (Arnon) and the Zerka Ma r in (Callirrhoe). 

The steep and fatiguing path now ascends the wild and grand Wddy 
Kerak, and after about 3 hrs. crosses a small river. An excellent spring 
is reached in i hr. more. The route traverses a broad terrace above the 
valley, and (if hr.) begins to pass olive-plantations, fig-trees, and other 
signs of cultivation. In 1 hr. 10 min. we reach the top of a hill (3000 ft. 
above the Mediterranean), and we here enter the N.E. corner of the town 
of Kerak by a vaulted passage 19 ft. high and 29 ft. wide, hewn in the 
rock (see p. 300). 

10. Petra. 

The region to the S. of the Dead Sea has not yet been sufficiently 
explored , travelling being difficult and unsafe owing to the numerous 
different hordes of Beduins whose boundaries meet here. Petra lies about 
halfway between the S. end of the Dead Sea and the bay of r Akaba at 
the N. end of the Red Sea, in a district properly belonging to Arabia, and 
inhabited by tribes who do not recognise the Turkish supremacy and bear 
a very indifferent character. A visit to the ruins of Petra , therefore , is 
a troublesome and costly expedition (see below), and apart from the ruins 
themselves there is little to repay the traveller. It is most suitably under- 
taken as a part of the grand tour from Cairo to Suez , Sinai, and Je- 
rusalem , which however is rarely made. Tents are necessary, and the 
dragoman should be thoroughly competent and experienced, and if possible 
should be tried beforehand. 

Camels (comp. p. 14 and R. 32) are better than horses for this 
expedition. The journey from 'Akaba to Petra takes 4 days; for the stay 
at Petra 2— 3 days should be allowed; the journey from Petra to Hebron 
(by the direct route) takes 6 — 7 days (or via, Jebel Usdum, Masada, and 
Engedi 3 — 4 days more) ; so that a fortnight at least is required for the 
tour. It is of essential importance that previous enquiry be made at 
the consulate (at Jerusalem, Suez, or Cairo) as to the state of the country 
and the safety of the routes, and a trustworthy escort should also be 
secured. The guides and escort had better be selected from the tribe of 
the 'Alawin. (Mohammed Jad is recommended.) As the guides vary the 
route across the desert according to the season and other circumstances, 
we only give a few general indications as to its direction. 

No rule can be laid down as to the cost of this expedition. In 1873 
four Englishmen paid the exorbitant charge of L. 4 each per day. The 
contract should expressly bind the dragoman not only to conduct all 
negociations with the Arabs in person, but himself to pay all the bakhshish 
or black mail levied by them without making any additional demand 
from the travellers. 

l>rawrx , piinravi <1 * irrmteil bv 

PETRA. 10. Route. 291 

The beat descriptions of this region are to be found in the 'Voyage 
aux bords de la Mer Morte', etc. by the Due de Luynes (Paris), Palmers 
'Desert of the Exodus' (Cambridge , 1871) , and Giammartino Arconati 
VisconWs 'Diario di un Viaggio in Arabia Petrea' (Rome, Turin, Florence, 
1872). The last in particular contains much valuable information. As the 
editor was unable to visit this district in person, he will be grateful 
to travellers for any additional information with which they may kindly 
favour him. 

Petra. History. It is probable that a site so favourable for commer- 
cial purposes as that of Petra was already occupied by a town in the time 
of the Edomites, the place being very difficult of access, and therefore 
less exposed to the predatory attacks of the surrounding Beduin tribes of 
the f Araba, Sinai, a id the E. desert. At a very early period Midianites 
and Ishmaelites were in the habit of travelling to Egypt in caravans 
(Gen. xxxvii. 28), conveying thither the products of Arabia, particularly 
the S. part of it, and exchanging them for various manufactures and 
other commodities. The transport of these goods was undertaken by 
carrying agents with camels , and the merchants themselves probably 
often travelled with them. From the 2nd cent, before Christ the popula- 
tion of this region consisted of Nabatseans. From inscriptions, coins, and 
other sources we are enabled to trace the succession of the Kabatsean 
princes of Petra from the end of the 2nd cent, before Christ down to the 
subversion of their kingdom, A. D. 105. Around the city dwelt nomadic 
Arabs, some of whom owned the supremacy of its princes, so that Strabo 
and other classical authors give the name of Arabia Petraea to a large 
section of this region. The religion and culture of the population were 
most probably Arabian. In the year B. C. 310 Antigonus sent an army 
against Petra under Athenceus , who took the town by attacking it in 
the absence of the men at a neighbouring market. The latter, however, 
on their return retaliated by a nocturnal attack which resulted in the 
destruction of the Greek army. A second attempt to capture the place, 
under Demetrius, also failed, as the inhabitants were well armed. Strabo 
accurately describes the situation of Petra, the capital of the Nabatseans, 
and states that many Romans had settled there. From the time of Pompey 
(and Gabinius) onwards Petra was under the suzerainty of the Romans. 
At length in 105 we find Arabia Petrsea a Roman province under Trajan, 
with many Romans settled there. Hadrian seems to have conferred 
privileges on the citizens of Petra, and some of the coins of the place 
bear his image. Christianity was introduced here at an early period, 
and bishops of Petra are mentioned as having been present at Councils. 
In the 4th cent., however, the prosperity of Petra was gone, its com- 
merce began to be diverted into various other channels, and the Arabs 
of the desert gradually encroached upon its territory. The whole region 
was at length conquered by the Arabs , and from that period the name 
disappears from history, the town having by this time dwindled into 
insignificance, or entirely vanished. Seetzen was the first of the modern 
explorers of the place , and he was followed by Burckhardt , Irby, and 
Mangles. The principal work on Petra is the 'Voyage dans l'Arabie 
Petre'e par Leon de Laborde et Linant', etc. (Paris, 1830), a large folio 
with numerous engravings, forming an appendix to the same author's 
'Voyage en Syrie' (Didot, Paris), completed in 1842. 

The general character of the buildings at Petra is that of the debased 
Roman style of the 3rd and 4th centuries of the Christian era (comp. 
p. 119) , when simplicity and unity of design were sacrificed to rich- 
ness of decoration and theatrical effect ; and it is interesting to observe 
how much resemblance there is between this style of architecture and 
the degenerate modern style of the 17th and 18th centuries. The monuments 
of Petra , nevertheless , are strikingly imposing , as almost all of 
them are hewn in the rock. It is a city of caverns ; and in these 
subterranean dwellings is preserved a memorial of those very remote ages 
when the aboriginal inhabitants were unacquainted with the art of 
building houses. The caverns form the natural characteristic of the place, 


292 Route 10. PETRA. 

Kasr Fir'aun. 

while the style in which they are embellished was derived by the 
wealthier inhabitants from a foreign source, viz. from the Romans. 

The valley of Petra owes its name of Wady MAsa to the fact of its 
being the scene of the story told in the Koran about Moses striking the 
rock^(Petra), whereupon twelve springs burst forth. This is the account 
of Yakut, the Arabian geographer, and even Eusebius hints at a similar 
tradition. The modern Spring of Moses near the village of Elji (p. 299) 
descends the valley towards the W., and uniting its waters with those 
of another valley forms the brook of Wady Musa, on the banks of which 
oleanders flourish. 

The valley of Petra, from N. to S., is about f M. long, at the 
N. end 500 yds. wide, and at the S. end 250 yds. The bottom of 
the valley is not quite level , several conical hills rising along the 
course of the brook 'Ain Musa, which traverses it from the S. The 
most remarkable feature oi' the valley consists in its being enclosed 
on every side by nearly perpendicular rocks , which on the E. and 
W. sides are of considerable height. These rocks are composed of 
sandstone of many different colours (comp. p. 297) , and contain 
much saltpetre. The whole basin was evidently once a lake, and 
the water has worn deep passages for itself among the rocks. 
This basin, of itself a natural curiosity, has , together with its 
adjacent gorges, been embellished by art of a -very remarkable 
character, and above all contains a most interesting necropolis. 

Of the Buildings of the ancient town there are few traces left. 
Following the left bank of the brook from the W. , we come to the 
remains of a large building, popularly known as the Kasr Fir'aun, 
or Pharaoh's palace. The walls are built in a style which points to 
a somewhat late period. The enclosing walls, with their openings 
for beams , are preserved nearly entire, but the columns of the N. 
facade have disappeared. Laborde thinks that this was once a 
temple, while Robinson infers from the existence of several different 
stories that it must have been a palace or public building. To the 
E. of it rises a Triumphal Arch, from which it is approached by a 
paved road, still in good preservation. The architectural enrichments 
of both structures date from the same late period, as appears from a 
comparison of the decorations in front of the arch with the frieze of 
the palace. The view through the ruined arch, embracing the monu- 
ments and tomb-chambers which cover the rocks in every direction, 
is very picturesque. — Following the bank of the brook towards the 
E. from the arch, we perceive the substructions of a bridge, and to 
the right of these the remains of a Temple. Among the ruins and 
heaps of hewn stones scattered about the plain there are also remains 
of other public buildings, such as a solitary column (Zibb Fir'aun) 
towards the S., together with others that have been thrown down. 
This column consists of many different pieces, and appears to have 
belonged to a church, the apse of which is still to be seen a little 
to the E. of it. To the W. of this, on a lofty, isolated eminence, 
are ruins which Laborde supposes to have belonged to a Castle or 
Acropolis of Petra. Fine view from the top. 

Amphitheatre. PETRA. 10. Route. 293 

Of the numerous Tombs we can only mention the most im- 
portant. Although the rocks are of somewhat soft consistency, 
the elaborate elegance with which they have been chiselled must 
have required extraordinary perseverance. Far above the ground, 
in every direction, are seen entrances to tombs which are now inac- 
cessible, and we must therefore infer that the sculptors used lad- 
ders to enable them to execute their work. The precipitous Tocks 
on the E. and W. sides of the valley have been principally used for 
these tombs , but the cliffs of the numerous side-valleys and rocky 
heights have been similarly hewn. 

Proceeding from the above-mentioned column towards the gorge 
on the S.W. side, we observe in the rock a remarkable unfinished 
tomb, which is interesting as showing how the Petneans sculptured 
their rock-tombs from the top downwards , probably after they had 
sketched the plan on the surface of the cliff. Several clumsy 
capitals only have been completed. Entering this gorge we per- 
ceive several monuments entirely detached from the rock , which 
recall the Jewish tombs of the valley of Jehoshaphat (p. 222). Here 
also the surrounding wall of rock has been hewn smooth. The 
better we become acquainted with the tombs of Petra the more 
obvious does it appear that their style of art is not purely Roman, 
and much less Greek, but that these foreign styles have been 
blended with native Oriental art. This is evident both from the 
blunted pyramids and from the form of the pediments which sur- 
mount the round or square entrances to the tombs. The chambers 
themselves are similar in their character to those of Jerusalem. 
Another characteristic of Petra is the constant recurrence of urns 
with which the entrances to the tombs are embellished at the sides and 
above. The capitals of the pillars are generally left in the rough, and 
almost recall the Egyptian form. Some of the small rock-staircases 
ascending to loftily situated entrances are in excellent preservation. 

The small valley on the S.E. side also contains several tombs 
and a rock-staircase. Themostremarkablepartot'theplace, however, 
is the gorge through which the 'A in Mtlsa flows. Entering it from 
the N., we see several tombs on the left, and farther on, where the 
valley narrows and turns to the E., we come to a magnificent 
Amphitheatre, the chief boast of Petra. It is entirely hewn in 
the rock, and is 39 yds. in diameter; 33 tieTS of seats rise one 
above another, and the whole could probably accommodate three 
ot four thousand spectators. Above the seats there are small 
chambers like arches hewn in the rock. The highest tier commands 
an admirable view of the valley to the N., and of tombs in every 
direction. The brook now flows through the stage of the amphi- 
theatre. — The gorge soon contracts, and the cliffs become more 
abrupt. The facades of the tombs present every possible variety 
of design. Opposite the theatre there is a large facade, in front of 
which the rising rock has been hewn away, apparently with great 

294 Route 10. PETRA. Khaznet Fir'aun. 

difficulty. Above the pediment of the large square door are steps 
descending from the middle to the corners. Several tombs are 
often seen, one above another, some of them of simpler style, 
others enriched with columns and pediments. Farther on we reach 
a point where smaller valleys descend from the right and left, and 
towards the E. we enter the Stk, as the narrower defile is called. 
(According to Lartet , this gully has not been formed, as one 
would suppose, by the action of water.") From the W. cliff 
suddenly projects the so-called Khaznet Fir'aun, or treasury of 
Pharaoh. As the facade of this monument is about 85 ft. in 
height , it would seem to have belonged to a temple rather 
than to a tomb. The details are admirable , and having been 
sheltered by an overhanging rock, the sculpturing of which had not 
been quite completed, they are in excellent preservation. The 
beauty of the monument is enhanced by the rich red colour of the 
stone and the striking picturesqueness of the situation. The 
capitals of the porch, which has five out of six columns still stand- 
ing, the cornice above it, and the pediment adorned with a Roman 
eagle, all betoken careful workmanship. The second story also 
rests upon columns, but has broken pediments. Between these rises 
a slender round tower, resting on columns , with a richly adorned 
frieze , and terminating in a dome . On the keystone of th e dome stands 
a huge stone urn, which the Beduins believe to contain the treasure 
of Pharaoh. The niches and wall-spaces are adorned with beautiful 
sculptures, chiefly of female figures, and the ends of the pediments 
with eagles. The sculptures of the lower story have been injured by 
the vandalism of the Beduins. — The portal leads into a spacious 
chamber, about 12 yds. square, and 25 ft. high. The rocky walls 
of this and the three adjoining chambers are smooth and unadorned. 

In ancient times the Sik formed the sole approach to the city 
of Petra. It is a narrow chasm, flanked by rocks which are at first 
150—200 ft. , and farther on 80 — 100 ft. in height , some of them 
artificially hewn. The bottom of the ravine is overgrown with 
oleanders. In the clefts of the rock grow wild figs and tamarisks. 
Water was brought to the town by means of conduits skirting the 
bed of the brook, and still traceable in many places. The floor of 
the defile was paved. Near its extremity, the defile is spanned by 
a picturesque arch of a bridge, about 50 ft. in height, under which 
are niches adorned with two pillars, hewn in the rock. On the right, 
farther up the valley . are two monuments , the upper of which is 
adorned with four slender pyramids sculptured in the rock. The 
facade of the lower consists of six Ionic columns. On the left, 
farther up, are several tombs in the style of that of Absalom (p. 222), 
being detached masses of rock, 5 — 6 yds. square, hewn out of the 
solid cliff, with an intervening space of 3| ft. The roofs, however, 
are flat, and the lateral walls are not quite perpendicular. 

We now return to the outlet of the gorge. On the right rises 

The Site. PETRA. 10. Route. 295 

a monument resembling the Khazneh, called by Laborde the Tomb 
with the Urn. The square terrace in front of the monument was 
approached by steps. A kind of colonnade is formed by two rows 
of Ionic columns, five in each. Over the door is a window, above 
which are three others. The urn stands on a pedestal above the 
frieze. In the interior is a quadrangular chamber about 16 yds. 
long. To the N. of this monument, beyond a few less important 
tombs, is the so-called Corinthian Tomb , borne by a substructure 
of eight Corinthian columns ; but its execution is less elaborate 
than that of those above mentioned , and it has been more exposed 
to damage. In the interior are one large and two small chambers. 
The rocky wall on this E. side of the town is indeed remarkable 
for the abundance of its monuments. The grandest is the adjacent 
facade in three stories, each of the two upper of which is adorned 
with 18 Corinthian columns. Part of this facade consisted of 
masonry, as its height exceeded that of the rock. Below are four 
portals. The interiors of these rock-chambers are generally desti- 
tute of enrichment. Some of them contain altar-niches, showing 
that they have also been used for Christian worship. Farther N. 
is the Tomb with the Latin Inscription, that of Quintus Prtetextus 
Florentinus. On the N. side of the rocky basin are tomb-chambers 
without architectural ornament. 

From the "W.N.W. corner of the area of the town runs a gorge 
resembling the Sik, except that it ascends rapidly into the heart of 
the mountains. Its sides are likewise very precipitous, and at 
many places steps are hewn in the rock or along the sides. After 
many windings (guide advisable) the path leads in -^ hr. to the T)er 
(monastery), loftily situated below the highest pinnacles of rock. 
This monument is hewn in the face of a perpendicular rock which 
forms one of a group projecting from the lofty table-land. Mount 
Hor rears itself opposite in isolated majesty. This monument is 
of grander proportions than the Khazneh , but the style is over- 
florid. The peculiar bulbous outline, below the globular terminal, 
is a feature which is frequently observed in modern edifices. 
The capitals look as if metallic enrichments had once been attached 
to them. The wildness of the situation gives the monument a 
very handsome appearance. In front of it is a large, artificially 
levelled platform. It is difficult to believe that this was only 
a tomb , as the path to it has been constructed with so much 
care. The walls of the interior are bare, and contain a niche as if 
for an altar. Steps leading upwards are hewn in the adjoining 
cliffs at several places. The lofty rock opposite the Der has a 
levelled surface on its summit with a row of columns. 

These are the most important monuments of Petra. Their 
situation in the midst of the desert greatly enhances the impression 
they produce, although as regards purity of style they cannot be 
ranked very high. The vast extent of the necropolis is also very 

296 Route 10. 'AKABA. Bowies 

remarkable. The complete destruction and desolation of the place 
appear entirely to fulfil the prophecy of Jeremiah (xlix. 16, 17°). 

In the neighbourhood of Petra there are several other interesting 
places with antiquities. Thus at El-Beida and El-Bdrld (3 hrs. N. of 
Petra) Palmer has discovered a Sik and extensive grottoes resembling 
those of Petra. 

In the Wddy Sabra, to the S. of Petra, Laborde has discovered the 
ruins of a town which was probably an offshoot and imitator of the 
capital. It contains the remains of a theatre, which he styles a naumachia. — 
To the E. of Petra lie the first towns in Arabia, such as Ma'dn, which 
to this day is a place of some importance as it lies on the pilgrimage route 
from Damascus to Medina and Mecca. 

Routes to Petra. 

From 'Akaba to Petka. 'Akaba occupies the site of the ancient Elath, 
which formed the key of Arabia, and was important as the starting-point 
for the navigation of the Arabian coast. David wrested the place from 
the Edomites (2 Sam. viii. 14) , and it was here that Solomon equipped 
the fleet that he sent to Ophir (1 Kings ix. 26). At a later period the 
place was only occasionally in possession of the Jews. The Romans placed 
a strong garrison here, and the Arabs also considered the place important. 
The castle of 'Akaba, or properly 'Akabat Aila (rock of Aila) , was built 
for the protection of pilgrims , and in its present form dates from the 
16th century. The ancient Elath lay to the N. of the castle , which 

frobably occupies the site of the ancient Ezion- Oeber (Deut. ii. 8; 
Kings ix. 26). In 1116 the place was taken by the Crusaders, and in 
1170 by Saladin. During the wars of Mohammed, 'Akaba also played an 
important part. — It is beautifully situated on the Bay of 'Akaba, the 
ancient Sinus Aelanites, and boasts of numerous palms and good water. 

From 'Akaba the route up the 'Araba to Petra occupies four days 
(guides, etc., see p. 290). Another and more interesting route leads 
more to the E. On the first day the route leads for 6 hrs. up the Wddy 
Hitem to the great plain of Kftra , where there are remains of a Roman 
road leading to the N. — On the second day (6J hrs.) the fort of 
Kuwera becomes visible in the plain , at the end of which a camp of 
the Sbe' Beduins is reached. — On the third day the route reaches the 
Wddy Umm Ahmed , with its numerous ancient terraces , and 'Ain er- 
Resds. After 6 hrs. a Roman aqueduct and two forts are reached. — On 
the fourth day the Wady Umm Ahmed is ascended to 'Ain Rajaf and 
'Ain Ghaz&leh, beyond which the Wady Musa is reached. 

From Jebel Usdcm to Petra (18 — 20 hrs.). From the corner of the 
Dead Sea the route passes the base of Jebel Usdum and skirts the JSebkha 
(p. 289) towards the S.W. In 1 hr. it reaches the S. end of the hill, 
and even here drifted wood is still to be met with. After 10 min. 
vegetation begins to re-appear. The road next passes (20 min.) a salt 
spring, 'Ain el-Beda, among reeds on the right, and crosses (20 min.) the 
Wddy el-Em'dz (goats 1 valley) descending form the W., where the gharkad, 
a low, bushy, and thorny shrub, growing on the salt-impregnated soil, and 
bearing juicy red berries in June, is frequently seen. 

To the right the chalk hills describe a long circuit to meet the line 
of cliffs rising towards the S. From the S.W. descends the Wddy el- 
Fikreh, a broad stony watercourse (p. 298). In | hr. the road reaches a 
shelving cliff, which forms the beginning of a range of hills running across 

a. 'Thy terribleness hath deceived thee, and the pride of thine heart, 
O thou that dwellest in the clefts of the rock, that holdest the height of 
the hill; though thou shouldest make thy nest as high as the eagle, I 
will bring thee down from thence , saith the Lord. Also Edom shall 
be a desolation ; every one that goeth by it shall be astonished, and shall 
hiss at all the plagues thereof.' 


Shalasa (EtuSAj 
Roiebeh -■;•: 

naa-fara,-- tegs-s&iM, 

^ ^jkte 

Dra-w^i Try H.Kieper-t 

Engravei & printed Vy"WsLgne*- * Befit;*. Leipsig-. 

to Petra. MOUNT H6R. 10. Route. 297 

the valley. These water- worn hills. 50 — 150 ft. in height, which the 
road follows to the S. E., also consist of soft chalk or hardened clay. 
The slightly salt springs promote a luxuriant growth of tamarisks , nebk 
trees, and stunted palms. In J hr. the road reaches a brook, tolerably 
free from salt, issuing from the r Ain el-*Artis (bride's spring). Beyond 
the Ghor are seen the Wddy et-Tafileh and Wddy Gtiarendel, which last 
has been named after the considerable ruins of the ancient episcopal town 
of Arindela (p. 300), with its rows of columns. 

Following the chain of hills towards the S.S.E. , the road leads to 
the opening of the large Wddy el-Jeb, coming from the S. and flanked by 
cliffs, which forms the sole outlet for the waters of the lower Ghor 
('Araba valley). After 1 hr. a point is reached where the line of cliffs 
crosses the valley, which is about 2^ M. wide, towards the 1. (E.). This is 
the height of Acrabbim, which once formed the S. E. frontier of Judah 
(Joshua xv. 2, 3). The banks of the Wady el-Jeb are nearly perpendicular, 
and the bed of the valley gradually ascends. At the beginning of the 
valley tamarisk shrubs occur. After 1 hr. the valley turns S. , and 
Mount Hor near Petra becomes visible in the distance. After 10 min. 
the valley is joined by the Wddy Hasb from the W. (right). Between 
the hills to the E. is seen the Wddy Ghuwer descending from the mountains 
of the ancient Edom. The banks of the Wady el - Jeb become lower 
farther to the S., especially on the E. side. As the road proceeds farther 
S.W. Mt. H6r becomes more conspicuous to the S. E. After 3 hrs. the 
road reaches the undulating 'Araba , an extensive desert , with a few 
scattered shrubs (gliada). The soil consists of loose gravel and stones, and 
is furrowed by watercourses. The only green spots are near springs (towards 
the W. 'Ain el-Weibeh, p. 298, to the N. 'Ain el-Ghuwereh). The precipitous 
mountains to the E. are also barren and desolate. After 2 hrs. 40 min. 
the Wddy el-Buwerideh is reached. The plain is covered with low gravel- 
hills. At rare intervals only occurs a shrub or an acacia. The road turns 
more to the S. E., and in 1 hr. 40 min. reaches springs with vegetation. 

The route now crosses the 'Araba towards the E. The watercourse 
which here intersects the valley near Petra is according to the latest 
observations (Luynes) 788 ft. above the level of the Mediterranean , so 
that it is impossible to conceive that the waters of the Dead Sea and the 
Red Sea were ever united. The valley, however, doubtless served as 
a route for traffic at the period when the ancient town of Ezion- 
Geber , near the present 'Akaba , was the principal seat of the mari- 
time trade of the Edomites and Israelites. To the W. rises the outline 
of Jebel el- Tih , and to the E. , opposite the traveller, the mountains 
of Esh-Sherd (p. 300). After 3 hrs. the road crosses the valley of the 'Araba, 
ascending towards the S. E. The heaps of stones frequently encountered 
owe their origin to a singular custom. When the Beduins vow to slaughter 
a sheep in honour of Aaron's memory, they bring their victim within 
sight of Aaron's tomb on Mt. Hor, and then kill and eat it, piling stones 
on the spot on which the blood has been poured. The E. side of the 
valley is much less green than the W. side. — The road now threads its 
way through the winding Wddy Rubd'i , passing round Mt. Hor on the S. 
This valley is flanked with hills of coloured sandstone and chalky 
limestone , and contains several caverns. At the bottom of the valley 
grow tamarisks , the caper shrub , and a magnificent 'orobanehe' with 
large yellow and blue flowers. 

Mount Hor is composed of sandstone , in which brownish-yellow 
and reddish streaks of different shades alternate. From the principal 
mass rise several peaks of different heights, in the interior of which the 
coloured layers run concentrically. The mountains here are furrowed by 
perpendicular chasms. Mt. Hor, which is ascended by an extremely steep 
path, consists of two peaks. On the E. peak, 4360 ft. above the 
Mediterranean, is situated the Tomb of Aaron (Kabr Hdrtin), to which 
pilgrimages are made. The footpath turns first to the N., then to the W., 
and lastly to the E. round the mountain. Near the summit a ravine is 
reached in which steps ascend. There are a few ruins here which perhaps 

298 Route 10. 'AIN EL-WEIBEH. Routes 

belonged to an old monastery. The tomb of Aaron , a modern Muslim 
sanctuary, is a miserable square^building containing a modern sarcophagus. 
The wall, however, contains fragments of columns, and at the N.W. cor- 
ner a passage descends from the chapel to a subterranean vault containing 
the tomb, which was formerly covered with a grating (light necessary). The 
tradition that Aaron was buried here (Numbers xx. 28) is certainly ancient, 
and is mentioned by Josephus. Many Arabic and Hebrew inscriptions 
have been written here by pilgrims. The view hence is very curious, 
including the necropolis of Petra, the gorges and chasms of the mountains, 
and to the W. the desert of the 'Araba. The practice of burying their 
dead on the tops of hills is still common among the nomads of the desert, 
as it was in ancient times. — From the beginning of the 'Araba to Petra 
is a journey of about 3 hrs. (In descending from Mt. Hor to the S. E., 
the traveller will observe caverns in the sides of the valley.) The city of 
Petra is then entered from the N. W. corner. 

From Petba to Hebkon (42 hrs.). The return-journey from Petra may 
be made by the route we have already described in going thither; but 
the. traveller may prefer to ride direct over the 'Araba to 'Ain el-Weibeh 
(see below), a journey of about 14 hrs. A longer way, leading again through 
the Sik, instead of one of the wadies descending from the N.N.E., crosses 
the Nemela Pass. In about 3 hrs. the traveller reaches the plain of 
Buttih B$da, and in 3 hrs. more the summit of the Nemela Pass, which 
commands a fine view, embracing the large Wady el-Jeb and the wide 
Wady ,el-Jerafeh, which, descending from the S.W., unites with the 
former; above these rises the cliff of el-Mukra, and near the spectator 
the summit of Mt. Hor. In J hr. the route reaches the foot of the hill, 
the porphyry composing which now gives place to limestone. The path 
descends into the 'Araba over stony slopes (2 hrs.). Several valleys are 
crossed, and in 2 hrs. 20 min. the large Wddy es-Sekakin is reached. This 
valley is now followed to a point where it forces its way through several 
hills of gravel which run across the 'Araba. The route proceeds towards 
the W.N.W. over the undulating wilderness of gravel , reaches (2J hrs.) 
the Wady el-Jeb , on the W. side of the 'Araba , and descends about 
100 ft. into the valley, which is here 2 M. wide. At the point where the 
road begins again to ascend on the W. slopes is the 'Ain el-Weibeh, with 
three springs. The water is warm, and contains a little sulphur. 
Robinson thought 'Ain el-Weibeh was the ancient Kadesh - Barnea, but 
this town occupied a site about 40 M. to the W., where it has been 
discovered lately, still bearing its original name. 

From 'Ain el-Weibeh to Hebron the escort does not always follow 
the same route. Sometimes the traveller is conducted up the Wady 
Mirz&ba to the long and tedious pass of Mirzdba, the top of which is 
reached in 2^ hrs. ; thence to the Wddy Fikreh, lying to the right of the 
Jebel Mddara, in 7^ hrs. ; and from that valley across the Es - Safd pass 
(see below). — Another route leads farther to the E., between dreary 
limestone hills, to the Wddy el-Khardr, where there is a spring, and 
ascends in about 6 hrs. to the pass of El-Khardr, the first of the series 
of heights which rise above the 'Araba. The principal valley in this 
region is the Wddy Fikreh (p. 296), which runs down to the Ghor on the 
right, and is reached in 2 hrs. more. To the left rises the isolated hill 
Mddara, once, as the Beduins say, the site of a town which was destroyed 
by a fall of stones from heaven. The hill Es-Seifa which now lies across 
the route, may be crossed by one of three paths. That in the centre 
is called Es-Safd, that to the left of it El-Yemen (with water), and that 
on the right 'Es-Svfei. The Es-Safd is probably the shortest; its foot is 
reached from Wady Fikreh in' 35 min. ; the path is generally rugged , but 
is smooth and slippery in places , and traces are observed of an ancient 
track hewn in the rock. Walkers may take a shorter path than the mules. 
The conjecture that the name of this hill answers to. the royal Canaanitish 
city of Zephalh (Judges i. 17), afterwards Hormah (Numbers xxi. 3; Joshua 
xii. 14), seems to us ill-founded. In 1 hr. the summit of the pass is 
reached. It affords a view of the interminable wilderness extending on 

to Petra. SEMU'A. 10. Route. 299 

both sides of the 'Araba as far as the Dead Sea, a terribly wild region. 
The direction N.N.W. is still pursued. For some distance the rod leads 
between two deep ravines, and then descends into a valley on the right. 
It next reaches a kind of plain , which forms the second terrace of the 
mountains towards the 'Araba. The level tract reached in 2 hrs. is called 
Et-Tar&ibeh. In 2 hrs. more an arm of the Wddy el-Yemen is traversed, 
and in 20 min. another and higher plain is reached. On a hill to the 
left lie the ruins of Kurnub, which are of little interest, as the attempt to 
identify them with the ancient Tamar (Ezek. xlvii. 19) has hardly 
been successful. Beyond the hill (2} hrs.) the road ascends the heights 
of Kubbet el-Baul, and descends into the basin of 'Ar'ara, where (\ hr.) 
traces of former cultivation are seen. In 35 min. the ruined village 
of El-Kuser is passed; and after 10 min. a path runs direct N. to Tell 
Milh (1£ hr.). 

[The circuit by 'Ar'ara does not greatly lengthen the journey. In ^ hr. 
the top of a hill is reached which commands an extensive view of the 
region on the S. frontier of Judah, and in 1 hr. more the road rejoins 
the Wady 'Ar'ara, in which there are hollows for water. There are 
traces there of the ancient Aroer (1 Sam. xxx. 28; 1 Chron. xi. 44), to 
which David sent part of the booty from Ziklag. The character of the 
scenery has now become much softer, and the arid desert is left behind. 
In 2 hrs. more the cisterns of El-Milh are reached.] 

In the plain are seen ruins with enclosing walls. This was the site 
of 'the ancient Moladah (Joshua xv. 26; Nehem. xi. 26), a place also 
mentioned by Josephus. On the right, after 1 hr. 50 min., is the ruin 
of Mak'hul. In J hr. the road ascends. To the E. is seen Tell 'Arad 
(p. 288). The road now ascends a valley to a higher terrace of the hilly 
country. It passes (1 hr. 10 min.) the ruined village of El-Ghuwein on 
the left, and in the distance is seen < Attii\ the ancient Jallir (Joshua xxi. 
14), a city of the priests, with unimportant ruins. Cultivation again 
begins here. On a hill to the 1., after 1 hr., lies Rdfdt , with extensive 
ruins, including a number of subterranean store-rooms and cisterns. 
Several vaulted structures are still standing, and among them one which 
may have been a church. The village of (20 min.) Semti'a, the first 
inhabited place reached by the route from'the S., lies on a hill commanding 
a view of the environs. Among the modern houses are ruins and ancient 
hewn stones of considerable size. Over the door of a small mosque a 
fragment of an ancient frieze is built into the wall. The ruined castle 
is probably of Arabian origin. 1'nder many of the houses are cellars 
hewn in the rock. Semii'a has about 200 inhabitants. Its name and 
situation answer to the ancient Eshtemoh (Joshua xv. 50; 1. Sam. xxx. 28). 
On a hill 5 min. to the S.W. of the village are the remains of a Roman 
edifice. The route descends hence into a deep valley, and then again ascends. 
On the right (f hr.) lies Ydta (p. 287). The road now (1 hr.) reaches the 
bottom of the Wddy el-Khalll (valley of Hebron), and (J hr.) passes the 
village of Kirkis, beyond which it leaves the Wady Kirkis and ascends 
the height to the right (| hr.). Fields begin here , and the traveller at 
length reaches (1J hr.) the beautiful orchards of Hebron (p. 279). 

From Petra to Jericho by Keral: and 'Amman. 

Fhom Petba to Kerak (28 hrs.) is a route which should not be 
attempted without a strong escort. From Petra the route ascends the 
valley towards the N. to Elji. passes next the deserted village of Badabdeh, 
and reaches the Spring of Moses (p. 291). Numerous heaps of stones are 
observed in this region (p. 297). On the way towards the X.X.E. several 
Beduin camps are usually to be seen. In 6^ hrs. Shdbek is reached. In 
the 12th cent. Baldwin I., starting from Jerusalem, crossed the Jordan, 
and traversed the S. districts of the region beyond that river, then 
called Palsestina Secunda. where he established a garrison for the 
protection of the Christians. This fortress , called Mons Regalis, or Mont 
Sepal, in honour of its founder, was besieged by Saladin in 1181. This is 

300 Route 10. KERAK. 

From Petra 

the present Shobek, the principal village on the Jebel esh-Sherd, situated 
on the summit of a hill, below which are the plantations belonging to 
the village, watered by two springs. The well-preserved castle is of Arabian 
origin, and some of its inscriptions mention the name of Melik ed- 
Dahir (Bibars, p. 70). Here also are the ruins of a handsome mediaeval 
church. The hill commands an extensive view. 

In the valley to the E. of Shobek are traces of a Roman military road. 
After 6£ hrs. the road reaches the ruins of Oharendel (p. 297), lying on the 
sides of three volcanic heights, and passed by the Roman road, which is 
here regularly paved with black stone and is well preserved. To the E., 
farther on, is seen in the distance the Derb el-Hajj, the pilgrimage-route 
to Mecca, looking like a white line in the distance. After 3 hrs. the 
road, leaving the deep valley of D&na to the left, reaches the village of 
Busera (little Bosra) in the present district of Jebdl (i. e. Gebalene). This 
place is identical with the once important Edomite town of Bozrah (Gen. 
xxxvi. 33; Jerem. xlix. 13, etc.). The ruins are insignificant. About fifty 
houses only are now inhabited. 

Tafileh, 2J hrs. farther, is a large village with about 600 houses, the 
shekh of which is nominally the chief of the district of Jebal. The 
environs are abundantly watered and fertile. Tafileh is probably the 
TopJiel mentioned by Moses (Deut. i. 1). The road leads hence towards 
the N.W. in 1 hr. to the village of Aimeh, situated at the foot of lofty 
rocks. Ascending a wady the road passes the extensive ruins of El-Kerr, 
descends to the spring 'Ain el-Kasrln, and reaches (2J hrs.) the deep 
bed of the Wady el-Ahsa, which is called Kurahi in its lower course and 
empties itself into the OhSr es-Sd/iyeh (p. 289). ' Here begins the district 
of Kerak, the territory of ancient Moab. On the N. side of the valley the 
road again ascends, and in 2| hrs. reaches Khanzireh, another well-watered 
place. The village of (1 hr.) 'Ordk is romantically situated, beyond which 
is (1 hr.) Ketherabba, a village with about 80 houses. Here and at the 
village of r Ain Ter'ain, ^ hr. to the N., rises the brook of the Wddy 'Asal. 
After | hr. the top of the hill commands a fine view of the S. end of 
the Dead Sea. The valley of 'Ain Franji is now descended, and beyond 
it Kerak is reached in 1] hr. — The villagers of this district resemble 
the Beduins much more nearly than do the peasants in the country to 
the W. of Jordan. Each village, moreover, contains a medafeh, or public 
inn, in which strangers are entertained gratuitously with Beduin hospita- 
lity. (Payment, however, is expected from Europeans.) 

Kerak, the ancient Kir Haraseth. or Kir Moab (2 Kings iii. 25; 
Isaiah xvi. 7, 11) , was one of the numerous towns of the Moabites. 
According to all accounts this people closely resembled the Israelites, 
and this would be expected from their origin as recorded by Moses 
(Gen. xix. 36, 37). They appear to have been of a warlike dispo- 
sition, and the Israelites on their journey to Canaan avoided the 
land of Moab. During the period of the Judges the Moabites compelled 
the Israelites to pay them tribute (Judges iii. 12 — 14), but were afterwards 
defeated. Saul and David, one of whose great- grandmothers was a 
Moabitess, fought against Moab. After Solomon's death Moab fell to the 
northern kingdom. After AhaVs death the Moabites refused to pay tribute. 
Their king at that period was Mesha, a monument to whose memory, probablv 
dating from B.C. 897 or 896, was found in 186S at Diban (p. 303). Jehoram, 
allied with Jehoshaphat king of Judah, invaded the land of Moab from the S., 
through Edom, but they were resisted by the fortress of Kir-Haraseth'(Kir 
Moab). Mesha on this occasion offered his first-born son as a sacrifice to Baal 
Chemosh on the wall, whereupon the Israelites withdrew (2 Kings iii.). At a 
later period Moab was sometimes dependent, and sometimes independent. 
Its position was probably similar to what it now is , tribute being 
paid or not according to the presence or absence of a military garrison. 
The land of Moab is described as having been very prosperous in ancient 
times (Jer. xlviii.), and, to judge from the numerous ruins, must have been 
very populous. 

At a subsequent period Kerak was the seat of an archbishop , but he 
derived his title , as at the present day, from Petra Deserti. The place 

to Jericho. KERAK. 10. Route. 301 

has often been confounded with Shobek. When the Crusaders established 
themselves in the country to the E. of Jordan, Kerak formed the key 
of that region, as it commanded the caravan route from Egypt and Arabia 
to Syria, in consequence of which it was a much disputed fortress. The 
Saracens made desperate efforts to take it, as the Franks extended their 
expeditions thence down as far as Aila ('Akaba). In 1183 and the 
following years Saladin began a series of furious attacks upon Kerak, 
which was held by Kainald de ChiUillon, and in 1188 he gained possession 
both of Kerak and Shobek. The Eyyubides extended the fortifications 
of Kerak, and frequently resided there. They also transferred thither 
their treasury and their state-prison. At that time the place prospered. 
Later, however, it became an apple of discord between the rulers of 
Egypt and Syria. Owing to the strength of its situation, however, 
the inhabitants generally contrived to hold their own. To this day their 
trade with the desert is of considerable importance. The merchants of 
Hebron are among the chief frequenters of the market of Kerak. The 
pasha of Jerusalem succeeded in again establishing a garrison here a few 
years ago, but travellers are still by no means safe from the attacks of the 
inhabitants. Like the Beduins, the natives of Kerak wear the striped 
'abayeh (cloak), and they all carry arms. The environs are very fertile. 
'Butter seller 1 is regarded as an epithet of opprobrium , as the owner of 
flocks is considered bound to use the butter they yield for himself, and 
particularly for his guests. The influx of European travellers, and the 
large sums expected from them in payment for hospitality, have already 
demoralised these people and excited their natural cupidity. The inhabitants 
are therefore justly in bad repute. Lynch, however, extricated himself ad- 
mirably from their designs upon him by causing the Muslim shekh, who had 
threatened him , to be surrounded and carried off as a hostage to the 
Dead Sea. Strangers are still treated here with great insolence. — Kerak 
contains about 600 houses, one-fourth of which are inhabited by Christians. 
The population of the town and environs consists of about 6000 Muslims 
(armed with about 2000 guns) and 1800 Christians (with 500—600 guns). 
The houses are built of mud ('pise'), with flat roofs. The cross-beams of 
the rooms generally rest on two arches. Each house usually contains on e 
or more kuwar, or large receptacle for stores, constructed of mud. — Those 
who have no tents should request to be conducted to the public inn, 
where they tender a bakhshish in payment immediately before leaving, 
without regarding the outcry which is sure to be made at the smallness 
of the sum, however liberal. The inhabitants, Christians (Greeks) as 
well as Muslims, are very superstitious; the Christians, however, who 
have a shekh of their own, are more trustworthy. The Protestant mission 
has of late endeavoured to establish a footing at Kerak. 

The view from Kerak, which lies about 2950 ft. above the level of 
the Mediterranean, particularly from the castle, embraces the Dead Sea 
and the surrounding mountains. In the distance the Mt. of Olives and 
even the Kussian buildings beyond it, are visible. A survey of the valley 
of Jordan as far as the heights of Jericho is also obtained. Although the 
surrounding mountains partly command the town, its situation is naturally 
very strong. It is still partially surrounded by a wall with five towers. 
The most northern tower is the best preserved, and bears an inscription 
and figures of lions of the kind common in Arabian monuments of the 
Crusaders' period. The lower parts of the wall, to judge from the stones 
composing it, are of earlier date than the upper. The town originally 
had two entrances only, both consisting of tunnels in the rock , but it is 
now accessible on the N.W. side also through breaches in the wall. The 
tunnel on the N.W. side has an entrance arch dating from the Roman 
period (notwithstanding its Arabic inscription). This tunnel, about 80 
paces long, leads to the tower of Bibars (N.W.), whose name is recorded 
by an inscription adjoining two lions. The walls are very massive, and 
are provided with loopholes. The vaults are now used as store-rooms. 

The most interesting building at Kerak is the huge Castle on the S. 
side. It is separated from the adjoining hill on the right by a large artificial 
moat, and is provided with a reservoir. A moat also skirts the N. side 

302 Route 10. RABBA. From Petra 

of the fortress, and on the E. side the wall has a sloped or battered base. 
The castle is thus separated from the town. The walls are very thick 
and well preserved. The extensive galleries , corridors , and colonnades 
constitute it an admirable example of a Crusader's castle. The upper 
stories are in ruins, but the approaches to them are still in good preserva- 
tion. A staircase descends into a subterranean chapel, where traces of fres- 
coes are still visible. In the interior of the fortress there are numerous 
cisterns. Although the springs are situated immediately outside the town, 
large cisterns have been constructed within the town (particularly by the 
tower of Bibars). — The present Mosque of Kerak was originally a 
Christian church, of which the pillars and arches are still extant. A 
sculptured chalice and several other Christian symbols have escaped 
destructiou by the Muslims. — The Christian church, dedicated to St. 
George (El-K/iidr, p. 93), contains pictures in the Byzantine style. The 
Greeks have a school here. The schoolmaster shows a house containing 
remains of a beautiful Roman bath, including a line marble pavement. 

From Kerak to 'Amman (about 33hrs.). From Kerak the road leads to- 
wards the N. in 4 hrs. to Rabba, crossing a plain less covered with hills and 
villages than that to the S. of Kerak. The ruined villages of Suweiniyeh, 
Duweineh, and Mekhershit are passed. Rabba was the ancient Rabbath Moab. 
which was afterwards confounded with Ar Moab , and thence called 
Areopolii. The ruins are about li M. in circuit. A few only of the 
ruins , such as the remains of a temple (W. side) and some cisterns, 
are well preserved. Two Corinthian columns of different sizes stand 
together not far from the temple. 

The Roman road intersects the town and leads towards the N. through 
a fertile district. On the left of the road (20 min.) stands a small Roman 
temple , partly destroyed. On the right (i hr.) are the ruins of the old 
tower of Misdeh, adjoining which are the ruins of Hemimat, perhaps 
the Ham of Moses (Gen. xiv. 5). The road next lea'ds to (J hr.) the 
ruins of Bit el-Karm, near which are the ruins of a temple (Kasr 
Rabba). The columns look as if they had been overthrown by an earth- 
quake, and large blocks are strewn about. The Roman road, most of 
the milestones of which are still preserved , now leads to (1 hr.) the 
dilapidated village of Er-Riha. On the right rise the hills of Et- Tarftiyeh; 
on the left is the isolated jebel Shihdn, with the village of that name. 
A circuit of about 1 hr. takes the traveller thither from Rabba. In the 
S. part, and at the foot of the hill, there are a number of enclosures of 
basalt, probably dating from an ante-Roman period. The name of the 
place is perhaps derived from that of Sihon, king of the Amorites (Numbers 
xxi. 21 — 30) , whose territory once extended from the Arnon to the Jabbok, 
but , on his defeat by the Israelites , was given to the tribes of Reuben 
and Gad. The land of Sihon is also mentioned in 1 Kings iv. 19, and 
Jeremiah even speaks of a place of that name (xlviii. 45). — On the top 
of the hill are the ruins of a temple and a burial-place of the Beni 
Hamideh tribe. The view is very extensive, embracing the Dead Sea, the 
mountains of Judah in the distance, and the ravine of theMojib to the N. 

About 2 hrs. beyond Riha the route passes the ruins of Mehdtet el- 
Hajj, whence it descends to the ravine of the MSjib. The upper part of 
the mountain is covered with porous basalt. Traces of a Roman road are 
also observable here, and there are remains of a bridge. In about 1^ hr. 
the road (passing some ruins) descends to a depth of 2130 ft. ; on the 
opposite side the hills are 200 ft. lower. The vegetation in the valley is 
luxuriant. Above the bridge lie some ruins. 

Beyond the Mojib (Arnon) begins the present district of El-Belkd. 
Between the Arnon and the Jabbok originally lay the territory of the 
Ammonites (Judges xi. 13) , and the Amorites afterwards established 
themselves in the same region. The Ammonites incessantly harassed the 
Israelites , who had taken possession of their country , and especially the 
tribe of Gad. Jephthah drove them back beyond their own boundaries, 
Saul fought against them, and David , who had been on good terms with 
their King Nahash, afterwards destroyed their power (2 Sam. x.). They 

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to Jericho. MKAUR. 10. Route. 303 

took every opportunity of injuring the Israelites , but they disappear 
from history in the 2nd cent, before Christ. Milcom and Molech are 
mentioned in the Bible as their gods. 

Beyond the river, where partridges abound, the road is very steep, 
and cannot be found without a competent guide. In 1 hr. it reaches the 
plain, where the ruins of 'Ar'dir, the ancient Aroer (Joshua xii. 2; 
xiii. 9) , which afterwards belonged to the tribe of Reuben (xiii. 16). 
The road leads hence across the plain to (£ hr.) Dibdn, the ancient Dibon, 
which was taken by the Israelites (Numbers xxi. 30) , and afterwards 
rebuilt by Gad (Numbers xxxiii. 34). According to Isaiah (xv. 2) it 
afterwards fell into the hands of the Moabites , and it was here that 
the famous 'Moabite Stone', bearing a long inscription in honour of 
king Mesha was found (p. 300). 

This district is occupied by the Beni Sakhr Beduins. — When at 
Diban , Tristram visited (2£ hrs.) Umm er-Resds , a large heap of ruins. 
A number of arches are still preserved there, and also the ruins of 
several churches. About 4 hr. to the N. of the town is a very curious 
tower, not unlike a tomb-tower in the Palmyrene style (R. 32). From 
Umm er-Resas it is a journey of 3 hrs. to the Hajj route , on which lies 
Khdn Zebib , evidently standing on the site of an ancient town , as there 
are many architectural remains in and aronnd the present building. 

Leaving Diban , and crossing the Roman road and the W&dy Heiddn 
(towards the N.W.), the road leads to (2J hrs.) KarSpdt, a large heap 
of ruins answering to the ancient Kirjathaim (Gen. xiv. 5), I where 
Chedorlaomer defeated the Emims. The place afterwards belonged to the 
tribe of Reuben, and afterwards to Moab. Attards (1 hr. N.E.), the 
ancient Ataroth, which belonged to Gad, had a similar history. On a 
hill to the N. of Attarus lie the ruins of an old castle , near a large 
terebinth tree. The view from the ruins of the town is preferable ; it 
embraces Bethlehem , Jerusalem , Mt. Gerizim , and the plain to the E. 
The hills are planted with terebinths , almond-trees , etc. 

Hkaur, 1J hr. N. W. of Kareyat, answers to the ancient Jlfachaerus, 
which is said to have been founded by Alexander Jannseus. The castle 
was destroyed during the Pompeian wars, but v as afterwards rebuilt by 
Herod the Great, surrounded by walls, and defended by towers. Herod 
also founded a town here, within which he built himself a palace. From 
this point to Pella, towards the N. , extended the region of Peraea. 
Josephus informs us that Herod Antipas , tetrarch of Galilee and Persea, 
offended by the reproaches of John the Baptist (Matth. xiv. 3), 
imprisoned him in the fortress of Machserus ; and here therefore the 
Baptist must have been beheaded. After the destruction of Jerusalem a 
number of the unhappy survivors sought refuge in this stronghold, but 
the procurator Lucilius Bassus took it by stratagem and put the whole 
garrison to the sword. The very extensive citadel covering the hill, 
where a town and a large cistern are still preserved, is interesting. The 
view from Mkaur embraces the W. shore of the Dead Sea, Engedi to 
the S.W. , and above it the whole of the mountains of Judah , extending 
from Hebron to Jerusalem and farther N. Mkaur lies 3800 ft. above the 
level of the Dead Sea, and 2507 ft. above that of the Mediterranean. 

A ride of about 3 hrs. to the N. over a hilly country, avoiding the 
W&dy Zghara, a short and deep gully, brings the traveller to the brink 
of the deep valley of the Zerka Afa'in, in the region of Callirrhoe. From 
this terrace to the bed of the'brook the road descends 876 ft. The bottom 
and sides of the ravine are covered with a luxuriant growth of plants, 
including palm-trees , and will interest botanists. The flora resembles 
that of S. Arabia and Nnbia. At the bottom of the valley is seen red 
sandstone, overlaid with limestone and basalt (to the S.). The ravine 
has been formed by the action of a powerful stream. Within a distance 
of 3 M. a number of hot springs issue from the side-valleys , all of them 
containing more or less lime, and all rising in the line where the 
sandstone and limestone come in contact. The hottest of these springs, 
which send forth clouds of steam and largely deposit their mineral 
ingredients , has a temperature of 142" Fahr. The Arabs say that these 

304 Route 10. MEDEBA. From Petra 

springs were called forth by a servant of king Solomon , and they still 
use them for sanitary purposes. In ancient times they were also in great 
repute , and Herod the Great visited them during his last illness. No 
remains of baths, however, have been discovered. 

The route from Callirrhoe to Ma'in, ascending the valley for about 
6 hrs. , is very fatiguing. The view is imposing, and the forms of the 
rocks are often singularly grotesque. The banks of the stream are 
fringed with oleanders. At the point where the Wddy Habis falls into the 
Zerka from the K. E., the road turns to the left, past the Jebel Husneh. 
It now leaves the territory of the Hamideh Beduins, who to a great extent 
are dependent on the Beni Sakh'r, and enters that of the latter tribe. 
At the top of the hill lies another table-land, and in i\ hr. the ruins of 
Ma'in are reached. On the plain are found a number of dolmens, formed 
of three or four large stones, and doubtless very ancient. Ma'in is the 
ancient Beth-Baal-Meon (Joshua xiii. 17) , or house of Baal Meon. It 
belonged to Reuben, and afterwards to Moab (Ezekiel xxv. 9). Eusebius 
informs us that this was the birthplace of Elisha. The ruins are extensive, 
and cisterns lie in every direction. 

A road, supposed to be of Roman origin, crosses the plain hence in 
1J hr. to Medeba, another large ruined town, in better preservation 
than Ma'in. On the S. side of Medeba lies a very large pool (120 yds. 
square), with the ruins of a huge castle. On the E. side of the town is 
a smaller pool, enclosed by drafted blocks, and on the N. side there is a 
third, but all these are now dry. On the K. E. side of Medeba are the 
substructions of a small circular temple, with Doric columns lying around. 
To the N., nearer the top of the hill, is a second temple, the wall of 
which is preserved to a height of 12 ft. To the N.W. the frieze and two 
capitals of a buried temple are seen projecting from the ground. On a hill 
10 min. to the W. are remains of walls and several caverns and cisterns. 
Above two upright columns lies a square block, obviously not in situ. 

Medeba is the ancient place of that name (Josh. xiii. 9, 16), originally 
a town of the Moabites. It was afterwards taken by the Israelites from 
the Amorites, and allotted to the tribe of Reuben. It was near Medeba 
that David defeated the Ammonites (1 Chron. xix. 7 — 15). In the middle 
of the 9th cent, before Christ the town again came into the possession of 
the Moabites, and at a later period it is called a town of the NabatEeans 
(Arabs). Hyrcanus captured the town after a siege of six months. 
During the Christian period it was the seat of a bishop. 

Mt. Nebo, from which Moses beheld the whole of the promised land 
before his death (Deut. xxxiv. 1 — 4), is believed to be one of the 
mountains to the N.W. of Medeba and Hesban. De Saulcy supposes it 
to have been the Jebel Nebd, to the N. of the spring of Moses, while 
Tristram places it at the ruins of Nebbeh, to the S. of the spring of Moses. 
The road to Nebbeh (1J hr.) crosses cultivated fields. The view hence is 
very extensive , including the mountains to the N. of Hebron as far as 
ftalilee , the Dead Sea from Engedi northwards , the whole valley of 
Jordan, and beyond it even Carmel and Hermon. The ruins of Zidra, 
1 hr. to the W. , have been supposed to be the ancient Zoar (!). To the 
N. a view is obtained of the Wddy ' UyHn-MHsa. This valley contains 
luxuriant vegetation, but the descent into it is steep. The traveller may 
proceed thence to Hesban. The direct route from Medeba to (If hr.) Hesban 
crosses the plain. As the territory of the 'Adwan Beduins is now entered, 
an escort should be obtained from that tribe. The Shekh Gobelan (p. 336), 
whose authority extends hence to Jerash, generally accompanies travellers. 

Hesban, the ancient Heshbon, was a flourishing city at the period of 
the Israelite immigration , and was the residence of Sihon , king of the 
Amorites (Numbers xxi. 26). It was allotted to Reuben , although it is 
also spoken of as a town of Gad, and its revenues belonged to the 
Levites. It afterwards came into the possession of the Moabites (Jerem. xlviii. 
45), but in the time of the Maccabees it had been recovered by the Jews. 

The site of Hesban (2900 ft.) commands the whole of the plain. The 
ruins are uninteresting. They lie on two hills , bounded on the W. by 

to Jericho. 


10. Route. 305 

the Wady Hesban, and on the E. by the Wady Ma'in. There are many 
cistern-openings among them. In the middle of the N. hill is a square 
enclosure built of large blocks. On the S. W. hill are traces of a temple, 
and 70 paces to the E. a square tower, between which is a large 
overthrown column of rude workmanship. To the E. of the town is a 
reservoir. ,, 

In 20 min. the road leads to Khirbet el-'Al, the ancient Eleale, 



Kiiins of 


rrom an OTigiiul'SurveybyJf.ESepert. 
1 : 12.000 

the history of which is similar to that of Hesban. The plain is then 
crossed towards the N. E. to (i hr.) ya'ilr; (1 hr.) Khirbet Sekka on the 
left; (25 min.) Khirbet el-Jehara; (20 min.) Khirbet esh-Shejara and Rujem 
el- Wast; {I hr.) 'Abdun: and lastly (J hr.) the ruins of 'Amman. 

History. 'Amman corresponds with the ancient Rabbath Ammon , the 
capital of the Ammonites. The sarcophagus of Og, the giant king of the 
Amorites, was once preserved here. The town consisted of a lower and 
an upper quarter. In consequence of an insult offered to the ambassadors 
<>f David it was besieged and taken by Joab (2 Sam. xi. 1 ; L Chron. xx. 
1—3). Later, however, it appears again to have belonged to the Ammonites 
(Jerem. xlix. 2). Ptolemy II. (Philadelphus) of Egypt rebuilt it and 
added the name Philadelphia , and for several centuries it was a thriving 
place, belonging to the Decapolis of Persea. It never quite lost its 
original name , by which alone it was afterwards known to the Arabs. 
The destruction of 'Amman is chiefly to be attributed to earthquakes, 

Palestine. 20 

306 Route 10. 'AMMAN. From Petra 

but notwithstanding all its misfortunes its ruins are still among the fine9t 
on the E. side of Jordan. They are best described by De Saulcy (Voyage 
de la Terre Sainte, Paris, 1865). The town lies in a fertile basin, 
commanded by the ruins of a castle. 

On the right side of the brook, well stocked with fish, which 
intersects the town, lies the Theatre only, with its back to the hill, a 
most impressive ruin , and in excellent preservation. In front of it is a 
square space enclosed by Corinthian columns , of which twelve onlv out 
of fifty or more are still standing. The stage is destroyed. A chamber 
now filled with stones was probably an outlet. The tiers of seats are 
intersected by stairs, and divided into three sections by parallel 
semicircular barriers. The first section contains fourteen, the second 
sixteen , and the third eighteen tiers of seats. Between the second and 
third sections, and particularly above the third, are boxes for spectators. 
"Words spoken on the stage are distinctly heard on the highest tier of 
seats. The theatre was constructed for about 6000 spectators. — Nearly 
opposite the theatre, to the right at a bend in the river, are the ruins 
of a small covered theatre, or Odeum , with many holes in front for 
cramps by which ornaments were attached. Over the side door is a 
frieze, on which, among other things, the wolf with Romulus and Remus 
will be observed. 

Descending the brook, the traveller comes to the ruin of a mill. For 
a distance of 300 yds. the banks of the stream are flanked with handsome 
Roman walls, and the watercourse was once vaulted over here. The blocks 
lying in the water form convenient stepping-stones. At the point where 
the hill approaches the brook, and a dry watercourse descends on the 
opposite side , there are remains of baths on the right bank , including a 
fine apse , connected with two other lateral apses. Several columns are 
still standing by the walls, but without capitals. At a great height are 
richly decorated niches. Holes for cramps indicate that the building was 
once adorned with bronze ornaments. Beyond the dry watercourse are 
remains of an Arabian bazaar, and on the bank of the brook those of a 
basilica. A little farther off are the ruins of a mosque. Farther W., 
on the left side of the stream , is a square building which appears to 
have been a tomb. At its corners are handsome Corinthian pilasters. 
The ceiling of the chamber is also partially preserved, and is of an 
ornate character. Here begins the series of columns which intersected 
the town. Farther up the watercourse are the walls of ancient temples, 
above which , on the left bank , are the ruins of an extensive building. 
Descending the stream past the baths, the traveller observes a fragment 
of the ancient dyke. On the left are remains of dwelling-houses. Farther 
down the brook is a handsome colonnade, beyond which there is a well- 
preserved bridge of one arch. A temple appears to have stood opposite 
the bridge, there being still steps and a window gable resembling those at 
Ba'albek; this ruin is therefore of late Roman origin. — The row of 
■columns continues to run through the town , parallel with the stream, 
and opposite the theatre makes a bend towards a gate. 

The citadel of 'Amman lies on a hill on the K. side , which towards 
the S.W. forms an angle, and towards the E. is bounded by an artificial 
moat. The gate is in the middle of the S. side, opposite the town. The 
enclosing walls stand a little below the crest of the hill and do not 
seem to have risen much above its summit. They are very thick, 
constructed of large, uncemented blocks, and apparently of great antiquity. 
The interior of the castle presents little more than a confused mass of ruins. 

From 'Amman to 'Arak el-Emir (3 hrs. 20 min.). The road ascends 
on the left bank of the brook to a spring, where there are remains of 
several buildings. An aqueduct conveys water hence to the town 
(J hr.). The numerous ruined villages on the right and left show that 
this district must once have been richly cultivated. On the right lies 
Kasr el-Mel/if ('castle of cabbages'), on the left 'Abdiin (p. 305), on the 
■right Umm ed-Deba. After the plateau has been traversed for 1 hr. more, 
Tabaka is seen on the left, and Smceifhjeh on the right; then Ed-DemSn on 

to Jericho. 


10. Route. 307 

the left. The road now enters the green and beautifully wooded W6dy 
eth-Sliita, or valley of rain. On the right is the ruin of Sdr; then the 
spring 'Ain el-Bahal. To the left at the outlet of the valley (1 lir.) is a 
ruined mill; on the right the ruin of El-Aremeh. About 1 hr. farther is 
r Arak el-Emir (1463 ft. above the sea). The valley here is in the form 
of an amphitheatre, and the low hills are overgrown with oaks. 

History. Josephus informs us in a lengthy narrative that King Hyrcanus 
(p. 63), being persecuted by his envious brothers, retired to the country 

to the E. of Jordan, and that, while fighting against the Arabs, he erected 
a castle here. His description of the buildings and caverns answers in 
the main, though not in details , to the ruins still extant here. Tyros. 
the ancient name of the castle, is moreover recognisable in the name of 
the Wddy es-Sir, the brook which flows at its foot. It is, however, 
doubtful whether Hyrcanus was really the founder of this stronghold , or 
whether he did not rather utilise ancient buildings and caverns already 
existing here. When the power of Antiochus V. (Eupator) of Syria was in 
the ascendant after the death of Ptolemy V. (Epiphanes)' of Egypt 


308 Route 10. ARAK EL-EMIR. 

(B. C. 181), Hyrcanus through dread of the Syrians committed suicide in 
his own palace. That edifice then fell to ruin and was never rebuilt. 

The principal building in the place, situated on the S. W. side of 
the rocky amphitheatre, is called Kasr el-'Abd, or castle of the slave, and 
stands on a platform in a half isolated situation. In many places the 
substruction consists of a wall with abutments , composed of enormous 
blocks. The artiticial road leading to the castle is flanked with large 
blocks of stone, standing at considerable intervals, and pierced with 
holes , in which a wooden rail was probably once inserted. The road 
continues in this style for several hundred paces. The Kasr, the wall of 
which is preserved on one side only, is also built of large blocks. The 
upper part is adorned with a frieze in bas-relief, bearing large and 
rather rude figures of animals (lions). De Saulcy supposes the large 
quadrangle of huge blocks with windows to have been an ancient Ammonite 
temple , and thinks that it once had a peristyle and side-galleries, the 
great difference between the outside and inside stones showing that 
Hyrcanus used an already existing ancient wall as a bulwark of 
defence. — The open space around the castle, once probably a moat, is 
now called Meiddn el-Abd. 

On a hill to the left, farther to the N., are seen remains of buildings 
and an aqueduct, and a large platform is at length reached whereon 
stood a number of buildings , once enclosed by walls. On the hill beyond 
this platform runs a remarkable gallery in the rock, which has evidently 
been artificially widened. Portals lead thence into a number of rock- 
caverns, some of which seem to have been used as stables, to judge from 
the rings in the walls. Can these have been rock-dwellings , or were 
they tombs, as De Saulcy thinks? The inscriptions are in the ancient 
Hebrew character. Josephus mentions caverns of this description. 

From 'Arak el-Emir to Jericho (5£ hrs.). The direct road leads to 
the N.W. over 'a low pass (J hr.), and across a flat and partially cultivated 
plateau to (•£ hr.) Wddy en-Sdr , into which there is a steep descent 
(5 min.). It then gradually ascends (the ruin of Sdr remaining to the 
S.) to the top of the Jendn es-SUr (£ hr.), descends a steep rock 
(10 min), and leads through the 'wddy Jeri'a, a side-valley of the W&dy 
Nimrin, to (1 hr.) Kkirbet Ximrin (p. 389), near the point where the 
valley quits the mountains. The Wady Nimrin comes from Salt (p. 389), 
and farther up is called Wddy Sha'ib. The road next crosses the water- 
course of the Wady Nimrin, and traverses the level Jordan valley in \\ hr. 
to the Jordan Ferry (1 piastre for man and horse), 1 hr. to the N. of the 
ford (see below). Thence to Jericho 1A hr. 

A rather longer route (6 hrs.) leads from 'Arak el-Emir through the Wddy 
el-Bahat, which joins the Wddy Ke/ren lower 'down, to (3 hrs.) Khirbet 
Masld, where the valley unites with the Jordan valley. The traveller 
may proceed- thence (passing Tell Kefren on the right) either directly to 
the W. in 1 J hr. to the Mahadet el-Ghoraniyeh (Jordan Ford), where he is 
carried across by Arabs , and thence to Jericho in 1\ hr. ; or, turning to 
the. X.W. (right) . he may reach the Jordan Ferry (see above) in 2 hrs. 

11. From Hebron to Bet Jibrin and Gaza. 

From Hebron to Bet Jibrin (4f hrs.). Taking the route from 
Hebron to Abraham's oak (p. 282), we diverge to the right after 
22 min., and riding between garden-walls, we reach (8 min.) the 
fine remains of an aqueduct. We then (5 min.) avoid a path to 
the right, and Q hr.) descend into the valley of 'Ain el-Uff, 
or Wddy el-Franj (valley of the Franks). In 40 min. we reach a 
spring, a little beyond which a path to the left ascends to the large 
village of Dora . where a large tomb , said to be that of Noah , is 

BET JIBRIN. 11. Route. 309 

shown. Blocks of stone and fragments of columns indicate that Dora 
occupies the site of a more ancient city, and its position answers to 
that of Adoraim which was fortified by Jeroboam (2 Chron. xi. 9). 

Descending the valley, we come in 25 min. to the spring 'Am 
el-Uff. The path to the right ascends to the village of Bet Kahel. 
After ^ hr. another valley descends from the right. In 20 min. we 
reach a broad, green level. On the hill to the right, in the midst of 
olive-trees, lies the village of Terkuniiyeh (anciently Trikomias). with 
a few relics of antiquity. On a hill to the left, after 1 hr. 40 min., 
we observe the village of Bet Dekhan, which we avoid ; a road to 
the right must also be avoided. We then ascend a small valley to 
the W.S.W., and soon reach (12 min.) the olive-groves of Bet 
Jibrin ('House of Gabriel') and (20 min.) the ruin outside the village. 

History. An attempt has been made to identify Bet Jibrin with the 
ancient Libnah, a place which was conquered by Joshua (x. 29). Libnah 
was afterwards a Sacerdotal residence and a city of refuge (Josh. xxi. 
13), and at a later period was besieged by Sennacherib (2 Kings xix. 8). 
Robinson has proved the identity of this place with the ancient 
Betogabra. A town of that name, though in a corrupted form, is first 
mentioned by Josephus, hut Ptolemy gives its proper name. Robinson 
has also declared the town to be identical with Eleutheropolis , and it is 
very intelligible that it should not have retained its Greek name. That 
name, signifying 'free city', was probably given to the town in con- 
sequence of the privileges bestowed upon it, as occupying an important, 
central situation, by the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus in 202, on the 
occasion of his journey in the East. The names of some of its bishops 
have been handed down to us. The Crusaders found the place in ruins. 
Under Fulke of Anjou, in 1134, a citadel was erected here, and its 
defence committed to the knights of St. John. The Franks called the 
place Gibelin. In 1244 it was finally taken by Bibars. The fortress was 
restored in 1551. 

Bet Jibrin lies between three hills, the Tell Burnat on the 
W., the Tell Sandehanna on the S.E., and the Tell Sedeideh on 
the N.W. , the summits of which were probably once fortified. 
The village now contains about 900 inhab. (Muslims) and a small 
Turkish garrison. It occupies about one-third of the site of the 
ancient town. Ruins of old buildings are incorporated with most 
of the houses. Numerous coins, some of them bearing the name 
of Eleutheropolis, are offered here for sale. The course of the 
ancient wall, which was flanked by a moat , is now only partly 
traceable. A portion of it still exists on the N. side. To the N. W. 
and E. were forts. That on the E. side has been converted into a 
Muslim cemetery, and nothing of it remains but fragments of 
columns, a fine large portal, and a reservoir. The other fort stood on 
an eminence, and the ancient substructions are still easily distin- 
guished from the later work. Over the door is an inscription dating 
from the yeaT 958 of the Hegira (1551). The fortress was flanked 
with a tower at each corner. The interior contains a handsome cis- 
tern and many vaulted chambers now used as dwellings and stables. 
On the S. side runs a gallery from E. to W.. which was originally 
the aisle of a church. On the left and right are five pillars, formerly 

310 Route 11. BET JIBRIN. From Hebron 

enriched with columns in white marble. Six of these, with Corin- 
thian capitals, are still in their places. The arcades are pointed. Out- 
side the enclosing wall are two similar columns. Several families 
now live in the castle, each of whom expects a trilling bakhshish. 
The chief objects of interest here are the rock-caverns, which begin 
near Bet Jibrin, and extend far into the environs. St. Jerome informs 
us that the Hdrim, or dwellers in mountains and caves, once lived in 
this district, and that the Idumseans, who conquered and afterwards 
mingled with the Horim, lived in caverns throughout the country from 
here to Petra in order to escape from the intensity of the heat. There 
is little doubt that these caverns are very ancient, while their number 
and similarity lead to the inference that they were used as dwellings. 
The stone, a kind of grey chalk, is moderately soft, and easily worked; 
the regularity and art with which the bell-shaped chambers have been 
excavated in long rows are admirable. It has sometimes been supposed 
that many of these caverns were once used as churches, as they have 
apses turned towards the E., and crosses are frequently engraved on their 
walls. Those caverns which contain the crosses generally have Muslim 
inscriptions also. The caverns consist of round, vaulted chambers, 
20 — 25 ft. in diameter, supported by detached pillars. They are 30 — 40 ft. 
in height. Each cavern is lighted from above by a well-like opening. 
Some of them are gradually falling in. They are called r ordk in Arabic- 
Each group of caverns bears a different name, such as 'Orak Sandehanna, 
'Orak el-Kheil , and 'Orak Abu Mezbeleh. In N. Syria there are "tomb- 
chambers of similar form, but smaller. Many of these caverns are now 
used as stables for goats and for the horned cattle which now as in ancient 
times are extensively reared in the plains of Philistia. 

The following walk is the most interesting here. We descend from 
the fortress to the S. E., pass the tombs, and ascend a small watercourse. 
In 5 min., looking down into a small valley, we observe caverns below 
us. To judge from the niches hewn in them (five at the back, three on 
each side), they must once have been used as sepulchres. The niches 
are 2 ft. above the ground , and high above them are hewn numerous 
triangles. Some of the round openings above have been widened in the 
course of ages. After the falling in of the chambers there have also 
been formed open spaces in front of them, within which the pillars of 
the groups of chambers are still preserved. — Farther to the S. is a 
second group of more lofty grottoes , in which numerous wild pigeons 
have taken up their abode. One of them contains a well, and at several 
places the ground sounds hollow. The walls are green with moisture 
and very smooth. Rudely engraved crosses , and , curiously enough, 
inscriptions dating from the early period of Islamism (in Cuflc characters), 
are sometimes observed. Proceeding from one cavern to another we 
ascend the valley as far as a ruined church, which in a straight line is 
only 1 M. from the village. It is still called by the natives Mar Hanna , 
or Sandehanna (from 'santo 1 ). The substructions of this church date 
from the Byzantine period, but the ground-plan was altered by the Cru- 
saders. The principal apse and a side-apse are well preserved. The 
window-arches are round. The stones are carefully hewn, and the walls 
are massive. On each side of the entrance are pilasters , and under the 
N. aisle is a crypt with vaults. The view from the hill commands the 
green valleys , enclosed by gentle ranges of hills. 

Following a green valley , planted with olives , straight to the S. of 
Bet Jibrin for 20 min., we reach Merdsti, a shapeless mass of ruins, the 
ancient Maresliah (Joshua xv. 44) , which was chiefly famous for the 
victory gained there by king Asa over the Ethiopians under Zerah 
(2 Chron. xiv. 9 — 13). The whole chain of hills of Mar Hanna is 
honeycombed with caverns , especially on the S. and W. sides. The 
walls of some of the caverns are full of small niches or columbaria 
ranged regularly along them; but what their use was is not clear as 

to Gaza. 'AJLAN. 11. Route. 311 

they are too high from the ground to have been used for keeping stores 
or implements. They were perhaps employed as receptacles for skulls 
or cinerary urns. On this hill there are also a number of handsome old 
cisterns, in some of which winding stairs are still preserved. Some of 
the caverns also contain such stairs. 

From Bet Jibrin to Gaza (about 7 hrs.). A guide is desir- 
able, and an escort is necessary, if, as lias generally been the ease 
of late years, the Beduius of the plain are at war with each other. 

Leaving the village, we proceed towards the W. range of hills 
and select the central path. The top of the hill Q hr.) commands 
a last view of the village, and we soon (10 min.) obtain a survey of 
the plain to the W. The route crosses a grassy plateau. After 
'25 min. we observe in the fields to the right the wely of the Schekh 
Arner, and in the distance Tell es-Sdfiyeh (p. 318). We now leave 
the mountains of Judah behind us and gradually descend their last 
spurs to the plain. On the left, after \ hr., rises Tell el-Mansura, 
with some ruins , and \ hr. farther we reach Tell el-Lajeh, with 
several caverns which have fallen in {JArdk el-MenshlyeK), and a 
village connected with them, \ hr. to the N. — Our route next 
crosses the plain towards the S.W. to 'Ajldn (1-| hr.). 

Robinson took a different route from Bet Jibrin to 'Ajlan. He went 
for 50 min. to the S.W. towards Tell el-Kube~beh, which he left about £ 31. 
to the left; thence in 2 hrs. to Es-Sukkariyeh, where several vaults are 
preserved and fragments of marble columns lie scattered about; and lastly 
towards the W. in 55 min. to 'Ajlan. 

'Ajlan is the ancient Eglon, which was destroyed by Joshua (x. 34, 
35), and was afterwards one of the cities of Judah in the plain. In the 
Greek translation of the Septuagint Eglon is confounded with Adullam, 
and Eusebius places them both 12 31. to the E. of Bet Jibrin. If he had 
said west instead of east, the distance would have been tolerably accurate 
as to Eglon, but the cave of Adullam cannot possibly have been situated 
in so open a district (see p. 255). 

After f hr. we come to the bed of a brook which descends to- 
wards the E. to the large Wtidy el-Hasi. On a hill to the right lie 
the shapeless stone-heaps of Umm Ldkis, with numerous cisterns. 
These are the ruins of the ancient town of Lachish, which met with 
the same fate as Eglon (Joshua x. 31, 32). 

History. In consequence of a conspiracy, Amaziah, king of Judah, 
fled to Laehish and was slain there, B. C. 809 (2 Chron. xxv. 27). 
Lachish seems to have been an important frontier-fortress in the direction 
of Egypt, and according to the prophet Micah (i. 13) it was also a chariot 
city, where, in the midst of a grassy plain, the Jewish monarchs doubtless 
stationed the horses they procured from Egypt. It was besieged by 
Sennacherib , and the name is said to have been found in Assyrian 
inscriptions. According to Jeremiah (xxxiv. 7) , Lachish was one of the 
last cities taken from the Jews by Nebuchadnezzar. As all these towns in 
the Philistian plain were built of brick, their ruins are now insignificant. 

In 47 min. we reach Burer, a village surrounded with cactus- 
hedges, and with roofs covered with vegetation. Even palms occur 
here. By the spring lie some fragments of columns. We now enter 
the Wady Simsim, a valley bounded by ranges of green hills, and 
to the right after 40 min. we perceive the village of Simsim in an 
olive-grove. Tobacco and sesame are the principal crops here. We 

312 Route 11. GAZA. From Hebron 

soon cross the Wady el-Hasi, proceeding towards the S.W. After 
j; hr. we observe on the left the village of Nejd, and on the right 
in the distance^ the sand hills in the direction of the sea. The road 
next passes (25 min.) the village of Dimreh on the right, and (fhr.) 
Bet Hanun, with extensive cactus plantations. In 35 min. more 
it reaches the top of a hill near a ruin and a fine old oak, beyond 
which olive-groves again begin. The road is broad and sandy. 
After 40 min. we reach orchards with palms, and in 10 min. more 
the town of Gaza, or Ohazza. The best place for pitching tents here 
is near the serai. The Greek monastery affords tolerable accommo- 
dation, but an introduction fromJerusalem is desirable. The mejidi 
is here worth 41 piastres, the beshlik 10 piastres (comp. p. 8). 

History. The Philistines dwelt in the extensive plain stretching from 
'Acre to the Egyptian frontier. The Bible connects them with the Hamites, 
and it is now agreed that their original home, the land Caphtor, or Kaftor 
(Kaft being the same word as Oypt in Egypt) , must have been in the 
Delta of the Nile , and not in Crete as once supposed. It is , however, 
uncertain what language they spoke. In the time of Moses the Philistines 
seem to have been a warlike people, and the Israelites were therefore 
obliged to avoid their land. They had already established a constitution, 
and particularly a league of their five chief towns Gaza, Ashdod, Ascalon, 
Gath, and Ekron. It was not, however, till the second half of the period 
of the Judges that the Philistines, now probably reinforced by a new 
immigration, became the important people which for a long period contested 
the hegemony of Palestine with the Israelites. They first drove out the 
tribe of Dan, which was compelled to seek a new home in N . Palestine ; 
and, still continually encroaching, they held the Israelites in subjection 
for forty years (Judges xiii. 1). Samson endeavoured to repulse the 
Philistines, but with little success, for they soon renewed their encroach- 
ments , and even captured the Ark of the Covenant (1 Sam. iv — vii). 
Samuel indeed defeated the Philistines, but he could not drive them from 
the strongholds they occupied. According to all accounts the Philistines 
far surpassed the Hebrews in culture; and in war-chariots and cavalry 
they were superior to the Israelites (comp. 1 Sam. xiii. 5, where, however, 
the numbers seem overstated). The heavy-armed soldiers wore a round 
copper helmet, a coat of mail, brazen greaves, a javelin, and a long lance, 
and each had a weapon and shield-bearer, like the Greeks in the Homeric 
poems. The light-armed were archers. The Philistines possessed fortified 
encampments; they strengthened their towns by surrounding them with 
lofty walls ; and they kept the territory they had conquered in subjection 
by means of garrisons. As they were also commercially enterprising, they 
not only competed with the Phoenicians by sea, but endeavoured to keep 
in their own hands the inland and caravan traffic, and it was therefore 
important that they should command the great mercantile route between 
their country and Damascus. On their various campaigns they took their 
idols with them. Their chief god was Dagon (Mamas), who, as well as 
the goddess Derketo (Atergatis) had the form of a fish. Ba r alzebub , the 
fly-god of Ekron, was famed for his oracles. Their seers or prophets seem 
to have formed a distinct profession. 

Their battles with the Philistines , however , served to strengthen 
and unite the tribes of the Israelites, and their final deliverance by Saul 
and David from the foreign yoke was followed by the firm consolidation 
of the Jewish state. The later kings also had repeatedly to fight against 
the Philistines. In the course of the great war between Egypt and 
Assyria the Philistian plain became strategically important, and its 
occupation therefore formed a constant source of strife between these 
nations to the great disquiet of the Philistines. Some of the Philistines 
too were probably exiled at this period. After the Jewish captivity 

to Gaza. GAZA. 11. Route. 313 

the kingdom of the Philistines had disappeared, and a few of their towns 
only retained some importance. After the time of Alexander their power 
was entirely gone. In the wars between the Syrian and Egyptian 
diadochi Philistia again became the scene of fierce conflicts. During the 
Maccabsean period the Philistian- Hellenic coast towns gave fresh 
proofs of their hereditary enmity against the Jews , but the Maccabseans 
succeeded in permanently subjugating the Philistian plain. Once more, 
however, the inhabitants of that district exhibited their inveterate hatred 
of the Jews by co-operating in the destruction of Jerusalem with the 
other enemies of the ill-fated city. 

Gaza, or Ghazza, was the most southern city of the Philistian 
Pentapolis , or five allied cities , and it was here that Samson performed 
some of his remarkable exploits (Judges, xvi.). By the 'top of an hill 
that is before Hebron' to which Samson carried the gates of Gaza is 
perhaps meant the top of Mt. Muntdr, to the S. E. of Gaza. The Israelites 
seem to have retained possession of the town for a short period only 
(1 Kings iv. 24, where the place is called Azzah). The town was large, and 
probably chiefly of importance as a commercial place, and some writers 
mention that it possessed a seaport called Majuma as late as the 6th 
cent, of our era. Herodotus calls the town Kadytis. Alexander the Great 
took it after a vigorous defence. In B. C. 96 it was again taken and destroyed 
by Alexander Jannseus, as the citizens had allied themselves with the 
enemies of the Jews. A century later it was presented by the Emperor 
Augustus to Herod, after whose death it reverted to the Roman province 
of Syria. Under the Romans Gaza peacefully developed its resources. 
Christianity, however, was not introduced until a late period, although 
Philemon (to whom St. Paul wrote) was traditionally the first bishop of 
Gaza. Down to the time of Constantine the town was one of the chief 
strongholds of paganism, adhering to its god Mamas, whose statues and 
temples stood till the year 400, when they were destroyed by an edict of 
the emperor. On the site of the principal temple a large cruciform 
church was afterwards erected by Eudoxia, wife of the Emperor Arcadius. 
In 634 the town was taken by the Arabs under 'Omar, and it was 
regarded as an important place by the Muslims, as Hashim, Mohammed's 
grandfather, who had once traded with the place, had died and been 
buried there. The Crusaders found Gaza in ruins. In 1149 Baldwin II. 
erected a fortress here, and committed its defence to the Templars. In 
1170 Saladin plundered the town, though unable to reduce the fortress; 
in 1187, however, the whole place fell info his hands, and it was only for a 
short period that Richard Cceur de Lion established a footing there. In 
1244 the Christians and Muslims were defeated by the Kharezmians near 
Gaza. Since that period Gaza has been a place of no importance. In 
1799 it was taken by Napoleon. 

In 1871 the modern Gaza was inhabited by 2690 Muslim and 
65 Christian (Greek orthodox) families, representing a population 
of about 16,000 souls. It also possesses a Protestant school. The 
town is of semi-Egyptian character ; the veil of the Muslim women, 
for example, closely resembles the Egyptian. Whether the present 
town occupies the site of the ancient inland town or not is uncer- 
tain. From time immemorial Gaza has formed a connecting link 
between Egypt and Syria, and to this day, although the caravan 
traffic is almost extinct, its market is not unimportant, being in 
particular abundantly stocked with dates , figs, olives, lentils, and 
other provisions. The bazaar, too, has an Egyptian appearance. 
As the town lies in the midst of orchards, it is difficult to say ex- 
actly where it begins. Owing to the abundance of water contained 
by the soil the vegetation is very rich. At the present day the town 

314 Route 11. GAZA. 

has neither walls nor gates. It consists of four quarters : N. , Hdret 
et-Tufen; E., Hdret es-Sejiyeh; S., Hdret ez-Zetun; W., Hdret ed- 
Darej. The last of these is reached by steps, as the name implies. 
One of the chief buildings is the Serai, on the E. side of the 
town, the residence of the Turkish governor, but greatly dilapidated. 
It dates from the beginning of the 13th cent., and the stones are 
skilfully jointed. On entering the court we observe cages for pri- 
soners. The opposite facade consists of inlaid work, porcelain tiles 
being inserted between the stones. To the E. of the town, not far 
from the serai, rises the large mosque JdrnV el-Keblr. The facade 
has a handsome appearance; over the door is an Arabic inscription 
of the year 677 of the Hegira (1279). Strangers are readily ad- 
mitted, but must Temove their shoes. The court is paved with 
marble; around it are several schools, and on the W. side there is 
a kind of pulpit. The mosque itself was originally a Christian 
church, consisting of nave and lower aisles. The Muslims erected 
an additional aisle on the S. side, and, in order to make room for 
a minaret, built up the apses. Over the three square pillars and 
two half-pillaTS which bound the nave rise pointed arcades. The 
columns opposite the nave consist of shafts and capitals. The church 
is lighted by small grated windows in the pointed style. 

To the S.W. of this mosque is situated a handsome caravan- 
serai, called the Khdn ez-Zet (oil khan). Proceeding to the S. "W. 
through the Hdret ez-Zetun we next come to a mosque partly built 
with finely hewn stones, situated on the road which is traversed by 
caravans to and from Egypt. The houses in the suburbs are built of 
mud, those in the town partly of stone. 

Tradition points out, on the S.W. side of the town, the place 
whence Samson carried off the gates of the Philistines. Passing 
tombs towards the W. and walking round the town, we come to the 
wely of Shekh Sha'bdn and to a mosque of some antiquity in which 
Hdshim, Mohammed's grandfather, is buried. This building has 
been restored during the present century, but partly with the old 
materials. We now return by the cemeteries to the E. side of the 
town. The sandy roads are shaded by beautiful acacias and cactus- 
hedges. To the E. of the serai is a small building, certainly mod- 
ern , which is said to contain the Tomb of Samson (Samsun), but 
is generally closed. 

A ride of •£• hr. to the S. E. of Gaza brings us to Mount Muntdr, 
a hill covered with tombs. (Muntar, whose wely now affords shade 
to the traveller, i